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CamplThe  Jesuits.,  1534-1921;  a  history 

The  t°£  "k^16  Society  of  Jesus  from  its 
SOci«  foundation  to  the  present  time 

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THE  JESUITS 

1534-1921 


THE    JESUITS 

1534-1921 


A  History  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  from  Its 
Foundation  to  the  Present  Time 


BY 

THOMAS  J,  CAMPBELL,  S.J. 


Volume  II 


NEW  YORK 
THE  ENCYCLOPEDIA  PRESS 


Pcrmissu  superiorum 

NIHIL  OBSTAT:  ARTHUR  J,  SCANLAN,  D.D.,  Censor 
IMPRIMATUR:  PATRICK  J.  HAYES,  D.D.,  ArcMnshap  of  New  York 


COPYRIGHT  1921 
THE  ENCYCLOPEDIA  Pass? 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 


CHAPTER  XIV 

POMBAL 

Early  life  —  Ambitions  —  Portuguese  Missions  —  Seizure  of 
the  Spanish  Reductions.  Expulsion  of  the  Missionaries 

—  End  of  the  Missions  in  Brazil  —  War  against  the 
Society  in  Portugal — The  Jesuit  Republic  —  Cardinal 
Saldanha  —  Seizure   of   Churches   and    Colleges  —  The 
Assassination  Plot  —  The  Prisons  —  Exiles  —  Execution 

of  Malagrida . 442-477 

CHAPTER  XV 

CHOISEUL 

The  French  Method  —  Purpose  of  the  Enemy  —  Preliminary 
Accusations  —  Voltaire's  testimony  —  La  Vallette  —  La 
Chalotais  —  Seizure  of  Property  —  Auto  da  fe"  of  the 
Works  of  Lessius,  Sudrez,  Valentia,  etc. —  Appeal  of  the 
French  Episcopacy  —  Christophe  de  Beaumont  — 
Demand  for  a  French  Vicar  — "  Sint  ut  sunt  aut  non  sint  " 

—  Protest  of  Clement  XIII  —  Action  of  Father  La  Croix 
and  the  Jesuits  of  Paris  —  Louis  XV  signs  the  Act  of 
Suppression  —  Occupations  of  dispersed  Jesuits  —  Undis- 
turbed    in     Canada  —  Expelled     from     Louisiana  — 
Choiseul's  Colonization  of  Guiana 478-503 

CHAPTER  XVI 

CHAKLES  III 

The  Bourbon  Kings  of  Spain  —  Character  of  Charles  III  — 
Spanish  Ministries  —  O'Reilly  —  The  Hat  and  Cloak  Riot 

—  Cowardice  of  Charles  —  Tricking  the  monarch  —  The 
Decree  of  Suppression  —  Grief  of  the  Pope  —  His  death 

—  Disapproval  in  France  by  the  Encyclopedists  —  The 
Royal  Secret  —  Simultaneousness  of  the  Suppression  — 

—  Wanderings  of  the  Exiles  —  Pignatelli  —  Expulsion  by 
Tanucci 504-529 

CHAPTER  XVII 

THE  FINAJL  BLOW 

Ganganelli  —  Political  plotting  at  the  Election  —  Bernis, 
Aranda,  Aubeterre  —  The  Zelanti  —  Election  of  Clement 
XIV  —  Renewal  of  Jesuit  Privileges  by  the  new  Pope  — 
Demand  of  the  Bourbons  for  a  universal  Suppression  — 
The  Three  Years'  Struggle  —  Fanaticism  of  Charles  III 


vi  Contents 

—  Menaces  of  Schism  —  Mofrino  —  Maria   Theresa —        PAGE 
Spoliations   in   Italy  — Signing    the   Brief  —  Imprison- 
ment of  Father  Ricci  and  the  Assistants  —  Silence  and 
Submission  of  the  Jesuits  to  the  Pope's  Decree 530-554 

CHAPTER  XVIII 

THE  INSTRUMENT 

Summary  of  the  Brief  of  Suppression  and  its  Supplementary 

Document 555~576 

CHAPTER  XIX 
THE  EXECUTION 

Seizure  of  the  Gesfr  in  Rome  —  Suspension  of  the  Priests  — 
Juridical  Trial  of  Father  Ricci  continued  during  Two 
Years  —  The  Victim's  Death-bed  Statement  —  Admis- 
sion of  his  Innocence  by  the  Inquisitors  —  Obsequies  — 
Reason  of  his  Protracted  Imprisonment  —  Liberation  of 
the  Assistants  by  Pius  VI  —  Receipt  of  the  Brief  outside 
of  Rome  —  Refused  by  Switzerland,  Poland,  Russia  and 
Prussia  —  Read  to  the  Prisoners  in  Portugal  by  Pombal 

—  Denunciation  of  it  by  the  Archbishop  of  Paris  —  Sup- 
pression of  the  Document  by  the  Bishop  of  Quebec- — 
Acceptance  by  Austria  —  Its  Enforcement  in  Belgium  — 
Carroll  at  Bruges  —  Defective  Promulgation  in  Maryland.  577™603 

CHAPTER  XX 

f  HE  xSEQUEL  TO  THE  SUPPRESSION 

Failure  of  the,  Papal  Brief  to  &ivc  peace  to  the  Church  — 
Liguori  and  Tanuwi  —  Joseph  II  destroying  the  Church 
in  Austria  —  Voltaireanism  in  Portugal  —  Illncs1;  of 
Clement  XIV  —  Death  —  Accusations  of  poiaiminK  — • 
Election  of  Pius  VI  — The  Synod  of  Pistoia  —  IVbron- 
ianism  in  Austria  —  Visit  of  Pius  VI  to  Joseph  II  —  The 
Ptmctation  of  13ms  —  Spain,  Sardinia,  Vc-nux',  Sicily  in 
opposition  to  the  Pope  —  Political  collapse*,  in  Spain' — 
Fall  of  Pombal  —  Liberation  of  his  Victims  —  Protest  of 
de  Guzman  —  Death  of  Joseph  II  —  Occupations  of  tlie 
dispersed  Jesuits  —  The  Theolagia  Wiceburgensis  —  Fdkr 

—  Beauregard's     Prophecy  —  Zaccaria  —  Tirabosrhi  — 
Boscovich  —  Missionaries  —  Denunciation  of  the   Sup- 
pression in  the  French  Assembly  —  Slain  in  the  French 
Revolution  —  Destitute  Jesuits  in  Poland  —  Shelter  in 
Russia 604-635 


Contents  vii 

CHAPTER  XXI 
THE  RUSSIAN  CONTINGENT 

Frederick  the  Great  and  the  "  Philosophes  "  —  Protection  of        PAGE 
the  Jesuits  —  Death  of  Voltaire  —  Catherine  of  Russia  — 
The  Four  Colleges  —  The  Empress  at  Polotsk  —  Joseph 
II   at  Mohilew  —  Archetti  —  Baron  Grimm  —  Czernie- 
wicz  and  the  Novitiate  —  Assent  of  Pius  VI  —  Potemkin 

—  Siestrzencewicz  —  General       Congregation  —  Benis- 
lawski  —  "  Approbo;   Approbo"  —  Accession   of  former 
Jesuits.    Gruber  and  the  Emperor  Paul  —  Alexander  I 

—  Missions  in  Russia , . . .  636-664 

CHAPTER  XXII 
THE  RALLYING 

Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart  —  Fathers  of  the  Faith  —  Fusion 

—  Paccanari  —  The    Rupture  —  Exodus    to    Russia  — 
Varin  in  Paris  —  Cloriviere  —  Carroll's  doubts  —  Pigna- 

telli  —  Poirot  in  China  —  Grassi's  Odyssey 665-684 

CHAPTER  XXIII 
THE  RESTORATION 

Tragic  death  of  Father  Gruber  —  Fall  of  Napoleon  —  Release 
of  the  Pope  —  The  Society  Re-established  —  Opening  of 
Colleges  —  Clorivi&re  —  Welcome  of  the  Society  in  Spain 

—  Repulsed    in    Portugal  —  Opposed    by    Catholics   in 
England  —  Announced  in  America  —  Carroll  —  Fenwick 

—  Neale , 685-715 

CHAPTER  XXIV 
THE  FIRST  CONGREGATION 

Expulsion  from  Russia  —  Petrucci,  Vicar  —  Attempt  to  wreck 
the  Society  —  Saved  by  Consalvi  and  Rozavcn 

CHAPTER  XXV 
A  CENTURY  OF  DISASTER 

Expulsion  from  Holland  —  Trouble  at  Freiburg  —  Expulsion 
and  recall  in  Spain  —  Petits  SSminaires  —  Berryer  — 
Montlosier  —  The  Men's  Sodalities  —  St.  Acheul 
mobbed  —  Fourteen  Jesuits  murdered  in  Madrid  — 
Interment  of  Pombal  —  de  Ravignan's  pamphlet  — 
Veuillot  —  Montalembert  —  de  Bonald  —  Archbishop 
Affre  —  Michelet,  Quinet  and  Cousin  —  Gioberti  — 


viii  Contents 

Expulsion  from  Austria  —  Kulturkampf  —  Slaughter  of       PAGE 
the  Hostages  in  the  Commune  —  South  America  and 
Mexico  —  Flourishing  Condition  before  the  Outbreak  of 
the  World  War 734-7^4 

CHAPTER  XXVI 
MODERN  MISSIONS 

During  the  Suppression  —  Roothaan's  appeal  —  South 
America  — The  Philippines  — -  United  States  Indians  — 
De  Smet  —  Canadian  Reservations  —  Alaska  —  British 
Honduras  —  China  —  India  —  Syria  —  Algeria  —  Guinea 

—  Egypt  —  Madagascar  —  Mashonaland  —  Congo  — 
Missions  depleted  by  World  War  — Actual  number  of 
missionaries 765-824. 

CHAPTER  XXVII 

COLLEGES 

* 

Responsibility  of  the  Society  for  loss  of  Faith  in  Europe.  The 
Loi  Falloux  —  Bombay  —  Calcutta  —  Beirut  —  Ameri- 
can Colleges  —  Scientists,  Archaeologists,  Meteorologists, 
Seismologists,  Astronomers  —  Ethnologists 825-854 

CHAPTER  XXVIII 

LITERATURE 

Grammars  and  Lexicons  of  every  tongue  —  Dramas  —  His- 
tories of  Literature  —  Cartography  —  Sinology  —  Egypt- 
ology —  Sanscrit  —  Catholic  Encyclopedia  —  Catalogues 
of  Jesuit  Writers— Acta  Sanctorum  —  Jesuit  Relations 

—  Nomendator — Periodicals  —  Philosophy — Dogmatic, 

Moral  and  Ascetic  Theology  —  Canon  Law  —  Exegesis. .  855-890 

CHAPTER  XXIX 
THE  SOVEREIGN  PONTIFFS  AND  THE  SOCIETY 

Devotion,  Trust  and  Affection  of  each  Pope  of  the  Nineteenth 
and  Twentieth  Centuries  manifested  in  his  Official  and 
Personal  Relations  with  the  Society 891-916 

CHAPTER  XXX 
CONCLUSION 

Successive    Generals    in    the    Restored    Society  —  Present 

Membership,  Missions  and  Provinces 9*7-93° 


Volume  II 


CHAPTER  XIV 

POMBAL 

Early  life  —  Ambitions  —  Portuguese  Missions  —  Seizure  of  the 
Spanish  Reductions.  Expulsion  of  the  Missionaries  —  End  of  the 
Missions  in  Brazil  —  War  against  the  Society  in  Portugal  —  The  Jesuit 
Republic  —  Cardinal  Saldanha  —  Seizure  of  Churches  and  Colleges  — 
The  Assassination  Plot  —  The  Prisons  —  Exiles  —  Execution  of  Mala- 
grida. 

THE  first  conspirator  who  set  to  work  to  cany  out  the 
plot  to  destroy  the  Society,  which  had  long  been 
planned  by  the  powers,  was,  as  might  be  expected, 
the  ruthless  Pombal  He  was  more  shameless  and 
savage  than  his  associates  and  would  adopt  any 
method  to  accomplish  his  purpose.  The  insensate 
fury  which  possessed  his  whole  being  against  the 
Society  is  explained  by  Cardinal  Pacca,  who  was 
Papal  nuncio  in  Lisbon  shortly  after  Pombal's  fall 
(Notizie  sul  Portogallo,  10).  He  writes:  "Pombal 
began  his  diplomatic  career  in  Germany  where  he 
probably  drank  in  those  principles  of  aversion  to  the 
Holy  See  and  the  religious  orders,  which,  when  after- 
wards put  in  practice,  merited  for  him  from  the  irre- 
ligious philosophers  the  title  of  a  great  minister,  and 
an  illuminator  of  his  nation;  from  good  people,  how- 
ever, that  of  a  vile  instrument  of  the  sects  at  war  with 
the  Church.  Having  obtained  the  office  of  prime 
minister,  he  made  himself  master  of  the  mind  of  the 
king,  Don  Joseph;  and  for  a  quarter  of  a  century 
governed  the  kingdom  as  a  despot. 

"  To  wage  war  against  the  Holy  See,  and  to  oppress 
the  clergy,  he  adopted  the  measures  and  employed 
the  arms  which,  in  the  hands  of  the  irreligious  men  of 

£442] 


Pombal  443 

our  time,  have  done  and  are  still  doing  harm  and 
inflicting  grievous  wounds  on  the  Church.  He  cor- 
rupted and  perverted  public  education  in  the  schools 
and  universities,  especially  in  Coimbra  which  soon 
became  a  centre  of  moral  pestilence.  He  took  from 
the  hands  of  the  youth  of  the  kingdom  the  sound 
doctrinal  works  which  they  had  so  far  been  made  to 
study;  and  substituted  schismatical  and  heretical  pub- 
lications such  as  Dupin's  'De  antiqua  ecclesia'  which 
had  been  condemned  by  Innocent  XII;  and  Hontheim's 
'  Febronius  '  condemned  by  Clement  XIII.  He  also 
brought  into  Portugal  the  works  of  the  regalists,  and 
excluded  those  writers  who  maintained  the  rights 
and  authority  of  the  Holy  See,  in  defence  of  which  he 
would  not  allow  a  word  to  be  uttered.  And  to  the 
horror  of  all  decent  people,  he  imprisoned  in  a  loath- 
some dungeon  a  holy  and  venerable  bishop  who  had 
warned  his  flock  against  those  pernicious  publications. 
Meantime  the  notorious  Oratorian  Pereira,  who  was 
condemned  by  the  Index,  and  others  who  flattered  him 
were  remunerated  for  their  writings  and  could  print 
whatever  they  liked.  He  was  a  Jansenist  who,  in 
the  perfidious  fashion  of  the  sect,  exalted  the  authority 
of  the  bishops  in  oitiler  to  diminish  that  of  the  Pope; 
and  enlarged  the  authority  of  kings  in  church  matters 
to  such  an  extent  that  the  system  differed  very  little 
from  that  of  the  Protestant  Anglican  Church.  Queen 
Maria,  who  succeeded  Joseph  on  the  throne,  did  much 
to  improve  conditions;  but  did  not  undo  all  the  harm 
that  Pombal  had  already  inflicted  on  the  nation. 
Disguised  Anglicanism  continued  to  exist  in  Portugal." 
Father  Weld  adds  his  own  judgment  to  that  of  the 
cardinal,  and  tells  us  that  "the  bias  in  Pombal's 
nature  may  be  traced  to  his  English  associations  when 
he  was  ambassador  in  London."  He  advances  this 
view,  probably  because  of  a  note  of  Pacca's,  who  says 


444  The  Jesuits 

that  he  could  venture  no  opinion  about  the  influence  of 
England  on  Pombal,  merely  for  want  of  documents 
on  that  point.  The  author  of  the  "  Memoires  pour 
servir  &  1'histoire  ecclesiastique  du  xviii6  siecle  "  assures 
us  that  Pombal's  purpose  was  to  extend  his  reforms 
even  into  the  bosom  of  the  Church;  to  change,  to 
destroy;  to  subject  the  bishops  to  his  will;  to  declare 
himself  an  enemy  of  the  Holy  See;  to  protect  authors 
hostile  to  the  Holy  See;  to  encourage  publications 
savoring  of  novelty;  to  favor  in  Portugal  a  theological 
instruction  quite  different  from  what  had  been  adopted 
previous  to  his  time;  and  finally  to  open  the  way  to  a 
pernicious  teaching  in  a  country  which  until  then 
had  enjoyed  religious  peace. 

This  scheme  did  not  restrict  itself  to  a  religious 
propaganda  but  got  into  the  domain  of  politics;  for 
the  author  of  the  "  Vita  di  Pombal  "  (I,  145)  notes  the 
report,  which  is  confirmed  by  the  "  Memoria  Catholica 
secunda  "  that  "  Pombal  had  formed  the  design  of 
marrying  the  Princess  Maria  to  the  Duke  of  Cumber- 
land, the  butcher  of  Culloden  —  but  that  this  was 
thwarted  by  the  Jesuit  confessor  of  the  king."  On 
this  point  the  Mar6chal  de  Belle  Isle  writes  (Testament 
politique,  108) :  "  It  is  known  4that  the  Duke  of 
Cumberland  looked  forward  to  becoming  King  of 
Portugal,  and  I  doubt  not  he  would  have  succeeded, 
if  ^the  Jesuit  confessors  of  the  royal  family  had  not  been 
opposed  to  it.  This  crime  was  never  forgiven  the 
Portuguese  Jesuits." 

Whatever  the  truth  may  be  about  these  royal 
schemes,  Pombal  soon  found  his  chance  to  wreak  his 
vengeance  on  the  Society  for  balking  his  plans  of  making 
Portugal  a  Protestant  country.  A  scatter-brained 
individual,  named  Pereira,  who  lived  at  Rio  Janerio, 
raised  the  cry  which  may  have  been  suggested  to  him, 
that  the  Jesuits  of  the  Reductions  excluded  white 


Pombal  445 

intercourse  with  the  natives  because  of  the  valuable 
gold  mines  they  possessed;  and  that  it  would  be  a 
proper  and,  indeed,  a  most  commendable  thing  in  the 
interests  of  religion  for  the  government  to  seize  this 
source  of  wealth,  and  thus  compel  the  Jesuits  who 
controlled  that  territory  to  live  up  to  the  holiness 
of  their  profession.  It  was  also  added  that  the  missions 
were  little  else  than  a  great  commercial  speculation; 
and  finally  that  the  ultimate  design  of  the  Society  was 
to  make  a  Republic  of  Paraguay,  independent  of  the 
mother  country. 

These  three  charges  had  been  reiterated  over  and  over 
again  ever  since  the  foundation  of  the  Reductions, 
and  had  been  just  as  often  refuted  and  officially  denied 
after  the  most  vigorous  investigation.  But  there  was 
a  man  now  in  control  of  Portugal  who  would  not  be 
biased  by  any  religious  sentiment  or  regard  for  truth, 
if  he  could  injure  the  Society.  The  first  step  was  to 
transfer  the  aforesaid  missions  to  Portuguese  control. 
They  all  lay  on  the  east  shore  of  the  Uruguay,  and 
belonged  to  Spain.  Hence,  in  1750,  a  treaty  was 
made  between  Spain  and  Portugal,  to  concede  to 
Spain  the  undisputed  control  of  the  rich  colony  of 
San  Sacramento,  at  the  mouth  of  the  River  La  Plata, 
in  exchange  for  the  territory,  in  which  lay  the  seven 
Reductions  of  St.  Michael,  St.  Lawrence,  St.  Aloysius, 
St.  John,  St.  Francis  Borgia,  Holy  Angels  and  St. 
Nicholas.  According  to  the  treaty,  it  was  stipulated 
that  the  Portuguese  should  take  immediate  possession 
and  fling  out  into  the  world,  they  did  not  care  where, 
the  30,000  Indians  who  had  built  villages  in  the 
country,  and  were  peacefully  cultivating  their 
farms,  and  who  by  the  uprightness  and  purity 
of  their  lives  were  giving  to  the  world  and  to  all 
times  an  example  of  what  Muratori  calls  a  Cristi- 
anesimo  felice. 


446  The  Jesuits 

To  add  to  the  brutality  of  the  act,  the  Fathers 
themselves  were  ordered  to  announce  to  the  Indians 
the  order  to  vacate.  Representations  were  made  by 
the  Spanish  Viceroy  of  Peru,  the  Royal  Audiencia  of 
Charcas  and  various  civil  and  ecclesiastical  authorities 
of  Spain  that  not  only  was  this  seizure  a  most  atrocious 
violation  of  justice  which  could  not  be  carried  out 
except  by  bloodshed,  no  one  could  say  to  what  extent, 
but  that  it  was  giving  up  the  property  of  the  Indians 
to  their  bitterest  enemies,  the  Portuguese.  For  it  was 
precisely  to  avoid  the  Mamelukes  of  Brazil  that  the 
Reductions  had  been  originally  created.  Moreover, 
it  would  almost  compel  the  Indians  to  conclude  that 
the  Fathers  had  betrayed  them,  and  that  they  were 
not  only  parties  to,  but  instigators  of,  the  whole 
scheme  of  spoliation.  Southey,  in  his  "  History  of 
Brazil, "  denounces  it  as  "  one  of  the  most  tyrannical 
commands  that  were  ever  issued,  in  the  recklessness 
of  unfeeling  power/'  and  says  that  "  the  weak 
Ferdinand  VI  had  no  idea  of  the  importance  of  the 
treaty." 

The  Jesuits  appealed;  but  they  were,  of  course, 
unheeded;  and  the  Father  General  Visconti  ordered 
them  to  submit  without  a  murmur.  Unfortunately, 
the  commissioner  Father  Altamirano,  whom  he  sent 
out  was  a  bad  choice.  He  was  hot-headed  and 
imperious;  and  according  to  Father  Huonder  (The 
Catholic  Encyclopedia)  actually  treated  his  fellow 
Jesuits  as  rebels,  when  they  advised  him  to  proceed 
with  moderation.  Perhaps  the  fact  that  he  was  the 
representative  of  the  king,  as  well  as  of  the  General, 
affected  him;  at  all  events  the  Indians  would  have 
killed  him  if  he  had  not  fled.  Ten  years  would  not 
have  sufficed  for  a  transfer  of  such  a  vast  multitude 
with  their  women  and  children,  and  the  old  and  infirm, 
not  to  speak  of  the  herds  and  flocks  and  farming 


Pombal  447 

implements  and  household  furniture,  yet  they  were 
ordered  to  decamp  within  thirty  days.  Pombal 
would  soon  treat  his  Jesuit  fellow  countrymen  as  he  had 
treated  the  Indians. 

When,  at  last,  the  cruel  edict  was  published,  all  the 
savage  instincts  of  the  Indians  awoke,  and  it  seemed 
for  a  time  as  if  the  missionaries  would  be  massacred. 
It  speaks  well  for  the  solid  Christian  training  that  had 
been  given  to  these  children  of  the  forest  that  they  at 
last  consented  to  consider  the  matter  at  all.  Some  of 
the  caciques  were  actually  won  over  to  the  advisability 
of  the  measure,  and  started  out  with  several  hundred 
exiles  to  find  a  new  home  in  the  wilderness.  A  number 
of  the  children  and  the  sick  succumbed  on  the  way. 
When,  at  last  they  found  a  place  in  the  mountains  of 
Quanai,  they  were  attacked  by  hostile  jtribes.  They 
resisted  for  a  while,  but  finally  returned  in  despair 
to  their  former  abode.  To  make  matters  worse,  the 
Bishop  of  Paraguay  notified  the  Fathers  that  if  they 
did  not  obey,  they  would  be  ipso  facto  suspended. 
"  Whereas/'  says  Weld,  "  if  the  Fathers  really  wished 
to  oppose  the  government,  a  single  sign  from  them  would 
have  sent  an  army  of  fifty  thousand  men  to  resist  the 
Europeans;  but  owing  to  their  fidelity  and  incredible 
exertions,  there  were  never  as  many  as  seven  hundred 
men  in  the  field  against  the  united  armies  of  Spain 
and  Portugal  when  hostilities  at  last  broke  out." 

During  the  year  1 754,  the  Indians  harassed  the  enemy 
by  the  skirmishes  and  won  many  a  victory;  and  they 
would  have  ultimately  triumphed  if  they  had  had  a 
leader.  At  last  in  1755,,  the  combined  forces  of  the 
enemy  with  thirty  pieces-  of  artillery  attacked  them 
with  the  result  that  might  have  been  expected.  The 
natives  rushed  frantically  on  their  foes;  but  the 
musketry  and  cannon  stretched  four  hundred  of  them 
in  their  blood;  and  the  rest  either  fled  to  the  mountains 


448  The  Jesuits 

or  relapsed  into  savage  life;  or  made  their  submission 
to  the  government,  many  becoming  as  bad  as  their 
kindred  in  the  forests  because  of  the  corruption  they 
saw  around  them.  The  Portuguese  entered  into 
possession  of  the  seven  Reductions,  but  failed  to  find 
any  gold.  So  great  was  their  chagrin  that,  in  1761, 
Carvalho  wanted  the  rich  territory  which  he  had  given 
to  Spain  returned  to  Portugal ;  and  when  Spain  naturally' 
demurred,  he  prepared  to  go  to  war  for  it.  He  finally 
gained  his  point,  and  on  February  12,  1761,  the 
territories  were  restored  to  their  original  owners, 
but  nothing  was  stipulated,  about  restitution  to  the 
unfortunate  natives  and  Jesuits  who  had  been  the 
victims  of  this  shameful  political  deal. 

Some  of  the  Indians  who  fled  to  the  forests  kept  up 
a  guerilla  warfare  against  the  invaders;  but  the  greater 
number  followed  the  advice  of  the  Fathers  and  settled 
on  the  ParaM  and  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Uruguay. 
In  1762  there  were  2,497  families  scattered  through 
seventeen  Reductions  or  doctrinas,  as  they  had  begun 
to  be  called,  a  term  that  is  equivalent  to  "parish/' 
But  the  expulsion  of  the  Fathers  which  followed  soon 
after  completed  the  ruin  of  this  glorious  work.  The 
Indians  died  or  became  savage  £gain;  and  today  only 
beautiful  ruins  mark  the  place  where  this  great  com- 
monwealth once  stood.  At  the  time  of  the  Suppression, 
or  rather  when  Pombal  drove  the  Jesuits  out  of  every 
Portuguese  post  into  'the  dungeons  of  Portugal  or 
flung  them  into  the  Papal  States,  the  Paraguay  province 
had  five  hundred  and  sixty-four  members,  twelve 
colleges,  one  university,  three  houses  for  spiritual 
retreats,  two  residences,  fifty-seven  Reductions  and 
113,716  Christian  Indians.  The  leave-taking  of  the 
Fathers  and  Indians  was  heart-rending  on  both  sides. 

It  is  a  long  distance  from  the  River  La  Plata  to  the 
Amazon;  for  there  are  about  thirty-five  degrees  of 


Pombal  449 

latitude  between  the  two  places.  But  they  were  not 
too  far  apart  to  check  Carvalho  in  his  work  of  de- 
struction. After  having  done  all  he  could  for  the 
moment  at  one  end  of  Brazil,  he  addressed  himself 
to  the  Jesuit  missions  at  the  other.  A  glance  at  the 
past  history  of  these  establishments  will  reveal  the 
frightful  injustice  of  the  brutal  acts  of  1754. 

One  hundred  years  before  that  time,  Vieira  had 
made  his  memorable  fight  against  his  Portuguese 
fellow-countrymen  for  the  liberation  of  the  Indians 
from  slavery.  By  so  doing,  he  had,  of  course,  aroused 
the  fury  of  the  whites,  and  they  determined  to  crush 
him.  They  put  him  in  prison;  and  in  1660  sent  him 
and  his  companions  to  Portugal,  in  a  crazy  ship  to  be 
tried  for  disturbing  the  peace  of  the  colony.  Never- 
theless, he  won  the  fight,  although  meantime  three 
Jesuits  had  been  killed  by  the  Indians,  and  their 
companions  expelled  from  the  colony,  in  spite  of  the 
king's  protection.  In  this  act,  however,  the  Portu- 
guese had  gone  too  far.  His  majesty  saw  the  truth 
and  sent  the  missionaries  back.  That  was  as  early 
as  1680.  In  1725  new  complaints  were  sent  to  Portugal, 
but  the  supreme  governor  of  the  Maranhao  district 
wrote,  as  follows,  to  the  king:  "  The  Fathers  of  the 
Society  in  this  State  of  Maranhao  are  objects  of  enmity 
and  have  always  been  hated,  for  no  other  reason 
than  for  their  strenuous  defence  of  the  liberty  of  the 
unfortunate  Indians,  and  also  because  they  used  all 
their  power  to  oppose  the  tyrannical  oppression  of 
those  who  would  reduce  to  a  degraded  and  unjust 
slavery  men  whom  nature  had  made  free.  The 
Fathers  take  every  possible  care  that  the  laws  of 
your  majesty  on  this  point  shall  be  most  exactly 
observed.  They  devote  themselves  entirely  to  the 
promotion  of  the  salvation  of  souls  and  the  increase 
of  the  possessions  of  your  majesty;  and  have  added 


450  The  Jesuits 

many  sons  to  the  Church  and  subjects  to  the  crown 
from  among  these  barbarous  nations." 

With  regard  to  their  alleged  commerce,  the  governor 
says:  "Whatever  has  been  charged  against  the 
Fathers  by  wicked  calumniators  who,  through  hatred 
and  envy,  manufacture  ridiculous  lies  about  the  wealth 
they  derive  from  those  missions,  I  solemnly  declare  to 
your  majesty,  and  I  speak  of  a  matter  with  which 
I  am  thoroughly  acquainted,  that  the  Fathers  of  the 
Society  are  the  only  true  missionaries  of  these  regions. 
Whatever  they  receive  from  their  labors  among  the 
Indians  is  applied  to  the  good  of  the  Indians  them- 
selves and  to  the  decency  and  ornamentation  of  the 
churches,  which,  in  these  missions,  are  always  very 
neat  and  very  beautiful.  Nothing  whatever  that  is 
required  in  the  missions  is  kept  for  themselves.  As 
they  have  nothing  of  their  own,  whatever  each 
missionary  sends  is  delivered  to  the  procurator  of  the 
mission,  and  every  penny  of  it  reverts  to  the  use 
of  the  particular  mission  from  whence  it  came. 
Missioners  of  other  orders  send  quite  as  much  produce, 
but  each  one  keeps  his  own  portion  separate,  to  be  used 
as  he  likes,  so  that  the  quantity  however  great  being 
thus  divided,  does  not  make  much  impression  on 
those  who  see  it.  But  as  the  missionaries  of  the 
Society  send  everything  together  to  the  procurator, 
the  quantity,  when  seen  in  bulk,  excites  the  cupidity 
of  the  malevolent  and  envious. " 

About  1739,  Eduardo  dos  Santos  was  sent  by  John  V 
as  a  special  commissioner  to  Maranhao.  After  spending 
twenty  months  in  visiting  every  mission  and  examining 
every  detail  he  wrote  as  follows:  "The  execrable 
barbarity  with  whicih  the  Indians  are  reduced  to  slavery 
has  become  such  a  matter  of  custom  that  it  is  rather 
looked  on  as  -a  virtue.  All  that  is  adduced  against 
this  inhuman  custom  is  received  with  such  repugnance 


Pombal  451 

and  so  quickly  forgotten  that  the  Fathers  of  the 
Society  in  'whose  charity  these  tinfortunate  creatures 
often  find  refuge  and  protection,  and  who  take  com- 
passion on  their  miserable  lot,  become,  for  this  very 
reason,  objects  of  ^hatred  to  these  avaricious  men." 

Such  were  the  official  verdicts  of  the  conduct  of 
the  Jesuits  on  the  Amazon  a  few  years  before  Pombal 
came  into  power.  But  in  1753  regardless  of  all  this 
he  sent  out  his  brother  Francis  Xavier  Mendoza,  a 
particularly  worthless  individual,  and  made  him 
Governor  of  Gran  Para  and  Maranh2o,  giving  him  a 
great  squadron  of  ships  and  a  considerable  body  of 
troops  with  orders  to  humble  the  Jesuits  and  send 
back  to  Portugal  any  of  them  who  opposed  his  will. 
Everything  was  done  to  create  opposition.  They 
were  forbidden  to  speak  or  to  preach  to  the  Indians 
except  in  Portuguese;  the  soldiers  were  quartered  in 
the  Jesuit  settlements,  and  were  instructed  to  treat 
the  natives  with  especial  violence  and  brutality. 

In  1754  a  council  was  held  in  Lisbon  to  settle  the 
question  about  expelling  the  Society  from  the  missions 
of  Maranhao.  The  order  was  held  up  temporarily  by 
the  queen ;  but  when  she  died,  a  despatch  was  sent  in 
June  1755  ordering  their  immediate  withdrawal  from 
all  ' 'temporal  and  civil  government  of  the  missions." 
The  instructions  stated  that  it  was  "in  order  that 
God  might  be  better  served.**  Unfortunately  the 
bishop  of  the  place  co-operated  with  Carvalho  in 
everything  that  was  proposed.  He  suppressed  one  of 
the  colleges,  restricted  the  number  of  Fathers  in  the 
others,  to  twelve,  and  sent  the  rest  back  to  Portugal; 
and  in  order  to  excite  the  settlers  against  the  Society, 
he  had  the  Bull  of  Benedict  XIV  which  condemned 
Indian  slavery  read  from  the  pulpits,  proclaiming  that 
it  had  been  inspired  by  the  Jesuits,  Meantime,  in 
the  reports  home,  the  insignificant  Indian  villages  where 


452  The  Jesuits 

they  labored  were  magnified  into  splendid  cities  and 
towns  all  owned  by  the  Society;  two  pieces  of  cannon 
which  had  never  fired  a  ball  were  described  as  a  whole 
park  of  artillery,  and  a  riot  among  the  troops  was  set 
down  as  a  rebellion  excited  by  the  Jesuits. 

The  first  three  Fathers  to  be  banished  from  Brazil 
were  Jose,  Hundertpfund  and  da  Cruz.  Jos6  was  a 
royal  appointee  sent  out  to  determine  the  boundary 
line  between  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  American 
possessions.  But  that  did  not  trouble  Pombal;  nor 
did  the  German  nationality  of  Hundertpfund,  nor  did 
he  deign  to  state  the  precise  nature  of  their  offenses. 
A  fourth  victim  named  Ballister  had  had  the  bad 
taste  to  preach  on  the  text:  "Make  for  yourself 
friends  of  the  Mammon  of  iniquity."  He  was  forth- 
with accused  of  attacking  one  of  Carvalho's  com- 
mercial enterprises,  and  promptly  ordered  out  of  the 
country.  Again,  when  some  mercantile  rivals  sent 
a  petition  to  the  king  against  Carvalho's  monopolies, 
Father  Fonseca  was  charged  with  prompting  it,  and 
he  was  outlawed  though  absolutely  innocent.  And 
so  it  went  on.  Carvalho's  brother  was  instructed  to 
invent  any  kind  of  an  excuse  to  increase  the  number 
of  these  expatriations. 

While  these  outrages  were  being  perpetrated  in 
the  colonies,  Lisbon's  historic  earthquake  of  1755 
occurred.  The  city  was  literally  laid  in  ruins.  Thou- 
sands of  people  were  instantly  killed;  and  while  other 
thousands  lay  struggling  in  the  ruins,  the  rising  flood 
of  the  Tagus  and  a  deluge  of  rain  completed  the  disaster. 
Singularly  enough,  Carvalho's  house  escaped  the 
general  wreck;  and  the  foolish  king  considered  that 
exception  to  be  a  Divine  intervention  in  behalf  of 
his  great  minister,  and  possibly,  on  that  account, 
left  him  unchecked  in  the  fury  which  even  the  awful 
calamitv  which  had  fallen  on  his  country  did  not  at 


Pombal  453 

all  moderate.  The  Jesuits  were  praised  by  both 
king  and  patriarch  for  their  heroic  devotion  both 
during  and  after  the  great  disaster,  but  those  com- 
mendations only  infuriated  Pombal  the  more.  When 
one  of  the  Fathers,  the  holy  Malagrida,  had  dared 
to  say  in  the  pulpit  that  the  earthquake  was  a  punish- 
ment for  the  vice  that  was  rampant  in  the  capital, 
Pombal  regarded  it  as  a  reflection  on  his  administra- 
tion; and  the  offender,  though  seventy  years  old  and 
universally  regarded  as  a  saint,  was  banished  from 
the  city  as  inciting  the  people  to  rebellion. 

However,  the  furious  minister  meted  out  similar 
treatment  to  others,  even  to  his  political  friends. 
Thus,  although  the  British  parliament  had  voted 
£40,000  for  the  relief  of  the  sufferers,  besides  giving  a 
personal  gift  to  the  king  and  sending  ships  with  car- 
goes of  food  for  the  people,  Pombal  immediately 
ran  up  the  tax  on  foreign  imports,  for  he  was  financially 
interested  in  domestic  productions.  Even  in  doling 
out  provisions  to  the  famishing  populace,  he  was  so 
parsimonious  that  riots  occurred,  whereupon  he  hanged 
those  who  complained.  The  author  of  the  "  Vita  " 
(I,  1 06)  vouches  for  the  fact  that  at  one  time  there 
were  three  hundred  gibbets  erected  in  various  parts  of 
Lisbon.  The  Jesuit  confessors  at  the  court  were 
especially  obnoxious  to  him  and  he  dismissed  them  all 
with  an  injunction  never  to  set  foot  in  the  royal 
precincts  again.  The  anger  of  their  royal  penitents 
did  not  restrain  him,  so  absolute  was  his  power  both 
then  and  afterwards.  The  plea  was  that  the  priests 
were  plotters  against  the  king.  To  increase  that 
impression  he  pointed  out  to  his  majesty  the  number 
of  offenders  against  him;  all  members  of  the  detested 
Order  who  were  coming  back  in  every  ship  from 
Brazil.  The  General  of  the  Society,  Father  Centurioni, 
wrote  to  the  king  pleading  the  innocence  of  the 


454  The  Jesuits 

victims;  but  the  letter  never  got  further  than  the  minis- 
ter*   The  king  did  not  even  know  it  had  been  sent. 

The  next  step  in  this  persecution  was  to  publish 
the  famous  pamphlet  entitled:  "  A  Brief  Account  of 
the  Republic  which  the  Jesuits  have  established  in 
the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  dominions  of  the  New 
World,  and  of  the  War  which  they  have  carried  on 
against  the  armies  of  the  two  Crowns;  all  extracted 
from  the  Register  of  the  Commissaries  and  Plenipotenti- 
aries, and  from  other  documents."  A  copy  was  sent  to 
every  bishop  of  the  country;  to  the  cardinals  in  Rome, 
and  to  all  the  courts  of  Europe.  Pombal  actually  spent 
70,000  crowns  to  print  and  spread  the  work  of  which  he 
himself  was  generally  credited  with  being  the  author. 
In  South  America  it  was  received  with  derision;  in 
Europe  mostly  with  disgust.  Sad  to  say,  Acciajuoli, 
the  Apostolic  nuncio  at  Lisbon,  believed  the  Brazilian 
stories;  but  he  changed  his  mind,  when  on  the  morning 
of  June  15,  1760,  just  as  he  was  about  to  say  Mass,  he 
received  a  note  ordering  him  in  the  name  of  the  king 
to  leave  the  city  at  once,  and  the  kingdom  within 
four  days;  adding  that  to  preserve  him  from  insult  a 
military  escort  would  conduct  him  to  the  frontier. 
Other  publications  of  the  same  tenor  followed  the 
"  Brief  Account."  One  especially  became  notorious. 
It  was:  "  Letters  of  the  Portuguese  Minister  to  the 
Minister  of  Spain  on  the  Jesuitical  Empire,  the  Republic 
of  Maranhao ;  the  history  of  Nicholas  I. "  The  Nicholas 
in  question  was  a  Father  named  Plantico.  To  carry 
out  the  story  of  his  having  been  crowned  Idng  or 
Emperor  of  Paraguay,  coins  with  his  effigy  were 
actually  struck  and  circulated  throughout  Europe. 
Unfortunately  for  the  fraud,  none  of  the  coins  were 
ever  seen  in  Paraguay  where  they  ought  to  have  been 
current.  Moreover,  as  Plantico  was  transported  with 
the  other  Jesuits  of  Brazil,  he  would  have  been  hanged 


Pombal  455 

« 

on  his  arrival  in  Portugal,  if  he  had  tried  to  set  up  a 
kingdom  of  his  own  in  Paraguay.  On  the  contrary, 
he  went  off  to  his  native  country  of  Croatia,  and  was 
Rector  of  the  College  of  Grosswardein  when  the 
general  suppression  of  the  Society  took  place.  Fred- 
erick II  and  d'Alembert  used  to  joke  with  each  other 
about  "  King  Nicholas  I  ";  and  in  Spain,  that  and  the 
other  libels  were  officially  denounced  and  their  cir- 
culation prohibited. 

As  for  Carvalho,  these  hideous  imaginings  of  his 
brain  became  realities;  and  the  list  of  Jesuitical  horrors 
which  his  ambassador  at  Rome  repeated  to  the  Pope, 
all,  as  he  alleged,  for  the  sake  of  the  Church,  almost 
suggest  that  Pombal  was  a  madman.  Long  extracts  of 
the  document  may  be  found  in  de  Ravignan  and  Weld, 
but  it  will  be  sufficient  here  to  mention  a  few  of  the 
charges.  They  are,  for  instance,  "  seditious  machina- 
tions against  every  government  of  Europe;  scandals  in 
their  missions  so  horrible  that  they  cannot  be  related 
without  extreme  indecency;  rebellion  against  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff;  the  accumulation  of  vast  wealth 
and  the  use  of  immense  political  power;  gross  moral 
corruption  of  individual  members  of  the  Order ;  abandon- 
ment of  even  the  externals  of  religion;  the  daily  and 
public  commission  of  enormous  crimes;  opposing  the 
king  with  great  armies;  inculcating  in  the  Indian 
mind  an  implacable  hatred  of  all  white  men  who  are  not 
Jesuits;  starting  insurrections  in  Uruguay  so  as  to 
prevent  the  execution  of  the  treaty  of  limits;  atrociously 
calumniating  the  king;  embroiling  the  courts  of  Spain 
and  Portugal;  creating  sedition  by  preaching  in  the 
capital  against  the  commercial  companies  of  the 
minister;  taking  advantage  of  the  earthquake  to  attain 
their  detestable  ends;  surpassing  Machiavelli  in  their 
diabolical  plots;  inventing  prophecies  of  new  disasters, 
such  as  warnings  of  subterranean  fires  and  invasions 


456  The  Jesuits 

of  the  sea;  calumniating  the  venerable  Palafox;  com- 
mitting crimes  worse  than  those  of  the  Knights 
Templars,  etc." 

Unfortunately,  Cardinal  Passionei  who  was  tin- 
friendly  to  the  Society,  exercised  great  power  at 
Rome  at  that  time.  He  was  so  antagonistic  that  he 
would  not  allow  a  Jesuit  book  in  the  library,  which  made 
d'Alembert  say:  "I  am  sorry  for  his  library."  He 
also  refused  to  condemn  the  work  of  the  scandalous 
ex-monk  Norbert,  who  was  in  the  pay  of  Carvalho. 
To  make  matters  worse,  Benedict  XIV  was  then  at 
the  point  of  death.  And  a  short  time  previously, 
yielding  to  Carvalho's  importunities,  he  had  appointed 
Cardinal  Saldanha,  who  was  Carvalho's  tool,  to  investi- 
gate the  complaints  and  to  report  back  to  Rome,  with- 
out however  taking  any  action  on  the  premises.  The 
dying  Pontiff  was  unaware  of  the  intimacy  of  Saldanha 
with  the  man  in  Portugal  or  he  would  not  have  ordered 
him  in  the  Brief  of  appointment  to  "  follow  the  paths  of 
gentleness  and  mildness,  in  dealing  with  an  Order  which 
has  always  been  of  the  greatest  edification  to  the  whole 
world;  lest  by  doing  otherwise  he  would  diminish  the 
esteem  which,  up  to  that  time,  they  have  justly  acquired 
as  a  reward  of  their  diligence.  Their  holy  Institute 
had  given  many  illustrious  men  to  the  Church  whose 
teachings  they  have  not  hesitated  to  confirm  with 
their  blood/'  As  the  Pope  died  in  the  following  month, 
Saldanha  made  light  of  the  instructions.  His  usual 
boast  was  that  "  the  will  of  the  king  was  the  rule  of  his 
actions;  and  he  was  under  such  obligations  to  his 
majesty,  that  he  would  not  hesitate  to  throw  himself 
from  the  window  if  such  were  the  royal  pleasure/' 

It  was  currently  reported  in  Lisbon,  says  Weld 
(130),  that  the  office  of  visitor  had  been  first  offered 
to  Francis  of  the  Annunciation,  an  Augustinian  who 
had  reformed  the  University  of  Coimbra;  and  on 


Pombal  457 

his  refusal  he  was  sent  to  prison  where  he  ended  his 
days.  But  the  obliging  Saldanha  saw  in  it  an  oppor- 
tunity for  still  further  advancement;  he  accepted  the 
work  and  performed  it  in  accordance  with  the  wishes 
of  Pombal.  Meantime,  new  dungeons  were  being  made 
in  the  fortress  of  Jonquiera  in  which  the  offending 
Jesuits  were  to  be  buried.  Saldanha  began  his  work 
as  Inquisitor  on  May  31,  by  going  with  great  pomp 
to  the  Jesuit  Church  of  St.  Roch.  Seated  on  the  throne 
in  the  sanctuary,  he  gave  his  hand  to  be  kissed  by  all 
the  religious.  When  the  provincial  knelt  before  him, 
the  cardinal  told  him  to  have  confidence  —  he  would 
act  with  clemency.  When  the  ceremony  was  over, 
he  departed  abruptly  without  asking  any  questions 
or  making  any  examination.  But  a  few  days  after- 
ward, the  provincial  received  a  letter  bearing  the  date 
May  15,  that  is  sixteen  days  before  this  visit  to  the 
Church,  declaring  that  the  Fathers  in  Portugal  and  in 
its  dominions  to  the  ends  of  the  earth  were,  on  the 
fullest  information,  found  to  be  guilty  of  a  worldly 
traffic  which  was  a  disgrace  to  the  ecclesiastical  state; 
and  they  were  commanded  under  pain  of  excommuni- 
cation to  desist  from  such  business  transactions  at 
the  very  hour  the  notification  was  made.  The 
language  employed  in  the  letter  which  was  immediately 
spread  throughout  the  country  was  insulting  and 
defamatory  to  the  highest  degree. 

All  the  procurators  were  then  compelled  to  hand 
over  their  books  to  the  government.  And  when  the 
horrified  people,  who  knew  there  was  nothing  back 
of  it  all  but  Carvalho's  hatred,  manifested  their  dis- 
content, it  was  ascribed  to  the  Jesuits.  Hence  on 
June  6,  the  cardinal  patriarch,  at  the  instigation  of  the 
prime  minister,  suspended  them  all  from  the  function 
of  preaching  and  hearing  confessions  throughout  the 
patriarchate.  The  cardinal  had,  at  first,  demurred, 


458  The  Jesuits 

for  he  knew  the  Jesuits  in  Lisbon  to  be  the  very  reverse 
of  Saldanha's  description  of  them,  and  he  therefore 
demanded  a  regular  trial.  Whereupon  Carvalho  flew 
into  such  a  rage  that  out  of  sheer  terror,  and  after 
a  few  hours'  struggle,  he  issued  the  cruel  order.  The 
poor  cardinal,  who  was  an  ardent  friend  and  admirer 
of  the  Society,  was  so  horrified  at  what  he  had  done 
that  he  fell  into  a  fever,  and  died  within  a  month. 
Before  he  received  the  last  sacraments,  he  made  a 
public  declaration  that  the  Society  was  innocent,  and 
he  drew  up  a  paper  to  that  effect;  but  Carvalho  never 
let  it  see  the  light.  When  the  Archbishop  of  Evora 
heard  that  the  dying  man  had  shed  tears  over  his 
weakness,  he  said:  "Tears  are  not  enough.  He 
should  have  shed  the  last  drop  of  his  blood/' 

Saldanha  was  made  patriarch  in  the  deceased 
prelate's  place;  and  though  his  office  of  visitor  had 
ceased  ipso  facto  on  the  death  of  the  Pope,  he  continued 
to  exercise  its  functions  nevertheless.  He  appointed 
Bulhoens,  the  Bishop  of  Para,  a  notorious  adherent  of 
Carvalho,  to  be  his  delegate  in  Brazil,  Bulhoens 
first  examined  the  Jesuits  of  Para,  but  could  find 
nothing  against  them.  He  then  proceeded  to  Mar- 
anhao;  but  the  bishop  of  that  place  left  in  disgust; 
and  the  governor  warned  Bulhoens  that  if  he  persisted, 
the  city  would  be  in  an  uproar.  Not  being  able  to  effect 
anything,  he  asked  the  Bishop  of  Bahia  to  undertake 
the  work  of  investigation.  The  invitation  was 
promptly  accepted;  and  all  the  superiors  were  ordered 
to  show  their  books  under  pain  of  excommunication. 
They  readily  complied,  and  no  fault  was  found  with  the 
accounts.  He  then  instituted  a  regular  tribunal; 
received  the  depositions  of  seventy-five  witnesses, 
among  them  Saldanha's  own  brother  who  had  lived 
twenty-five  years  in  Maranhao.  Next  he  examined  the 
tax  commissioner,  through  whose  hands  all  contracts 


Pombal  459 

and  bills  of  exchange  had  to  pass;  and  that  official 
affirmed  under  oath  that  he  had  never  known  or 
heard  of  any  business  transactions  having  been  carried 
on  by  Jesuits.  The  result  was  that  the  courageous 
bishop  declared  "  it  would  be  an  offence  against  God 
and  his  conscience  and  against  the  king's  majesty  to 
condemn  the  Fathers/*  When  his  report  was  for- 
warded to  Portugal,  Carvalho  ordered  the  confiscation 
of  his  property;  expelled  him  from  his  palace,  and 
declared  his  see  vacant.  The  valiant  prelate  passed 
the  rest  of  his  days  in  seclusion,  supported  by  the 
alms  of  the  faithful. 

In  September  1758,  a  charge  was  trumped  up  in 
Lisbon  in  a  most  tortuous  fashion,  based  on  the  alleged 
discovery  of  a  plot  to  assassinate  the  king.  Those 
chiefly  involved  were  the  Duke  de  Averio  and  the 
Marquis  de  Tavora,  with  his  wife,  his  two  sons,  his 
two  brothers  and  his  two  sons-in-law,  all  of  whom 
were  seized  at  midnight  on  December  12.  The 
marchioness  and  her  daughter-in-law  were  carried  off 
to  a  convent  in  their  night-dresses;  the  men  of  the 
family,  to  dens  formerly  occupied  by  the  wild  beasts 
of  the  city  menagerie.  De  Aveiro,  who  was  supposed 
to  be  the  assassin-in-chief,  was  not  taken  until  next 
day.  Several  others  were  included  in  this  general 
round-up,  some  of  them  for  having  asserted  that  the 
whole  conspiracy  was  a  manufactured  affair.  At  the 
same  time,  some  of  the  domestic  servants  of  the 
marquis,  probably  for  having  offered  resistance  at  the 
time  of  the  arrest,  were  put  to  death  so  that  they  could 
tell  no  tales.  Not  being  able  to  have  the  accused 
parties  tried  before  any  regularly  constituted  tribunal, 
because  of  the  lack  of  evidence,  Carvalho  drew  up  a 
sentence  of  condemnation  himself,  and  presented  it  to 
a  new  court  which  he  had  just  established,  called  the 
inconfidenza,  and  demanded  the  signatures  of  the  judges 


460  The  Jesuits 

who  were  all  his  creatures.  After  being  stormed  at 
for  a  whale,  all,  with  one  exception,  put  their  names 
to  the  paper.  Then,  as  by  the  law  of  the  land  no 
nobleman  could  be  condemned  to  death  except  by  his 
peers,  he  constituted  himself  as  a  tribunal,  along  with 
his  secretary  of  the  Navy  and  the  secretary  of  Foreign 
Affairs,  neither  of  whom  had  any  difficulty  in  com- 
plying with  the  wish  of  their  master. 

On  January  u,  1759,  three  of  the  noblemen  involved, 
Aveiro,  Tavora  and  Antongia,  were  led  out  to  execution 
before  the  king's  palace.  Vast  multitudes  had 
assembled  in  the  public  square;  and  to  ensure  order, 
fresh  regiments  had  been  summoned  from  other  parts 
of  the  kingdom.  A  riot  was  feared,  for  the  Tavoras 
were  among  the  noblest  families  of  the  realm.  The 
accused  had  not  even  been  defended  and  had  been 
interrogated  on  the  rack.  The  execution  was  most 
expeditious,  and  the  heads  of  the  three  victims  quickly 
rolled  in  the  dust.  That  night,  the  marchioness  was 
taken  from  the  convent  to  the  new  dungeons  in  the 
fort;  and  on  January  12,  she  heard  the  sentence  of 
death  passed  on  her  by  Carvalho  himself  who  was 
both  judge  and  accuser.  The  scaffold  was  erected  in 
the  square  of  Belem;  and  long  before  daylight  of 
January  13  an  immense  multitude  had  gathered  to 
witness  the  hideous  spectacle.  The  marchioness  ad- 
vanced and  took  her  seat  in  the  chair.  The  axe 
quickly  descended  on  her  neck  —  and  all  was  over. 
She  was  despatched  in  this  hurried  fashion  because 
the  interference  of  the  king  was  feared.  Indeed,  the 
messenger  arrived  just  when  the  head  had  been  severed 
from  the  body.  The  two  sons  of  the  marchioness  and. 
her  son-in-law  were  then  stretched  on  the  rack  and 
strangled.  The  father  of  the  family,  the  old  marquis 
followed  next  in  order.  As  a  mark  of  clemency,  his 
torture  was  brief  but  effective.  Pour  others  were  then 


Pombal  461 

executed;  fire  was  set  to  the  gibbet;  and  its  blood- 
stained timbers  along  with  the  bodies  of  the  victims 
were  reduced  to  ashes  and  thrown  into  the  Tagus. 
This  was  not  a  scene  in  a  village  of  savages,  but  in 
a  great  European  capital  which  had  just  passed  through 
a  terrible  visitation  of  God  but  apparently  had  not 
understood  its  meaning.  Carvalho  was  thirsting  for 
more  blood,  but  the  king  held  him  back;  so  he  contented 
himself  with  destroying  the  palaces  of  the  Aveiras  and 
Tavoras;  sprinkling  the  sites  with  salt;  forbidding 
anyone  to  bear  the  names  hitherto  so  illustrious,  and 
even  effacing  them  from  the  monuments  and  the 
public  archives.  He  was  not  allowed  to  commit  any 
more  official  murders  for  the  moment;  but  at  least 
he  had  thousands  who  were  dying  in  his  underground 
dungeons. 

What  had  the  Jesuits  to  do  with  all  this?  Nothing 
whatever.  They  were  accused  of  being  the  spiritual 
advisers  of  the  Tavora  family  which  it  was  impossible 
to  disprove,  because  though  the  persons  implicated  by 
the  accusation  were  all  arrested  on  the  nth,  sentence 
of  death  had  been  already  passed  on  the  gth.  There 
were  twenty-nine  paragraphs  in  the  indictment.  The 
twenty-second  said  that  "  even  if  the  exuberant  and 
conclusive  proofs  already  adduced  did  not  exist,  the 
presumption  of  the  law  would  suffice  to  condemn  such 
monsters."  Of  course,  no  lawyer  in  the  world  could 
plead  against  such  a  charge,  and  it  is  noteworthy  that 
in  the  Brief  of  Suppression  of  the  whole  Society  by 
Clement  XIV  which  brings  together  all  the  accusations 
against  it,  there  is  no  mention  whatsoever,  even 
inferentially,  of  any  conspiracy  of  the  Jesuits  against 
the  life  of  the  King  of  Portugal.  Moreover,  the 
Inquisition  and  all  the  Bishops  of  Spain  judged  this 
Portuguese  horror  at  its  proper  value,  when  on  May  3, 
1759  they  put  their  official  stamp  of  condemnation 


462  The  Jesuits 

on  the  pamphlets  with  which  the  whole  of  Europe 
was  flooded  immediately  after  PombaTs  infamous  act. 
They  denounced  the  charges  one  by  one  as  "  designed 
to  foment  discord,  to  disturb  the  peace  and  tran- 
quillity of  souls  and  consciences,  and  especially  to 
discredit  the  holy  Society  of  Jesus  and  religious  who 
laudably  labor  in  it  to  the  benefit  of  the  Church; 
as  is  known  throughout  the  world."  Over  and  over 
again  as  each  book  is  specifically  anathematised,  the 
"  holy  Society  of  Jesus  "  is  spoken  of  with  commend- 
ation and  praise.  The  condemned  publications  were 
then  burnt  in  the  market  place.  That  exculpation 
ought  to  have  been  sufficient,  coming  as  it  did  not 
only  from  all  the  Spanish  bishops  but  from  the  Inqui- 
sition, which  from  the  very  beginning  had  been  uni- 
formly suspicious  of  everything  Jesuitical.  Against 
this  utterance  Pombal  was  powerless  for  it  was  the 
voice  of  another  nation. 

When  the  year  1759  began,  three  of  the  most  con- 
spicuous and  most  venerable  Fathers  of  Portugal  were 
in  jail  under  sentence  of  death.  But  neither  the  king 
nor  Carvalho  dared  to  carry  out  the  sentence  of 
execution.  Something  however  had  to  be  done;  and 
therefore  a  royal  edict,  which  had  been  written  long 
before,  was  issued.  After  reciting  all  that  had  been 
previously  said  about  Brazil,  etc.  it  declared  that 
"  these  religious  being  corrupt  and  deplorably  fallen 
away  from  their  holy  institute,  and  rendered  mani- 
festly incapable  by  such  abominable  and  inveterate 
vices  to  return  to  its  observances,  must  be  properly 
and  effectually  banished,  denaturalized,  proscribed 
and  expelled  from  all  his  majesty's  dominions,  as 
notorious  rebels,  traitors,  adversaries  and  aggressors 
of  his  royal  person  and  realm;  as  well  as  for  the  public 
peace  and  the  common  good  of  his  subjects;  and  it 
is  ordered  under  the  irremissible  pain  of  death,  that 


Pombal  463 

no  person,  of  whatever  state  or  condition,  is  to  admit 
them  into  any  of  his  possessions  or  hold  any  communica- 
tion with  them  by  word  or  writing,  even  though  they 
should  return  into  these  states  in  a  different  garb  or 
should  have  entered  another  order,  unless  with  the 
King's  permission."  It  is  sad  to  have  to  record  that 
the  Patriarch  of  Lisbon  endorsed  the  invitation  to  the 
Jesuits  to  avail  themselves  of  this  royal  clemency. 

The  procurators  of  the  missions  who  occupied  a 
temporary  house  in  Lisbon  had  been  already  carried 
off  to  jail;  and  their  money,  chalices,  sacred  vessels, 
all  of  which  were  intended  for  Asia  and  Brazil,  were 
confiscated.  The  Exodus  proper  began  at  the  College 
of  Elvas  on  September  i.  At  night-fall  a  squadron 
of  cavalry  arrived;  and  taking  the  inmates  prisoners, 
marched  them  off  without  any  intimation  of  whither 
they  were  going.  On  the  following  day,  Sunday, 
they  were  lodged  in  a  miserable  shed,  exhausted 
though  they  were  by  'the  journey,  with  nothing  but  a 
few  crusts  to  eat,  after  having  suffered  intensely  from 
the  heat  all  day  long.  They  were  not  even  allowed  to 
go  to  Mass.  During  the  next  night  and  the  following 
day,  they  continued  their  weary  tramp  and  at  last 
arrived  at  Evora.  There  the  young  men  were  left 
at  the  college,  and  the  sixty-nine  Professed  were 
compelled  to  walk  for  six  consecutive  days  till  they 
reached  the  Tagus.  Many  were  old  and  decrepit  and 
one  of  them  lost  his  mind  on  the  journey.  When  they 
reached  the  river,  they  were  put  in  open  boats  and  ex- 
posed all  day  long  to  the  burning  sun,  with  nothing  to 
eat  or  drink.  They  were  then  transferred  to  a  ship 
which  had  been  waiting  for  them  since  the  month  of 
April.  It  was  then  late  in  September. 

Other  exiles  soon  joined  them,  after  going  through 
similar  experiences,  until  there  were  one  hundred  and 
thirty-three  in  the  same  vessel.  They  were  all  kept 


464  The  Jesuits 

in  the  hold  till  they  were  out  of  sight  of  land.  There 
was  no  accommodation  for  them:  the  food  was  insuffi- 
cient; the  water  was  foul;  there  were  no  dishes,  so  that 
six  or  seven  had  to  sit  around  a  tin  can,  and  take  out 
what  they  could  with  a  wooden  spoon,  and  the  same 
vessel  had  to  serve  for  the  water  they  drank.  The 
orders  were  to  stop  at  no  port  until  they  reached 
Civita  Vecchia.  However,  after  passing  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar,  it  became  evident  that  unless  the  captain 
wanted  to  carry  a  cargo  of  corpses  to  Italy,  he  must 
take  in  supplies  somewhere:  for  many  of  the  victims 
were  sixty  or  seventy  years  of  age.  There  were  even 
some  octogenarians  among  them.  Hence,  on  reaching 
Alicante,  in  Spain,  one  of  the  Fathers  went  ashore. 
There  was  a  college  of  the  Society  in  that  city;  and  as 
soon  as  the  news  spread  of  the  arrival  of  the  prisoners, 
the  people  rushed  to  the  shore  to  supply  their  wants, 
but  the  messenger  was  the  only  one  allowed  to  be  seen. 
They  then  sailed  away  from  -Alicante.  Off  Corsica,  a 
storm  caught  them  and  so  delayed  their  progress  that 
a  stop  had  to  be  made  at  Spezia  for  more  food.  At 
last,  on  October  24,  more  than  a  month  after  they  had 
left  Lisbon,  they  were  flung  haggard,  emaciated  and 
exhausted  on  the  shores  of  the  Papal  States  at  Civita 
Vecchia.  Of  course,  they  were  received  by  the  people 
there  with  unbounded  affection;  and  as  Father  Weld 
relates  "none  exceeded  the  Dominican  Fathers  in 
their  tender  solicitude  for  the  sufferers.  A  marble 
slab  in  their  church  records  their  admiration  for  these 
confessors  of  the  Faith  with  whom  the  sons  of  St. 
Dominic  declared  they  were  devinctissimi  —  "closely 
bound  to  them  in  affection." 

On  September  29,  troops  surrounded  the  College  of 
Coipibra.  The  astonished  populace  was  informed 
that  it  was  because  the  Fathers  had  been  fighting; 
that  some  were  already  killed  and  others  wounded; 


Pombal  465 

and  the  soldiers  had  been  summoned  to  prevent 
further  disorders.  That  night  amid  pouring  rain,  the 
tramp  of  horses*  hoofs  was  heard;  and  as  the  people 
crowded  to  the  windows,  they  saw  the  venerable  men 
of  the  college  led  away  between  squads  of  cavalry  as 
if  they  were  brigands  or  prisoners  of  war.  They 
arrived  at  the  Tagus  on  October  7,  where  others  were 
already  waiting.  They  numbered  in  all  121,  and 
were  crowded  into  two  small  ships  which  were  to 
carry  them  into  exile.  They  had  scarcely  room  to 
move.  Yet,  when  they  arrived  at  Genoa,  they  were 
all  packed  into  one  of  the  boats.  At  Leghorn,  they 
were  kept  for  a  whole  month  in  close  confinement  on 
board  the  ship.  When  they  started  out,  they  were 
buffeted  by  storms,  and  not  until  January  4,  1760  did 
they  reach  the  papal  territory.  They  were  in  a  more 
wretched  state  of  filth  and  emaciation  than  their 
predecessors. 

These  prisoners  were  the  special  criminals  of  the 
Society,  namely  —  the  .professed  Fathers.  The  other 
Jesuits  were  officially  admitted  to  be  without  reproach 
and  were  exhorted,  both  by  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
authorities,  to  abandon  the  Order  and  be  dispensed 
from  their  vows.  As  these  non-Professed  numbered 
at  least  three-fourths  of  the  whole  body,  the  difficult 
problem  presents  itself  of  explaining  how  the  Professed 
who  are  looked  up  to  by  the  rest  of  the  Society  for 
precept  and  example  should  be  monsters  of  iniquity  and 
yet  could  train  the  remaining  three-fourths  of  the 
members  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  them  models  of 
every  virtue. 

Pombal  was  convinced  that  he  could  separate  the 
youth  of  the  Society  from  their  elders;  and  he  was 
extremely  anxious  to  do  so,  because  of  the  family 
connections  of  many  of  them,  and  because  of  the  loss 
to  the  nation  at  one  stroke  of  so  much  ability  and 

30 


466  The  Jesuits 

talent.  But  he  failed  egregiously.  They  were  all 
gathered  in  the  colleges  of  Coimbra  and  Evora.  No 
seclusion  was  observed.  Everybody  was  free  to  visit 
them  from  the  world  outside;  and  inducements  of 
every  kind  were  held  out  to  them  to  abandon  the 
Society:  family  affection,  worldly  ambition,  etc. — 
but  without  avail.  They  had  no  regular  superior,  so 
they  elected  a  fourth-year  theologian  who  had  just 
been  ordained  a  priest.  Another  was  made  minister; 
and  a  third,  master  of  novices.  The  house  was  kept 
in  excellent  order;  the  religious  discipline  was  perfect 
and  the  exercises  of  the  community  went  on  with  as 
much  regularity  as  if  nothing  were  happening.  Pombal 
sent  commissioner  after  commissioner  to  shake  the 
constancy  of  the  young  men,  but  only  two  of  the 
tempted  ones  weakened.  "  Who  is  their  superior?  " 
he  asked  one  day  in  a  rage.  The  answer  was: 
"Joseph  Carvalho  —  your  namesake  and  relative. " 
On  October  20,  a  letter  from  the  cardinal  was  read 
in  both  houses.  He  expressed  his  astonishment  that 
these  young  Jesuits  did  not  avail  themselves  of  the 
royal  favor  to  desert;  and  he  warned  them  that  they 
were  not  suffering  for  their  faith,  and  that  "their 
refusal  of  His  Majesty's  offer  to  release  them  from  their 
vows  was  not  virtuous  constancy  but  seditious 
obstinacy." 

Finally,  October  24  was  fixed  for  their  departure, 
and  notice  was  given  that  they  could  not  expect  to 
go  to  any  civilized  land,  but  would  probably  be  dropped 
on  some  desolate  island  off  the  African  coast.  That 
shook  the  resolution  of  two  of  the  band,  but  the  rest 
stood  firm.  In  the  morning,  all  went  to  Holy  Com- 
munion and  at  an  hour  before  sunset,  the  word  was 
given  to  start.  They  sang  a  Te  Deum  and  then  set 
out  — 130  in  all.  They  were  preceded  by  a  troop  of 
cavalry;  a  line  of  foot  soldiers  marched  on  either  side; 


Pombal  467 

while  here  and  there  torches  threw  their  glare  over  this 
grim  nocturnal  procession.  It  took  them  four  days 
to  reach  Oporto,  where  they  met  their  brethren  from 
Braganza  and  Braza.  There  were  only  ten  from  the 
former  place,  but  sixty  soldiers  had  been  detailed  to 
guard  them.  Indeed,  the  troopers  from  Braza  had 
to  keep  the  crowds  back  with  dra^n  swords,  so  eager 
were  the  people  along  the  road  to  express  their  sym- 
pathy. At  Oporto  the  young  heroes  had  to  witness 
the  desertion  of  four  Professed  Fathers;  but  that  did 
not  weaken  their  resolution.  They  were  all  crammed 
into  three  small  craft,  but  the  weather  was  too  stormy 
to  leave  the  port;  and  there  they  remained  a  whole 
week,  packed  so  close  together  that  there  was  scarcely 
room  to  lie  side  by  side.  The  air  became  so  foul  that 
it  was  doubtful  if  they  could  survive.  Even  their 
guards  took  sick,  and,  at  last,  a  number  of  the  prisoners 
were  transferred  to  a  fort  in  the  harbor. 

At  last  to  the  number  of  223  they  sailed  down  the 
Tagus.  One  of  them  died,  and  his  companions  sang 
the  Office  of  the  Dead  over  him  and  buried  him  in  the 
sea.  When  the  ship  did  not  roll  too  much,  Mass  was 
said  and  they  went  to  Communion.  All  the  exercises 
that  are  customary  in  religious  houses  were  scrupulously 
performed,  and  the  Church  festivals  were  observed  as 
if  they  were  a  community  at  home.  They  were 
quarantined  two  weeks  at  Genoa  without  being  per- 
mitted to  go  ashore.  Then  another  scholastic  died, 
and  they  found  that  his  earthly  goods  consisted  of 
nothing  but  a  few  bits  of  linen,  that  must  have  been 
foul  by  this  time,  besides  a  discipline  and  a  hair  shirt. 
They  cast  anchor  at  Civita  Vecchia  on  February  7, 
having  left  inhospitable  Portugal  in  October. 

The  band  from  Evora  to  the  number  of  ninety- 
eight,  of  whom  only  three  were  priests,  had  not  such  a 
rude  experience  except  in  the  distress  of  seeing  some 


468  The  Jesuits 

deserters,  among  them  two  Professed  Fathers.  The 
officer  in  charge  of  the  ship,  unlike  most  of  the  govern- 
ment employees,  was  tender  and  kind  to  them.  How 
could  he  have  been  otherwise?  His  name  was  de 
Britto  —  the  same  as  that  of  the  Portuguese  martyr  in 
India.  It  meant  the  loss  of  his  position,  perhaps, 
but  what  did  he  care?  When  they  reached  Lisbon, 
the  nineteen  who  had  been  separated  from  the  first 
detachment  to  be  kept  in  jail  came  aboard,  and  the 
little  band  numbered  115  all  told,  when  the  ship 
hoisted  anchor  and  made  for  the  sea.  They  reached 
Civita  Vecchia  where  the  two  happy  troops  of  valiant 
young  Jesuits  met  in  each  others  arms.  Their  number 
was  then  336.  They  were  distributed  among  the 
various  establishments  of  Italy,  the  novices  being 
sent  to  Sant*  Andrea  in  Rome.  Two  cardinals  and  a 
papal  nuncio  who  were  making  their  retreat  in  the 
house  at  the  time  insisted  on  serving  them  at  table, 
while  the  Pope  sent  a  message  to  the  General  to  say : 
"  These  young  men  have  reflected  great  honor  on  the 
Society  and  have  shown  how  well  they  have  been 
trained." 

The  fury  of  Pombal  was  not  yet  sated.  Not  an 
island  of  the  Atlantic,  not  a  station  in  Africa  or  India, 
not  a  mission  in  the  depths  of  the  forests  of  America 
that  was  not  searched  and  looted  by  his  commissioners, 
who  ruthlessly  expelled  the  devoted  missionaries  who 
were  found  there.  Men  venerable  for  age  and  acquire- 
ments were  given  over  to  brutal  soldiers  who  were 
ordered  to  shoot  them  if  any  attempt  at  escape  was 
made.  They  were  dragged  hundreds  of  miles  through 
the  wildest  of  regions,  over  mountains,  through  raging 
torrents,  amid  driving  storms;  they  were  starved  and 
had  nothing  but  the  bare  ground  on  which  to  rest; 
they  were  searched  again  and  again  as  if  their  rags 
held  treasures;  were  made  to  answer  the  roll  call  twice* 


Pombal  469 

a  day  like  convicts  in  jail;  and  then  tossed  in  the  holds 
of  crazy  ill-provisioned  ships  with  no  place  to  rest 
their  weary  heads,  except  on  a  coil  of  rope  or  in  the 
the  filth  of  the  cattle;  and  when  dead,  they  were  to 
be  flung  to  the  sharks.  When  at  last  they  reached 
Lisbon  they  were  forbidden  to  show  themselves  on 
deck,  lest  their  fellow-countrymen  and  their  families 
might  be  shocked  by  their  degradation.  They  were 
then  spirited  away  to  the  dungeons  of  St.  Julian  and 
Jonquiera  to  rot,  until  death  relieved  them  of  their 
sufferings.  Those  who  were  not  placed  in  the  crowded 
jails  were  sent  in  their  rags  to  find  a  refuge  some- 
where outside  of  their  native  land. 

As  has  been  said,  there  were  two  provinces  in  Portu- 
guese South  America  —  Brazil  and  MaranhSo.  In  the 
former,  besides  the  Seminary  of  Belem,  the  Society 
had  six  colleges  and  sixty-two  residences  with  a  total 
of  445  members.  Orders  were  given  to  the  whole 
445  to  assemble  at  Bahia,  Pernambuco  and  San 
Sebastian.  Everything  was  seized.  At  Bahia,  the 
novices  were  stripped  of  their  habits  and  sent  adrift, 
though  the  families  of  some  of  them  lived  in  far  away 
Portugal.  The  rest  were  confined  in  a  house  surrounded 
by  armed  troops  while  the  bishop  of  the  city  proclaimed 
that  any  one  who  would  encourage  the  victims  to 
persevere  in  their  vocation  would  be  excommunicated. 
Then,  one  day,  without  a  moment's  notice,  all  were 
ordered  out  of  the  house  and  sent  to  jail  in  different 
places.  There  they  remained  for  the  space  of  three 
months  waiting  for  the  missionaries  from  the  interior 
to  arrive.  They  came  in  slowly,  for  some  of  them 
lived  eight  hundred  miles  away,  and  had  to  tramp  all 
that  distance  through  the  forests  and  over  mountain 
ranges.  Before  all  had  made  their  appearance,  however, 
the  first  batches  were  sent  across  to  the  mother  country 
to  make  space.  They  started  on  March  16  and  reached 


470  The  Jesuits 

the  Tagus  on  June  6.  Those  from  Bahia  had  taken 
from  April  to  June,  and  it  was  fully  three  months 
before  the  convict  ship  from  Pernambuco  arrived 
in  port.  "  , 

All  this  time  the  deported  religious  were  kept  between 
decks,  and  soldiers  stood  at  the  gangway  with  drawn 
swords  to  prevent,  any  attempt  to  go  up  to  get  a 
breath  of  fresh  air.  Their  food  was  nothing  but 
vegetables  cooked  in  sea-water,  for  there  was  not 
enough  of  drinking  water  even  to  slake  their  thirst. 
The  result  was  that  the  ship  had  a  cargo  of  half -dead 
men  when  it  anchored  off  Lisbon;  but  the  unfortunate 
wretches  were  kept  imprisoned  there  for  fifteen  days 
with  the  port-holes  closed.  They  were  then  trans- 
ferred to  a  Genoese  ship  and  sent  to  Civita  Vecchia. 
It  appears  that  the  Provincial  of  these  Brazilian 
Jesuits  was  named  Lynch;  but  strange  to  say,  there  is 
no  mention  of  him  in  any  of  the  Menologies.  The 
deportation  from  Pernambuco  and  San  Sebastian 
were  repetitions  of  this  organized  brutality;  and  the 
same  methods  were  employed  at  Goa  in  India,  and 
the  other  dependencies,  such  as  Macao  and  China. 
In  the  transportations  from  these  posts  in  the  Orient, 
the  ships  had  to  stop  at  Bahia  which  had  been  witness 
of  the  first  exportations;  but  the  victims  in  the  China 
ships  could  learn  nothing  of  what  had  happened. 
Twenty-three  of  them  died  on  one  of  the  journeys 
from  India.  It  is  noted  that  a  Turk  at  Algiers  and  a 
Danish  Lutheran  sea-captain,  had  shown  the  greatest 
humanity  to  the  victims  whose  fellow  country-men 
seemed  transformed  into  savage  beasts.  The  prisoners 
had  been  kept  in  confinement  twenty  months  before 
they  left  Goa;  and  when  they  arrived  at  Lisbon  on 
October  18,  1764,  they  were  taken  off  in  long  boats  at 
the  dead  of  night,  and  lodged  in  the  foulest  dungeons 
of  the  fortress  of  St.  Julian. 


Pombal  471 

But  these  were  not  the  only  victims  of  Carvalho. 
There  were  prisoners  from  every  grade  of  society, 
and  their  number  reached  the  appalling  figure  of 
nine  thousand.  Among  them  were  eminent  ecclesi- 
astics, bishops  and  canons  and  some  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished laymen  of  the  kingdom.  A  description 
of  the  prisons  in  which  they  were  confined  for  years 
or  till  they  died  has  been  given  to  posterity  by  some 
of  the  victims.  Father  Weld  in  his  "  Suppression  of 
the  Society  in  Portugal "  quotes  extensively  from 
their  letters.  The  jails  were  six  in  number:  Belem, 
Almeida,  Azeitano,  St.  George,  Jonquiera  and  St. 
Julian.  They  had  annexes,  also,  along  the  African 
coasts  or  on  the  remote  islands  of  the  Atlantic.  Belem, 
the  Portuguese  name  for  Bethlehem,  so  called  because 
it  had  once  been  an  abbey,  was  about  four  miles  from 
Lisbon  towards  the  ocean.  It  had  the  distinction  of 
keeping  its  prisoners  behind  iron  bars,  but  exposed 
to  the  public  like  wild  beasts  in  a  menagerie;  so  that 
the  public  could  come  and  look  at  them  and  feed  them 
if  so  disposed.  The  Portuguese  criminals  were  given  a 
pittance  by  the  government,  to  purchase  food,  but  the 
foreigners  had  to  beg  from  the  spectators  for  the  means 
to  support  life.  It  was  admirably  contrived  to  induce 
insanity* 

Jonquiera  lay  between  Belefn  and  Lisbon.  The 
cells  were  numerous  in  this  place.  Moreira,  the  king's 
former  confessor,  and  Malagrida  were  among  the 
inmates.  The  Marquis  de  Lorna  who  was  also  con- 
fined there  says  "  there  were  nineteen  cells,  each  about 
seven  paces  square,  and  so  tightly  closed  that  a  light 
had  to  be  kept  burning  continually;  otherwise  they 
would  have  been  in  absolute  darkness.  When  the 
prisoners  were  first  put  in  them,  the  plaster  was 
still  wet  and  yielded  to  the  slightest  pressure.  The 
cold  was  intense.  Worst  of  all  for  a  Catholic  country, 


472  The  Jesuits 

the  sacraments  were  allowed  the  prisoners  only  once  a 
year."  The  Marquis  says  that  during  the  sixteen 
years  he  spent  there  "  he  never  heard  Mass."  In 
these  dungeons  there  were  221  Jesuits,  88  of  whom 
died  in  their  chains.  The  Castle  of  St.  Julian  stood 
on  the  banks  of  the  Tagus  and  the  walls  were  washed 
by  the  tide.  In  this  place,  there  were  125  Jesuits  of 
aU  nations;  men  of  high  birth,  of  great  virtue  and 
intellectual  ability.  The  cells  were  situated  below  the 
sea-level;  and  were  damp,  unventilated,  choked  with 
filth  and  swarming  with  vermin.  Some  of  the  Fathers 
passed  nineteen  years  in  those  tombs.  The  drinking 
water  was  putrid;  the  prisoners'  clothes  were  in  rags; 
often  not  sufficient  for  decency;  many  had  no  under 
garments  and  no  shoes;  their  hair  and  beards  were 
never  cut;  the  food  was  scant  and  of  the  worst  quality, 
and  was  often  carried  off  before  there  was  tim'e  to  eat  it. 
The  oil  of  the  single  lamp  in  the  cells  was  so  limited  that 
to  save  it,  the  wick  was  reduced  to  two  or  three  threads. 
The  same  conditions  prevailed  in  the  other  prisons. 
Meantime  the  jailers  were  making  money  on  the  sup- 
plies supposed  to  be  served  to  the  prisoners.  Such 
was  prison  life  in  Portugal  during  the  twenty  years 
of  Pombars  administration. 

One  of  the  particularly  outrageous  features  of  these 
imprisonments  was  that  Pombal  preferred  to  hold 
foreigners  rather  than  native  Portuguese.  The 
foreigners,  having  no  friends  in  the  country,  would 
not,  in  all  probability,  be  claimed  by  their  relatives; 
and  as  the  ministers  of  nearly  all  the  nations  of  Europe 
were  of  the  same  mind  as  himself,  he  had  no  fear  of 
political  intervention.  Thus  we  find  in  a  letter  of 
Father  Kaulen,  a  German  Jesuit,  which  was  published 
by  Christopher  de  Murr,  that  in  one  section  of  St. 
Julian,  besides  fifty-four  Portuguese  Jesuits,  there  were 
thirteen  Germans,  one  Italian,  three  Frenchmen, 


Pombal  473 

two  Spaniards,  and  three  Chinese.  These  Chinese 
Jesuits  must  have  made  curious  reflections  on  the  mean- 
ing of  the  term  "  Christian  nations."  "  There  are 
others  in  the  towers,"  adds  Father  Kaulen,  "  but  I 
cannot  find  out  who  they  are,  or  how  many,  or  to 
what  country  they  belong." 

The  three  Frenchmen,  Fathers  du  Gad  and  de 
Ranceau  along  with  Brother  Delsart  were  set  free 
at  the  demand  of  Marie  Leczinska,  the  wife  of  Louis  XV; 
it  was  through  them  that  Father  Kaulen  was  able  to 
send  his  letter  to  the  provincial  of  the  Lower  Rhine. 
He  himself  was  probably  liberated  later  by  the  inter- 
vention of  Maria  Theresa,  but  there  is  no  record  of 
it.  His  letter  is  of  great  value  as  he  had  personal 
experience  of  what  he  writes.  His  experience  was  a 
long  one,  for  he  entered  the  prison  in  1759;  and  this 
communication  to  his  provincial  is  dated  October  12, 
1766.  In  it  he  writes: — 

"  I  was  taken  prisoner  by  a  soldier  with  a  drawn 
sword  and  brought  to  Fort  Olreida  on  the  frontier  of 
Portugal.  There  I  was  put  in  a  frightful  cell  filled 
with  rats  which  got  into  my  bed  and  ate  my  food. 
I  could  not  chase  them  away,  it  was  so  dark.  We 
were  twenty  Jesuits,  each  one  in  a  separate  cell. 
During  the  first  four  months  we  were  treated  with  some 
consideration.  After  that,  they  gave  us  only  enough 
food  to  keep  us  from  dying  of  hunger.  They  took 
away  our  breviaries,  medals,  etc.  One  of  the 
Fathers  resisted  so  vigorously  when  they  tried  to 
deprive  him  of  his  crucifix  that  they  desisted.  The 
sick  got  no  help  or  medicine. 

"  After  ^  three  years  they  transferred  nineteen  of  us 
to  another  place  because  of  a  war  that  had  broken  out. 
We  travelled  across  Portugal  surrounded  by  a  troop 
of  cavalry,  and  were  brought  to  Lisbon;  and  after 
passing  the  night  in  a  jail  with  the  worst  kind  of 


474  The  Jesuits 

criminals,  we  were  sent  to  St.  Julian,  which  is  on  the 
seashore.  It  is  a  horrible  hole,  underground,  dark 
and  foul.  The  food  is  bad,  the  water  swarming  with 
worms.  We  have  half  a  pound  of  bread  a  day.  We 
receive  the  sacraments  only  when  we  are  dying.  The 
doctor  lives  outside  but  if  we  fall  sick  during  the  night, 
he  is  not  called.  The  prison  is  filled  with  worms  and 
insects  and  little  animals  such  as  I  never  saw  before. 
The  walls  are  Gripping  wet,  so  that  our  clothes  soon 
rot.  One  of  the  Fathers  died  and  his  face  was  so 
brilliant  that  one  of  the  soldiers  exclaimed:  '  That's 
the  face  of  a  saint/  We  are  not  unhappy,  and  the 
three  French  Fathers  who  left  us  envied  our  lot. 

"  Very  few  of  us  have  even  the  shreds  of  our  soutanes 
left.  Indeed  we  have  scarcely  enough  'clothes  for 
decency.  At  night  a  rough  covering  full  of  sharp 
points  serves  as  a  blanket;  and  the  straw  on  which  we 
sleep  as  well  as  the  blanket  that  covers  us  soon  become 
foul,  and  it  is  very  hard  to  get  them  renewed.  We  are 
not  allowed  to  speak  to  any  one.  The  jailor  is 
extremely  brutal  and  seems  to  make  a  point  of  adding 
to  our  sufferings;  only  with  the  greatest  reluctance 
does  he  give  us  what  we  need.  Yet  we  could  be  set 
free  in  a  moment  if  we  abandoned  the  Society. 
Some  of  the  Fathers  who  were  at  Macao  and  had 
undergone  all  sorts  of  sufferings  at  the  hands  of  the 
pagans,  such  as  prison  chains  and  torture  say  to  us  that 
perhaps  God  found  it  better  to  have  them  suffer  in 
their  own  country  for  nothing,  than  among  idolaters 
for  the  Faith. 

"  We  ask  the  prayers  of  the  Fathers  of  the  province, 
but  not  because  we  lament  our  condition.  On  the 
contrary,  we  are  happy.  As  for  myself,  though  I 
would  like  to  see  my  companions  set  free,  I  would  not 
change  places  with  you  outside.  We  wish  all  our 
Fathers  good  health  so  that  they  may  work  courage- 


Pombal  475 

ously  for  God  in  Germany  to  make  up  for  the  little 
glory  he  receives  here  in  Portugal. 

Your  Reverence's  most  humble  servant 

Lawrence  Kaulen, 

Captive  of  Jesus  Christ." 

Pombal  was  determined  now  to  make  a  master- 
stroke to  discredit  the  Portuguese  Jesuits.  He  would 
disgrace  and  put  to  death  as  a  criminal  their  most 
distinguished  representative,  Father  Malagrida,  now 
over  seventy  years  of  age,  who  had  already  passed 
two  years  in  the  dungeons  of  Jonquiera.  Malagrida 
was  regarded  by  the  people  as  a  saint.  He  had  labored 
for  many  years  in  the  missions  of  Brazil  and  was 
marvelously  successful  in  the  work  of  converting  the 
savages.  Unfortunately  he  had  been  recalled  to 
Portugal  in  1749  by  the  queen  mother  to  prepare  her 
for  the  end  of  her  earthly  career.  As  Malagrida  knew 
how  Carvalho's  brother  was  acting  in  Brazil,  he  was 
evidently  a  dangerous  man  to  have  so  near  the  Court. 
Hence  when  the  earthquake  occurred  and  the  holy  old 
missionary  dared  to  tell  tthe  people  that  possibly  it  was 
a  punishment  of  God  for  the  sins  of  the  people,  Car- 
valho  banished  him  to  Setubal  and  kept  him  there 
for  two  years.  When  the  .supposed  plot  against  the 
king's  life  occurred,  Malagrida  was  sent  to  prison  as 
being  concerned  in  it,  though  he  had  never  been  in 
Lisbon  since  his  banishment.  He  was  condemned  to 
death  with  the  other  supposed  conspirators;  but  his 
character  as  a  priest,  and  his  acknowledged  sanctity 
made  the  king  forbid  the  execution  of  the  sentence. 
Pombal,  however,  found  a  way  out  of  the  difficulty. 
A  book  was  produced  which  was  said  to  have  been 
written  by  Malagrida  during  his  imprisonment.  It 
was  crammed  with  utterances  that  only  a  madman 
could  have  written:  In  any  case  it  could  not  have 


476  The  Jesuits 

been  produced  by  the  occupant  of  a  dark  cell,  where 
there  was  no  ink  and  no  paper.  When  it  was  pre- 
sented to  the  Inquisition  whose  death  sentences  the 
king  himself  could  not  revoke,  the  judges  refused  to 
consider  the  case  at  all;  whereupon  they  were  promptly 
removed  by  Pombal  who  made  his  own  brother  chief 
inquisitor;  and  from  him  and  two  other  tools,  promptly 
drew  a  condemnation  of  Malagrida  for  heresy,  schism, 
blasphemy  and  gross  immorality. 

The  sentence  of  death  was  passed  on  September  20, 
1761,  and  on  the  same  day  the  venerable  priest  was 
brought  to  hear  the  formal  proclamation  of  it  in  the 
hall  of  supplication.  There  he  was  told  that  he  was 
degraded  from  his  priestly  functions,  and  was  con- 
demned to 'be  led  through  the  public  streets  of  the  city, 
with  a  rope  around  his  neck,  to  the  square  called  do 
Rocco,  where  he  was  to  be  strangled  by  the  executioner, 
and  after  he  was  dead,  his  body  was  to  be  burned  to 
ashes,  so  that -'no  memory  of  him  or  his  sepulchre  might 
remain.  He  heard  the  sentence  without  emotion 
and  quietly  protested  his  innocence.  On  the  very 
next  day,  September  21,  the  execution  took  place. 
Platforms  were  .erected  around  the  square.  Cavalry 
and  infantry  were  massed  here  and  there  in  large 
bodies;  each  soldier  had  eight  rounds  of  ammunition. 
Pombal  presided.  The  nobility,  the  members  of 
the  courts,  and  officers  of  the  State  were  compelled 
to  be  present,  and  great  throngs  of  people  crowded  the 
square  and  filled  the  abutting  avenues  and  streets, 

When  everything  was  ready,  a  gruesome  procession 
started  from  the  prison.  Malagrida  appeared  with 
the  carocha,  or  high  c'ap  of  the  criminal,  on  his  head, 
and  a  gag  in  his  mouth.  With  him  were  fifty-two 
others  who  had  been  condemned  for  various  crimes; 
but  only  he  was  to  die.  They  were  called  from  their 
cells  merely  to  accentuate  his  disgrace.  Having 


Pombal  477 

arrived  at  the  place  of  execution,  the  sentence  was 
again  read  to  him;  and  when  he  was  relieved  of  the 
gag,  he  calmly  protested  his  innocence  and  gave  him- 
self up  to  the  executioners,  uttering  the  words  of 
Our  Lord  on  the  Cross:  "  Father,  into  Thy  hands,  I 
commend  my  spirit. "  He  was  quickly  strangled; 
then  fire  was  set  to  his  lifeless  body  and  the  ashes  were 
scattered  to  the  winds.  He  was  seventy-two  years  of 
age,  and  had  spent  forty-one  of  them  working  for  the 
salvation  of  his  fellowmen. 

All  this  happened  in  Portugal  which  once  gloried 
in  having  the  great  Francis  Xavier  represent  it  before 
the  world;  which  exulted  in  a  son  like  de  Britto,  the 
splendid  apostle  of  the  Brahmans,  who  waived  aside 
a  mitre  in  Europe  but  bent  his  neck  with  delight  to 
receive  the  stroke  of  an  Oriental  scimitar.  The  same 
Portugal  which  inscribed  on  its  roll  of  honor  the  forty 
Jesuits  who  suffered  death  while  on  their  way  to 
evangelize  Portugal's  possessions  in  Brazil,  now  made 
a  holiday  to  witness  the  hideous  torture  of  the  venerable 
and  saintly  Malagrida.  The  Jesuits  of  Portugal  had 
done  much  for  their  country.  They  had  borne  an 
honorable  part  in  the  struggle  that  threw  off  the  Spanish 
yoke:  the  magnificent  Vieira  was  a  greater  emancipator 
of  the  native  races  than  was  Las  Casas;  and  he  and  his 
brethren  had  won  more  territories  for  Portugal  than 
da  Gama  and  Cabral  had  ever  discovered.  But  all 
that  was  forgotten,  and  they  were  driven  out  of  their 
country,  or  kept  chained  in  fetid  dungeons  till  they 
died  or  were  burned  at  the  stake  in  the  market-place, 
in  the  preseence  of  the  king  and  the  people.  No  wonder 
that  Portugal  has  descended  to  the  place  she  now 
occupies  among  the  nations. 


CHOISEUL 

The  French  Method  —  Purpose  of  the  Enemy  —  Preliminary  Accu- 
sations —  Voltaire's  testimony  —  La  Vallette  —  La  Chalotais  —  Seiz- 
ure of  Property  —  Auto  da  fe  of  the  Works  of  Lessius,  Suarez,  Valentia, 
etc. — Appeal  of  the  French  Episcopacy — Christophe  de  Beaumont — 
Demand  for  a  French  Vicar  —  "  Sint  ut  sunt  aut  non  sint rr —  Protest 
of  Clement  XIII  —  Action  of  Father  La  Croix  and  the  Jesuits  of  Paris 
—  Louis  XV  signs  the  Act  of  Suppression  —  Occupations  of  dispersed 
Jesuits  —  Undisturbed  in  Canada  —  Expelled  from  Louisiana  — 
Choiseul's  Colonization  of  Guiana. 

THE  result  of  PombaTs  work  in  Portugal  was 
applauded  by  his  friends  in  Prance,  but  his  methods 
were  condemned.  "  He  was  a  butcher  with  an  axe/' 
Their  own  procedure  was  to  be  along  different  lines. 
They  would  first  poison  the  public  mind,  would  enjoy 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  heretical  Jansenist  condemn- 
ing the  Jesuit  for  heterodoxy,  and  the  professional 
debauchee  assailing  his  morality,  and  then  they  would 
put  the  Society  to  death  by  process  of  law  for  the  good 
of  the  commonwealth  and  of  the  Church,  There 
would  be  no  imprisonments,  no  burnings  at  the  stake, 
no  exiles,  but  simply  an  authorized  confiscation  of 
property  which  would  leave  the  Jesuits  without  a 
home,  replenish  the  public  purse  and  ensure  the  peace 
of  the  nation.  It  was  much  easier  and  more  refined. 
Meantime,  the  Portuguese  exhibition  was  a  valuable 
object  lesson  to  their  followers,  who  saw  a  king  lafely 
honored  with  the  title  of  His  Most  Faithful  Majesty 
putting  to  death  the  most  ardent  champions  of  the 
Faith.  Later  on,  The  Christian  King,  The  Catholic 
King,  and  The  Apostolic  Emperor  would  unite  to 
show  that  "  Faith  "  and  "  Christianity  "  and  Apos- 
tolicity  "  were  only  names, 

478 


Choiseul  479 

With  all  their  refinement,  however,  the  French 
were  more  radical  and  more  malignant  than  the  Portu- 
guese. Pombal  had  no  other  idea  beyond  that  of  a 
state  Church  such  as  he  had  seen  in  England,  forming 
a  part  of  the  government  machinery,  and  when  his 
effort  to  bring  that  about  by  marrying  the  Protestant 
Duke  of  Cumberland  to  the  Infanta  of  Portugal  was 
thwarted  by  the  Jesuits,  he  simply  treated  them  as 
he  did  his  other  political  enemies;  he  put  them  in  jail 
or  the  grave.  In  France,  the  scheme  was  more  compre- 
hensive. With  men  like  Voltaire  and  his  associates  in 
the  literary  world,  and  Choiseul  and  others  of  his  set 
controlling  the  politics  of  the  country,  the  plan  was 
not  merely  to  do  away  with  the  Church,  but  with  all 
revealed  religion.  As  the  Jesuits  were  conspicuous 
adversaries  of  the  scheme,  it  was  natural  that  they 
should  be  disposed  of  first. 

Such  is  the  opinion  of  St.  Liguori,  who  says:  "  The 
whole  thing  is  a  plot  of  the  Jansenists  and  unbelievers 
to  strike  the  Pope  and  the  Church."  The  Protestant 
historian  Maximilian  Schoell  is  of  like  mind  (Cours 
d'histoire,  xliv.):  "The  Church  had  to  be  isolated; 
and  to  be  isolated,  it  had  to  be  deprived  of  the  help 'of 
that  sacred  phalanx  which  had  avowed  itself  to  the 

defence  of  the  Pontifical  throne Such  was  the 

real  cause  of  the  hatred  meted  out  to  that  Society." 
Dutilleul,  in  his  "  Histoire  des  corporations  religieuses 
en  France"  (p.  279)  expresses  himself  as  follows: 
"  The  Jesuit  is  a  missionary,  a  traveller,  a  mystic,  a 
man  of  learning,  an  elegant  civilizer  of  savages,  a  con- 
fessor of  queens,  a  professor,  a  legislator,  a  financier, 
and,  if  need  be,  a  warrior.  His  was  not  a  narrow  and 
personal  ambition,  as  people  erroneously  suppose  and 
assert.  He  was  something  more.  He  was  a  reactionist, 
a  Catholic  and  a  Roman  revolutionist.  Far  from 
being  attached,  as  is  supposed,  to  his  own  interests, 


480  The  Jesuits 

the  Society  has  been  in  the  most  daring  efforts  of  its 
indefatigable  ambition  only  the  protagonists  of  the 
spiritual  authority  of  Rome." 

Indeed,  we  have  it  from  Voltaire  himself,  who  wrote 
to  Helvetius  in  1761:  "  Once  we  have  destroyed  the 
Jesuits,  we  shall  have  easy  work  with  the  Pope.7' 
Rorbacher  (Histoire  de  l'6glise,  torn.  XXVII,  p.  28) 
holds  the  same  view,  "  They  are  attacking  the  Society 
only  to  strike  with  greater  certainty  at  the  Church 
and  the  State/'  But  the  real,  the  ultimate  purpose 
of  Voltaire  was  expressed  by  his  famous  phrase  Evrasoits 
rinfdmc  — "Let  us  crush  the  detestable  thing/'  the 
detestable  thing  meaning  God  or  Christ,  and  such  has 
ever  been  the  aim  of  his  disciples.  That  it  still  persists 
was  proclaimed  officially  from  the  French  tribune  by 
Viviani,  "  Our  war  is  not  against  the  Church,  nor 
against  Christianity,  but  against  God/'  This  open 
and  defiant  profession  of  atheism,  however,  would 
not  have  been  possible  in  1761.  Hence,  to  conceal 
their  purpose,  they  allied  themselves  with  the  most 
pretentious  professors  of  the  religion  of  the  time;  the 
only  ones,  according  to  themselves,  who  knew  the 
Church's  dogma  and  observed  her  moral  law;  the 
orthodox  and  austere  Jansenists,  who  probably  flattered 
themselves  they  were  tricking  Ics  impics,  whereas, 
d'Alcmbcrt  wrote  to  one  of  his  friends  "  Let  the 
Pandours  destroy  the  Jesuits;  then  we  shall  destroy  the 
Pandours." 

The  programme  was  to  compel  the  parliament  to 
terrorise  the  king,  which  was  very  easy,  because  of  the 
gross  licentiousness  of  Louis  XV.  lie  was  simply  a 
tool  in  the  hands  of  his  mistresses,  and  Guizot  in  his 
"  Histoire  de  Prance  "  has  a  picture  in  which  Madame 
du  Barry  stands  over  the  king  and  poitits  to  the  picture 
of  Charles  I  of  England,  who  was  beheaded  for  resisting 
parliament. 


Choiseul  481 

The  Jansenist  section  of  the  coalition  began  the 
fight  by  the  time-worn  accusation  of  the  "  lax  morality  " 
of  the  Jesuits  —  a  method  of  assault  that  was  by  no 
means  acceptable  to  Voltaire  who  as  early  as  1746 
had  written  to  his  friend  d'Alembert,  as  follows: 
11  What  did  I  see  during  the  seven  years  that  I  lived 
in  the  Jesuit's  College?  The  most  laborious  and  frugal 
manner  of  life;  every  hour  of  which  was  spent  in  the 
care  of  us  boys  and  in  the  exercises  of  their  austere 
profession.  For  that  I  call  to  witness  thousands  of  men 
who  were  brought  up  as  I  was.  Hence,  it  is  that  I 
can  never  help  being  astounded  at  their  being  accused 
of  teaching  lax  morality.  They  have  had  Kke  other 
religious  in  the  dark  ages  casuists  who  have  treated 
the  pro  and  con  of  questions  that  are  evident  today 
or  have  been  relegated  to  oblivion.  But,  ma  Joi  are 
we  going  to  judge  their  morality  by  the  satire  of  the 
Lettres  Provinciaks.  It  is  assuredly  by  Father  Bour- 
daloue  and  Father  Cheminais  and  their  other  preachers 
and  by  their  missionaries  that  we  should  measure 
them.  Put  in  parallel  columns  the  sermons  of  Bour- 
daloue  and  the  Lettrcs  Provinciates,  and  you'll  find 
in  the  latter  the  art  of  raillery  pressed  into  service  to 
make  indifferent  things  appear  criminal  and  to  clothe 
insults  in  elegant  language;  but  you  will  learn  from 
Bourdaloue  how  to  be  severe  to  yourself  and  indulgent 
to  others*  I  ask  then,  which  is  true  morality  and  which 
of  the  two  books  is  more  useful  to  mankind?  I  make 
bold  to  say  that  there  is  nothing  more  contradictory; 
nothing  more  iniquitous;  nothing  more  shameful  in 
human  nature  than  to  accuse  of  lax  morality,  the  men 
who  lead  the  austerest  kind  of  Hfe  in  Europe,  and 
who  go  to  face  death  at  the  ends  of  Asia  and 
America." 

The  romances  about  the  immense  wealth  of  the 
Society   best   appealed   to   the   public   imagination, 
31 


482  The  Jesuits 

especially  as  the  news   of  an  impending  financial 
disaster  was  in  the  air.    One  instance  of  this  style  of 
propaganda  may  suffice.    The  others  all  resemble  it. 
A  Spaniard,  it  was  said,  had  arrived  at  Brest  with, 
2,000,000  limes  in  his  wallet  and  was  promptly  killed 
by  the  Jesuits.     Soon  the   2,000,000   had  grown  to 
8,000,000.   Then  there  was  a  distinguished  conversion; 
that  of  a  Jesuit  named  Chamillard  who  had  turned 
Gallican  and  Jansenist  on  his  death-bed;  and  although 
Chamillard  a  few  days  afterwards  appeared  in  the  flesh 
and  protested  that  he  was  neither  dead  nor  a  Gallican 
nor  a  Jansenist,  his  testimony  was  set  aside.    It  had 
appeared  in  print  and  that  was  enough.    Such  absurdi- 
ties of  course  could  do  no  serious  harm,  but  at  last,  a 
splendid  fact  presented  itself  which  could  not  be  dis- 
proved; especially  as  a  vast  number  of  people,  in  Prance 
and  elsewhere,  were  financial  sufferers  in  consequence 
of  it.    It  was  the  bankruptcy  of  Father  de  la  Valettc. 
In  the  public  mind  it  proved  everything  that  had  ever 
been  written  about  the  Order.    Briefly  it  is  as  follows : 
At  the  very  beginning  of  the  Seven  Years  War, 
the  British  fleet  had  destroyed  300  French  ships, 
captured  10,000  ssailors  and  confiscated  300,000,000 
Mores  worth  of  merchandise.    Among  the  sufferers  was 
Father  La  Valette,  the  superior  of  Martinique,  who 
was  engaged  in  cultivating  extensive  plantations  on 
the  island,  and  selling  the  products  in  Europe,  for  the 
support  of  the  missions.    Very  unwisely  he  borrowed 
extensively  after  the  first  disaster,  going  deeper  and 
deeper  into  debt,  until  at  last  he  wa&  unable  to  meet 
his  obligations  which  by  this  time  had  run  up  to  the 
alarming  sum  of  2,000,000  Jftm,  or  about  $400,000, 
Suit  was  therefore  brought  by  some  of  the  creditors, 
but  instead  of  submitting  the  case  to  it  commission 
established  long  before  by  Louis  XIV  for  adjusting 
the  affairs  of  the  missions,  they  laid  it,  before  the  usual 


Choiseul  483 

parliamentary  tribunal  in  spite  of  the  fact  of  its 
inveterate  and  well-known  hatred  of  the  Society. 
Guizot  says  that  they  did  it  with  a  certain  pride, 
so  convinced  were  they  of  the  justice  of  their  plea. 
Hundreds  of  others  had  suffered  like  themselves  at 
the  hands  of  the  enemy  in  the  Seven  Years  War,  and 
they  had  no  desire  to  avail  themselves  of  any  special 
legislation  in  their  behalf.  They  underrated  the 
honesty  of  the  judges. 

A  verdict  was,  of  course,  rendered  against  them, 
and  the  whole  Society  was  made  responsible  for  the 
debt,  though  by  the  law  of  the  land  there  was  no 
solidarity  between  the  various  houses  of  religious 
orders.  Nevertheless,  they  set  to  work  to  cancel 
their  indebtedness.  They  had  made  satisfactory 
arrangements  with  their  principal  creditors,  and 
although  Martinique,  where  much  of  the  property  was 
located,  had  been  seized  by  the  English;  yet  one-third 
of  their  liabilities  had  been  paid  off  when  the  govern- 
ment took  alarm.  If  this  continued,  the  public 
treasury  would  reap  no  profit  from  the  transaction. 
Hence,  an  order  was  issued  to  seize  every  Jesuit 
establishment  in  France,  A  stop  was  put  to  the  reim- 
bursement of  private  individuals  and  the  government 
seized  all  that  was  left.  But  although  the  Society  was 
not  "to  blame  it  incurred  the  hatred  of  all  those  who 
were  thus  deprived  of  their  money.  That,  indeed, 
was  the  purpose  of  the  government  seizure. 

Long  before  the  crash,  the  superiors  had  done  all 
in  their  power  to  stop  La  Valcttc,  but  in  those  days 
Martinique  was  far  from  Rome.  Although  attempt 
after  attempt  was  made  to  reach  him,  it  was  all  in  vain. 
One  messenger  was  crippled  when  embarking  at 
Marseilles;  another  died  at  sea;  another  was  captured 
by  pirates,  until  in  1762  Father  de  la  Marche  arrived 
on  the  island.  After  a  thorough  investigation  de  la 


84  The  Jesuits 

larche  declared  (i)  that  La  Valette  had  given  himself 
p  to  trading  in  defiance  of  canon  law  and  of  the  special 
=tws  of  the  Society;  (2)  that  he  had  concealed  his 
proceedings  from  the  higher  superiors  of  the  Society 
,nd  even  from  the  Fathers  of  Martinique;  (3)  that 
lis  acts  had  been  denounced  by  his  superiors,  not  only 
is  soon  as  they  were  made  known,  but  as  soon  as  they 
vere  suspected.  The  visitor  then  asked  the  General  of 
;he  Society  (i)  to  suspend  La  Valette  from  all  admin- 
.stration  both  spiritual  and  temporal:  and  (2)  to  recall 
aim  immediately  to  Europe. 

La  Valette's  submission  was  appended  to  the  verdict 
3f  the  visitor;  in  it,  he  acknowledges  the  justice  of 
the  sentence,  although  as  soon  as  he  knew  what  harm 
he  was  doing  he  had  stopped.  He  attests  under  oath 
that  not  one  of  his  superiors  had  given  him  any  author-' 
ijsation  or  counsel  or  approval;  and  no  one  had  shared 
in  or  connived  at  his  enterprises.  He  takes  God  to 
witness  that  he  did  not  make  his  avowals  under 
compulsion  or  threat,  or  out  of  complaisance,  or  for 
any  inducement  held  out  to  him,  but  absolutely  of  his 
own  accord,  and  for  truth's  sake;  and  in  order  to  dispel 
and  refute,  as  far  as  in  him  lay,  the  calumnies  against 
the  Society  consequent  upon  his  acts.  The  document 
bore  the  date  of  April  25,  1762.  He  was  expelled  from 
the  Society  ami  passed  the  rest  of  his  life  in  England. 
He  never  retracted  or  modified  any  of  the  statements 
he  had  made  in  Martinique. 

Following  close  on  the  decision  in  the  La  Valette 
case,  parliament  ordered  the  immediate  production 
of  a  copy  of  the  Constitutions  of  the  Society.  On  this 
following  morning,  it  was  in  their  hands  and  was 
submitted  to  several  committees  made  up  of  Janscnists, 
Gallicans  and  Atheists.  ThCvse  committees  were 
charged  with  the  examination  of  the  Institute  and 
also  of  various  publications  of  the  Society.  Extracts 


Choiseul  485 

were  to  be  made  and  presented  for  tjie  consideration 
of  the  court.  The  most  famous  of  these  reports  was 
the  one  made  by  La  Chalotais,  a  prominent  magistrate 
of  Brittany.  He  discovered  that  the  Society  was  in 
conflict  with  the  authority  of  the  Church,  the  general 
Councils,  the  Apostolic  See,  and  all  ecclesiastical  and 
civil  governments;  moreover  that,  in  their  approved 
theological  works,  they  taught  every  form  of  heresy, 
idolatry  and  superstition,  and  inculcated  suicide, 
regicide,  sacrilege,  robbery,  impurity  of  every  kind, 
usury,  magic,  murder,  cruelty,  hatred,  vengeance, 
sedition,  treachery  —  in  brief,  whatever  iniquity  man- 
kind could  commit  was  to  be  found  in  their  writings. 
As  soon  as  the  report  was  laid  before  the  judges,  ,a 
decree  was  issued  on  May  8,  1761  declaring  that  the 
one  hundred  and  fifty-eight  colleges,  churches  and 
residences  with  the  foreign  missions  of  the  Order  were 
to  be  seized  by  the  government;  all  the  physical 
laboratories,  the  libraries,  moneys,  inheritances  of  its 
members,  the  bequests  of  friends  for  charitable, 
educational  or  missionary  purposes  —  all  was  to  go 
into  the  Government  coffers. 

Cr6tineau-Joly  estimated  that  the  total  value  of 
the  property  seized  amounted  to  about  58,000,000 
francs  or  $11,600,000.  The  amount  of  the  booty 
explains  the  zeal  of  the  prosecution.  To  soften  the 
blow  a  concession  of  a  pension  of  thirty  cents  a  day 
was  made  by  the  Paris  parliament  to  those  who  would 
take  an  oath  that  they  had  left  the  Society.  The 
Languedoc  legislators,  however,  cut  it  down  to  twelve. 
Moreover  this  pension  was  restricted  to  the  Professed. 
The  Scholastics  got  nothing;  and  as  they  were  con- 
sidered legally  dead,  because  of  the  vows  they  had 
taken  in  the  Society,  they  were  declared  incapable  of 
inheriting  even  from  their  own  parents.  The  decree 
also  forbade  all  subjects  of  the  king  to  enter  the  Society; 


486  The  Jesuits 

to  attend  any  lecture  given  by  Jesuits;  to  visit  their 
houses  previous  to  their  expulsion;  or  to  hold  any 
communication  with  them.  The  Jesuits  themselves 
were  enjoined  not  to  write  to  each  other,  not  even  to 
the  General.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  lawmakers 
who  issued  these  regulations  profess  to  be  shocked  by 
the  Jesuit  doctrine  of  "  blind  obedience." 

By  a  second  decree  it  was  ordered  that  the  works  of 
twenty-seven  Jesuits  which  had  been  examined  should  be 
burned  by  the  public  executioner.  Among  them  wore 
such  authors  as  Bellarminc,  Lessius,  Suarez,  Valentia, 
Salmer6n,  Gretser,  Vasquez,  Jouvancy,  —  all  of  whom 
were  and  yet  are  considered  to  be  among  the  greatest 
of  Catholic  theologians,  but  the  lay  doctors  of  the 
parliament  held  them  to  be  dangerous  to  public 
morals;  and  to  the  peace  of  the  nation  and  in  order  to 
express  their  horror  emphatically,  they  called  for  this 
auto  da  /<?.  It  should  be  noted  that  all  of  these  works 
were  written  in  Latin,  and  that  their  technical  character 
as  well  as  the  terminology  employed  would  make  it 
absolutely  impossible  for  even  these  scions  of  the 
French  parliament  to  grasp  the  meaning  of  the  text. 
In  order  to  sway  the  public  mind,  a  summary  of  the 
Chalotais  report,  commonly  known  as  "  Extraits  des 
assertions**  was  scattered  broadcast  throughout  the 
country.  The  desired  effect  was  produced  and  even  to- 
day if  an  attempt  is  made  to  answer  any  of  its  charges 
the  answer  is  always  ready,  "  We  have  the  authority 
of  La  Chalotais;  he  was  an  eminent  magistrate;  ho 
examined  the  books;  the  highest  court  in  France 
accorded  him  the  verdict,  and  any  attempt  to  explain 
away  the  charges  is  superfluous! " 

Yet  there  was  in  Paris  at  that  time  a  higher  tribunal 
than  the  one  which  gave  La  Chalotais  his  claim  to 
notoriety.  It  was  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Clergy 
which  had  been  convoked  by  the  King  to  pass  upon 


Choiseul  487 

the  character  of  the  Jesuits  as  a  body,  before  he  affixed 
his  signature  to  the  decree  of  expulsion.  It  consisted 
of  fifty-one  prelates,  some  of  them  cardinals.  They 
met  on  June  27  and  with  the  exception  of  the  Bishop 
of  Angers,  Allais,  and  especially  of  Fitzjames,  the 
Bishop  of  Soissons,  who  was  the  head  of  the  Jansenist 
party  and  whose  pastoral  utterances  were  condemned 
by  the  Pope  as  heretical,  addressed  a  "  Letter  "  to  the 
king  conjuring  him  "  to  preserve  an  institution  which 
was  so  useful  to  the  State, "  and  declaring  that  "  they 
could  not  see  without  alarm  the  destruction  of  a 
society  of  religious  who  were  so  praiseworthy  for  the 
integrity  of  their  morals,  the  austerity  of  their  discipline, 
the  vastness  of  their  labors  and  their  erudition  and  for 
the  countless  services  they  had  rendered  to  the  Church. 

"  Charged  as  they  are  with  the  most  precious  trust 
of  the  education  of  youth,  participating  as  they  do 
under  the  authority  of  the  bishops,  in  the  most  delicate 
functions  of  the  holy  ministry,  honored  as  they  are  by 
the  confidence  of  kings  in  the  most  redoubtable  of 
tribunals,  loved  and  sought  after  by  a  great  number 
of  our  subjects  and  esteemed  even  by  those  who  fear 
them,  they  have  won  for  themselves  a  consideration 
which  is  too  general  to  be  disregarded." 

"  Everything,  Sire,  pleads  with  you  in  favor  of  the 
Jesuits:  religion  claims  them  as  its  defenders;  the 
Church  as  her  ministers;  Christians  as  the  guardians 
of  their  conscience;  a  great  number  of  your  subjects 
who  have  been  their  pupils  intercede  with  you  for 
their  old  masters;  and  all  the  youth  of  the  kingdom 
pray  for  those  who  are  to  form  their  minds  and  their 
hearts.  Do  not,  Sire,  turn  a  deaf  car  to  our  united 
supplication;  do  not  permit  in  your  kingdom,  that  in 
violation  of  the  laws  of  justice,  and  of  the  Church 
and  of  the  State  an  entire  and  blameless  society 
should  be  destroyed.1' 


488  The  Jesuits 

The  Archbishop  of  Paris,  the  famous  Christophe  de 
Beaumont  was  not  satisfied  with  this  general  appeal. 
He  was  the  chief  figure  in  Prance  at  that  time ;  and  e very- 
word  he  uttered  was  feared  by  the  enemies  of  the  Church. 
He  was  great  enough  to  be  in  correspondence  with  all 
the  crowned  heads  of  Europe,  and  Frederick  the  Great 
said  of  him:  "  If  he  would  consent  to  come  to  Prussia, 
I  would  go  half  way  to  meet  him/'  Louis  XV  had 
forced  him  to  accept  the  Sec  of  Paris,  but  had  not  the 
courage  to  support  him  when  assailed  by  his  foes. 
He  was  a  saint  as  well  as  a  hero;  he  lent  money  to 
men  who  were  libelling  him,  and  would  give  the  clothes 
on  his  back  to  the  poor.  When  a  hospital  took  fire 
in  the  city,  he  filled  his  palace  and  his  cathedral  with 
the  patients.  Hence,  he  did  not  hesitate,  after  parlia- 
ment had  condemned  the  Society,  to  issue  a  pastoral 
which  he  foresaw  would  drive  him  from  his  see.  *  *  What 
shall  I  say,  Brethren,"  he  asks,  "  to  let  you  know 
what  I  think  of  the  religious  society  which  is  now  so 
fiercely  assailed?  We  repeat  with  the  Council  of  Trent 
that  it  is  *a  pious  Institute;'  that  it  is  'venerable,1 
as  the  illustrious 'Bossuct  declared  it  to  be.  We  spurn 
far  from  us  the  '  Extraits  des  assertions  *  as  a  rcsum6 
of  Jesuit  teaching;  and  we  renew  our  declaration  that 
in  the  condition  of  suffering  and  humiliation  to  which 
they  have  been  brought  that  their  lot  is  a  most  happy 
one,  because  in  the  eyes  of  religions  men,  it  is  an 
infinitely  precious  thing  to  have  no  reproach  on  one's 
soul  when  overwhelmed  by  misfortune/1  As  he 
foresaw  he  was  expelled  from  his  sec  for  this  utterance, 
not  by  parliament  but  by  Louis  XV  whose  cause  he 
was  defending. 

Perhaps  this  treatment  of  the  great  Archbishop  of 
Paris  explains  the  silence  maintained  through  all  the 
uproar  by  the  Jesuits  themselves*  One  would  expect 
some  splendid  outburst  of  eloquence  in  behalf  of  the 


Choiseul  489 

Society  from  one  of  its  outraged  members;  but  not  a 
word  was  uttered  by  any  of  them.  Their  protests 
would  not  have  been  printed  or  published.  Even 
Theiner  who  wrote  against  the  Society  says:  "All 
France  was  inundated  with  libellous  pamphlets  against 
the  Jesuits.  The  most  notable  of  all  was  the  one 
entitled  €  Extracts  of  the  dangerous  and  pernicious 
doctrines  of  all  kinds  which  the  so-called  Jesuits  have 
at  all  times,  uninterruptedly  maintained,  taught  and 
published.*  Calumny  and  malice  fill  the  book  from 
cover  to  cover.  There  is  no  crime  which  the  Jesuits 
did  not  teach  or  of  which  they  are  not  accused.  Never 
was  bad  faith  carried  to  such  extremes.  And  yet 
there  is  no  book  that  is  so  often  cited  as  an  authority 
against  the  Society  and  its  spirit." 

Meantime,  the  government  had  approached  the 
Pope  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  for  the  French 
Jesuits  a  special  vicar  who  should  be  quasi-independent 
of  the  General.  It  was  harking  back  to  the  old  scheme 
of  Philip  II  and  Louis  XIV.  His  Holiness  replied 
in  the  memorable  words:  "  Sint  ut  sunt  aut  non  sint  " 
(Let  them  be  as  they  are  or  not  at  all.)  We  find  in 
a  letter  of  the  procurator  of  Aquitaine  that  in  case  a 
vicar  was  appointed  every  member  of  the  province 
of  Paris  would  leave  the  Order,  which  under  such  an 
arrangement  would  be  no  longer  the  Society  of  Jesus. 
Again  in  his  letter  to  the  king,  after  declaring  that  the 
appointment  of  a  French  Vicar  would  be  a  substantial 
alteration  of  the  Institute  which  he  could  not  authorize, 
the  Pope  says;  "  For  two  hundred  years  the  Society  has 
been  so  useful  to  the  Church,  that,  though  it  has  never 
disturbed  the  public  tranquillity  cither  in  your  kingdom 
or  in  any  one  else's,  yet  because  it  has  inflicted  such 
damage  on  the  enemies  of  religion  by  its  science  and 
its  piety,  it  is  assailed  on  all  sides  by  calumny  and 
impOvSture  when  fair  fighting  was  found  insufficient  to 


490  The  Jesuits 

destroy  them."  Finally,  on  January  9,  1765,  after 
the  final  knell  had  sounded,  Clement  XIII  issued  his 
famous  Bull  "  Apostolicum."  It  is  given  at  length  in 
de  Ravignan's  "Clement  XIII  et  Ctement  XIV,"  but 
a  few  extracts  will  suffice. 

After  enumerating  the  glories  of  the  Society  in  the 
past,  and  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that  it  had  been 
approved  by  nineteen  Popes,  who  had  most  minutely 
examined  their  Institute,  Clement  XIII  continues: 
"It  has,  nevertheless,  in  our  days  been  falsely  and 
malignantly  described  both  by  word  and  printed  book 
as  irreligious  and  impious,  and  has  been  covered  with 
opprobrium  and  ignominy  until  even  the  Church  has 
been  denounced  for  sustaining  it.  In  order,  therefore, 
to  repel  these  calumnies  and  to  put  a  stop  to  the  impious 
discourses  which  are  uttered  in  defiance  of  both  reason 
and  equity;  and  to  comfort  the  Regular  Clerks  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus  who  appeal  to  us  for  justice;  and  to 
give  greater  emphasis  to  our  words  by  the  weight  of 
our  authority  and  to  lend  some  solace  in  the  sufferings 
they  arc  undergoing;  and  finally  to  defer  to  the  just 
desires  of  our  venerable  brothers,  the  bishops  of  the 
whole  Catholic  world,  whose  letters  to  us  are  filled  with 
eulogies  of  this  Society  from  whose  labors  the  greatest 
services  arc  rendered  in  their  dioceses;  and  also  of 
our  own  accord  and  from  certain  knowledge,  and 
making  use  of  the  plenitude  of  our  Apostolic  authority, 
and  following  in  the  footsteps  of  our  predecessors,  we, 
by  this  present  Constitution,  which  is  to  remain  in 
force  forever,  say  and  declare  in  the  same  form  and 
in  the  same  manner  as  has  been  heretofore  said  and 
declared,  that  the  Institute  of  the  Society  of  Jesus 
breathes  in  the  very  highest  degree,  piety  and  holiness 
both  in  the  principal  object  which  it  has  continually 
in  view,  which  it>  none  other  than  the  defence  and  propa- 
gation of  the  Catholic  Faith,  and  also  in  the  means  it 


Choiseul  491 

employs  for  that  end.  Such  is  our  experience  of  it 
up  to  the  present  day.  It  is  this  experience  which 
has  taught  us  how  greatly  the  rule  of  the  Society  has 
formed  up  to  our  day  defenders  of  the  orthodox  Faith 
and  zealous  missionaries  who  animated  by  an  invincible 
courage  dare  a  thousand  dangers  on  land  and  sea, 
to  carry  the  light  of  the  Gospel  to  savage  and  barbarous 

nations Let  no  one  dare  be  rash  enough  to  set 

himself  against  this  my  present  approbative  and  con- 
firmative Constitution  lest  he  incur  the  wrath  of  God." 
These  splendid  approvals  of  their  labors  did  much 
to  keep  up  the  courage  of  the  harassed  Jesuits,  but  if 
what  Father  de  Ravignan  and  Cr6tineau-Joly  relate 
be  true,  they  had  ample  reason  to  keep  themselves  in 
a  salutary  humility  or  rather  bow  their  heads  in  shame. 
On  December  19,  1761,  we  are  told,  the  provincial  of 
Paris,  Father  de  La  Croix  and  one  hundred  and  fifteen 
Fathers  addressed  a  declaration  to  the  clergy  assembled 
in  Paris,  by  order  of  the  king,  which  ran  as  follows: 
"  We  the  undersigned,  provincial  of  the  Jesuits  of  the 
province  of  Paris,  the  superior  of  the  professed  house, 
the  rector  of  the  College  of  Louis  Le  Grand,  the 
superior  of  the  novitiate  and  other  Jesuits  professed, 
even  of  the  first  vows,  residing  in  the  said  houses,  and 
renewing  as  far  as  needs  be  the  declarations  already 
made  by  the  Jesuits  of  France  in  1626,  1713  and  1757, 
declare  before  their  Lordships  the  cardinals,  arch- 
bishops and  bishops  now  assembled  in  Paris,  by  order 
of  the  king,  to  give  their  opinion  on  several  points  of 
the  Institute:  (i)  That  it  is  impossible  to  be  more 
submissive  than  we  are,  or  more  inviolably  attached 
to  the  laws,  maxims  and  usages  of  this  kingdom  with 
regard  to  the  royal  power,  which  in  temporal  matters 
depends  neither  directly  nor  indirectly  from  any  power 
on  earth,  and  has  God  alone  above  it.  Recognizing 
that  the  bonds  by  which  subjects  are  attached  to  their 


492  The  Jesuits 

rulers  are  indissoluble,  we  condemn  as  pernicious  and 
worthy  of  execration  at  all  times  every  doctrine  con- 
trary to  the  safety  of  the  king,  not  only  in  the  works  of 
some  theologians  of  our  Society  who  have  adopted 
such  doctrines  but  also  those  of  every  other  theologian 
whosoever  he  may  be.  (2)  We  shall  teach  in  our 
public  and  private  lessons  of  theology  the  doctrine 
established  by  the  Clergy  of  Prance  in  the  Four  Articles 
of  the  Assembly  of  1682,  and  shall  teach  nothing 
contrary  to  it.  (3)  We  recognize  that  the  bishops  of 
Prance  have  the  right  to  exercise  in  our  regard  what, 
according  to  the  canons  of  the  Gallican  Church, 
belongs  to  them  in  their  dealings  with  regulars; 
and  we  renounce  all  the  privileges  to  the  contrary 
that  may  have  been  accorded  to  our  Society  or  may 
be  accorded  in  the  future.  (4)  If,  which  may  God 
forbid,  it  happens  that  we  are  ordered  by  our  General 
to  do  anything  contrary  to  the  present  declaration, 
persuaded  as  we  are  that  we  cannot  obey  without  sin, 
we  shall  regard  such  orders  as  unlawful,  and  absolutely 
null  and  void;  which  we  could  not  and  should  not  obey 
in  virtue  of  the  rules  of  obedience  to  the  General  such 
as  is  prescribed  in  the  Constitutions,  We,  therefore, 
beg  that  the  present  declaration  may  be  placed  on  the 
official  register  of  Paris,  and  addressed  to  the  other 
provinces  of  the  kingdom,  so  that  this  same  declaration 
signed  by  us,  being  deposited  in  the  official  registers  of 
each  diocese  may  serve  as  a  perpetual  memorial  of 
our  fidelity. 

Etienne  de  la  Croix,    Provincial/' 

Quoting  this  document  and  admitting  its  genuineness 
Father  de  Ravignan  exclaims:  "  In  my  eyes  nothing 
can  excuse  this  act  of  weakness*  I  deplore  it ;  I  condemn 
it;  I  shall  merely  relate  how  it  came  to  pass'1  (G16ment 
XIII  $t  C16ment  XIV,  I  135)-  He  goes  on  to  say:* 


Choiseul  493 

"  In  a  personal  letter  the  original  of  which  is  in  the 
archives  of  the  Gesu  at  Rome,  Father  La  Croix, 
provincial  of  Paris  explains  to  the  General  the  circum- 
stances and  occasion  of  this  unfortunate  affair.  He 
tells  how  the  royal  commissioners  came  to  him  with 
the  aforesaid  declaration  already  drawn  up  and  accom- 
panied by  a  formal  order  of  the  king  to  sign  it  immedi- 
ately. It  was  a  most  unforeseen  demand,  for  although 
the  Jesuits  of  France  had  already  suffered  considerable 
trouble  about  the  question  of  the  Four  Articles  in 
1713,  and  also  in  1757,  when  Damiens  attempted  to 
assassinate  Louis  XV,  they  had  been  compelled  on 
both  occasions  to  sign  only  the  first  article  which 
dealt  with  the  temporal  independence  of  the  king. 
Shortly  afterwards,  a  new  royal  decree  had  been  brought 
to  their  attention.  It  consisted  of  eighteen  articles, 
the  fourth  of  which  was  as  follows:  '  Our  will  is  that 
in  every  theological  course  followed  by  the  students  of 
the  Society,  the  propositions  set  forth  by  the  Clergy 
of  France  in  1682,  should  be  defended,  at  least  in  one 
public  discussion,  to  which  the  principal  personages 
of  the  place  shall  be  invited,  and  over  and  above  that, 
the  arrangements  laid  down  by  the  edict  of  March 
1682  shall  be  observed.* 

"While  these  matters  were  being  debated  by  the 
king  and  his  ministers  on  one  side  and  by  parliament 
on  the  other,  a  royal  order  was  despatched  to  the 
Jesuits  of  Paris  to  affix  their  signatures  to  the  disgrace- 
ful capitulation  given  above.  It  is  said  that  Louis 
XV  imagined  that  he  could  mollify  the  recalcitrant 
parliament  by  this  new  concession:  and,  hence,  La 
Croix  and  his  associates  were  foolish  enough  to  imagine 
that  such  a  result  could  ensue." 

Continuing  his  indictment  of  La  Croix  and  his 
one  hundred  and  fifteen  associates,  de  Ravignan 
informs  his  readers  that  "an  unpublished  document 


494  The  Jesuits 

which  no  writer  has  so  far  made  mention  of,  furnishes 
important  details  about  the  matter.  It  is  entitled 
An  exact  relation  of  all  that  took  place  with  regard 
to  the  interpretation  of  the  decree  of  Aquaviva  in 
1610,  which  was  sent  to  Rome  in  1761  and  rejected 
by  the  General;  and  also  the  declaration  which  the 
General  refused  to  approve.'  The  author  is  M.  de 
Plesselles,  who  was  charged  by  the  commission  to 
report  to  Choiseul  whose  agent  he  was. 

"  With  regard  to  the  declaration  about  Gallicanism  " 
says  de  Plesselles  "  the  Jesuits,  after  some  difficulties 
regarding  its  form,  determined  to  sign  it,  and  even 
when  urged  by  the  royal  commissioners  they  undertook 
to  send  it  to  their  General  for  approbation.  Soon 
after,  when  the  Jesuits  received  the  reply  of  their 
General,  the  provincial  came  to  tell  me  that  when  the 
Pope  was  made  aware  of  the  declaration  which  the 
French  Jesuits  had  made  and  of  the  one  they  proposed 
to  make,  His  Holiness  angrily  reprimanded  the  General 
for  permitting  the  members  of  the  Society  in  Prance 
to  maintain  doctrines  which  are  in  conflict  with  the 
teachings  of  the  Holy  Sec/* 

;  Now  it  is  unpleasant  to  contest  the  authority  of  such 
an  eminent  man  as  de  Ravignan,  but,  on  the  other 
hand,  his  conclusions  that  this  letter  was  a  Jesuit 
production  or  received  a  Jesuit  endorsement  are  by  no 
means  convincing.  In  the  first  place,  no  Jesuit  would 
ever  sign  a  paper  which  began  with  the  words:  4<  We 
the  Professed,  even  of  the  first  vows.11  There  is  no 
such  category  in  the  Society.  Secondly,  no  Jesuit  or 
indeed  any  one  in  his  senses  would  ever  ask  a  superior 
for  a  permission  to  teach  error,  and  say,  in  the 
same  breath,  that  it  was  a  matter  of  indifference 
whether  the  permission  was  granted  or  not.  Thirdly, 
as  all  the  Jesuits  of  the  province  had  announced  their 
intention  of  leaving  the  Society  if  Louis  XV  imposed 


Choiseul  495 

on  them  a  commissary  General  independent  of  their 
superior  at  Rome  —  as  we  recited  above  from  an 
extant  letter  from  the  procurator  of  the  province  of 
Aquitaine  —  it  is  inconceivable  that  those  same  men, 
at  that  very  same  time  should  solemnly  declare  them- 
selves rebels  against  the  Father  General  at  Rome. 
Fourthly,  as  no  association  rewards  a  man  who 
attempts  to  destroy  it,  one  finds  difficulty  in  under- 
standing how,  after  this  revolt,  the  'leader  in  the  re- 
bellion, La  Croix,  was  not  only  not  expelled  from  the 
Society  but  was  retained  in  his  responsible  post  of 
provincial  and  later  was  made  assistant  general  of  the 
Society. 

Moreover,  it  is  difficult  to  understand  why,  when 
deFlessellessays  that  "  the  Fathers  determined  to  sign 
the  document/'  de  Ravignan  should  go  one  step  further 
and  say  that  "they  signed  it."  Nor  does  it  help  matters 
to  say  that  this  was  "  un  acte  de  faiblesse"  when,  it 
was  a  wholesale,  corporate  and  deliberate  crime  of 
cowardice  and  treason;  nor  will  it  avail  to  suggest  that 
the  Pope  and  General  must  have  been  intensely,  grieved 
— "  Us  durent  fitream&rement  afflig6s."  History  does 
not  deal  with  conjectures  but  with  facts.  The  question 
is  not  whether  they  must  have  been,  but  whether  they 
were  really  grieved  over  an  act  which  had  really  occurred 
and  which  reflected  such  discredit  on  the  Society? 
Again,  as  one  of  the  greatest  glories  of  the  French 
Jesuits  was  their  long  and  successful  battle  against 
Gallicanism,  it  is  inconceivable  that  they  should 
suddenly  reverse  and  stultify  themselves  at  the  very 
moment  when  all  the  bishops  of  France,  save  one, 
had  abandoned  Gallicanism  and  had  united  in  eulogiz- 
ing the  Society ;  and  to  do  it  at  a  time  when  the  greatest 
friend  they  ever  had,  Pope  Clement  XIII,  glorified 
them  for  their  orthodoxy  and  pronoitnce  dthe  famous 
words:  "  Let  them  be  as  they  are  or  not  at  all! " 


496  The  Jesuits 

To  have  declared  for  Gallicanism  would  have 
stripped  them  of  their  priestly  functions,  it  would 
have  aroused  the  intense  disgust  and  contempt  of  the 
hierarchy  of  Prance  and  of  the  world  and  would  have 
called  down  on  them  the  anathema  of  the  Pope.  Indeed, 
is  it  likely  that  Pope  Clement  XIV  would  have  omitted 
to  note  the  defection  in  his  Brief  of  Suppression,  if 
they  had  been  guilty?  Fortunately,  we  may  refer  to 
the  explicit  declaration  of  the  Protestant  historian, 
Schoell  (Cours  .d'histoire,  xl,  53) >  who  says:  "These 
men  who  are  accused  of  playing  with  religion,  refused 
to  take  the  oath  to  sustain  the  principles  of  the  Gallican 
Church.  Of  4000  Fathers  who  were  in  Prance,  hardly 
five  submitted."  If  there  were  "hardly  five  "  Gallicans 
in  all  the  provinces  of  France,  it  is  a  justifiable  con- 
clusion that  116  Jesuits  of  the  provinces  of  Paris  did 
not  sign  the  famous  "  Statement  "  of  de  Flesselles. 

Louis  XV  made  a  feeble  attempt  to  save  the  situation 
by  withdrawing  the  decree  of  expulsion  from  the 
jurisdiction  of  parliament,  but  Mme,  dc  Pompadour 
and  Choiseul  so  effectively  worked  on  his  fears  that 
he  ignominiously  rescinded  his  order.  The  Pope  had 
meantime  delivered  an  allocution  in  a  consistory  on 
September  3,  1762;  and  had  sent  a  letter  to  Cardinal 
Choiseul,  the  brother  of  the  minister,  on  September  8 
of  the  same  year,  in  both  of  which  he  declared  that 
"  by  a  solemn  decree,  he  had  quashed  and  nullified 
the  proceedings  of  the  various  parliaments  against, 
the  Jesuits/1  He  enjoined  upon  the  cardinal  "  to  ttse 
all  his  episcopal  power  against  the  impious  act  which 
was  directed  against  the  Church  and  against  religion.'* 
He  wrote  to  other  bishops  in  the  same  tone  of  indig- 
nation and  anger,  It  was  not,  however,  until  the 
November  of  1764  that  Choiseul  succeeded  in  extorting 
the  royal  signature  which  made  the  decree  irrevocable. 
Of  course,  Mme»  de  Pompadour  was  to  the  fore  in 


Choiseul  497 

securing  this  shameful  surrender  of  the  royal  preroga- 
tive. The  poor  king  cuts  a  sorry  figure  in  signing  the 
document.  After  making  some  feeble  scrawls  on  the 
paper,  he  complained  that  the  preamble  was  too  long 
and  that  it  would  have  sufficed  to  state  that  "the 
Jesuits  had  produced  a  great  tumult  in  his  kingdom." 
He  added  he  did  not  think  the  word  "  punish  "  should 
be  used;  it  was  too  strong;  "  he  never  cordially  liked 
the  Jesuits,  yet  they  had  the  glory  of  being  hated  by 

all  heretics I  send  them  out  of  my  kingdom 

against  my  will;  at  least,  I  don't  want  people  to  think 
that  I  agree  with  everything  the  parliament  said  or 
did  against  them."  He  ended  by  saying:  "  If 
you  do  not  make  these  changes,  I  will  not  sign,  but 
I  must  stop  talking.  I  would  say  too  much  and  I 
do  not  want  anyone  in  France  to  discuss  it."  One 
could  hardly  say  of  Louis  that  "  he  was  every  inch  a 
king." 

The  desire  to  close  the  mouths  of  every  one  of  .his 
subjects  on  a  matter  that  concerned  them  all  as 
intelligent  beings  and  as  citizens  was  carried  out  with 
extreme  rigor.  Thus,  when  two  secular  priests  had 
the  temerity  to  condemn  the  decree,  they  were  promptly 
hanged.  The  audacity  of  the  ministers  and  parliament 
went  still  further;  and  on  December  3  the  Duke  de 
Praslin  sent  a  note  to  Aubeterre,  the  French  ambassador 
at  Rome  to  advise  him  that  "  under  the  circumstances, 
it  would  be  very  futile  and  still  more  dangerous  for  the 
Pope  to  take  any  measures  either  directly  or  indirectly 
in  contravention  of  the  wishes  and  intention  of  his 
majesty;  and  hence  His  Holiness  must,  out  of  zeal  for 
religion  and  out  of  regard  for  the  Jesuits,  observe  the 
same  silence  which  His  Majesty  had  ordered  to  be 
observed  in  his  states."  The  Pope  replied  to  the  insult 
by  the  Bull  "Apostolicum,"  which  was  a  splendid 
proclamation  of  the  absolute  innocence  of  the  pro- 


498  The  Jesuits 

scribed  Order.  It  aroused  the  fury  of  the  Governments 
of  Prance,  Portugal,  Naples  and  other  countries.  In 
France  it  was  burned  in  the  streets  of  several  cities 
by  the  public  executioner.  In  Portugal,  any  one 
who  circulated  it  or  had  it  in  his  possession  was  adjudged 
guilty  of  high  treason;  but  on  the  other  hand,  from  the 
bishops  of  the  entire  Catholic  world  came  enthusiastic 
letters  of  approval  and  praise  for  the  fearless  Pope 
who  dared  to  stand  forth  as  the  enemy  of  tyranny  and 
injustice. 

Bohmer-Monod,  in  their  "Jesuites,"  are  of  the 
opinion  that  the  Pope  was  "  injudicious,  and  that  out 
of  the  hundreds  of  Catholic  bishops,  only  twenty- 
three  assured  him  of  their  approbation. "  De  Ravignan, 
who  is  better  informed,  tells  us  that  "  almost  the  whole 
episcopacy  of  the  world  were  a  unit  in  this  manifesta- 
tion of  loyalty  to  the  supreme  Pastor.  Before  the 
event,  two  hundred  bishops  had  sent  their  appeals  to 
the  Pope,  in  favor  of  the  Society;  and  the  Pope  himself 
says  in  the  Bull:  "  Ex  omni  rcgione  sub  code  est  una 
vox  omnium  episcoporum "  (Prom  every  region 
under  the  canopy  of  heaven,  there  is  but  one  voice 
from  the  episcopal  body).  After  the  Bull  appeared, 
other  bishops  hastened  to  send  him  their  adhesions 
and  felicitations.  Even  in  France  itself,  in  spite  of  the 
terrorism  exercised  by  parliament,  the  assembly  of  the 
clergy  of  1765,  by  a  unanimous  vote,  protested  against 
the  condemnation  of  the  Jesuits,  extolled  "  the  integrity 
of  their  morals,  the  austerity  of  their  lives,  the  greatness 
of  their  labors  and  science";  and  declared  that  their 
expulsion  left  a  frightful  void  in  the  ministry,  in 
education,  and  in  the  sublime  and  laborious  work  of 
the  missions.  Not  only  that,  but  they  wanted  it  put 
on  record  that  "  the  clergy  would  never  cease  to 
pray  for  the  re-establishment  of  the  Order  and 
would  lay  that  pica  at  the  fwt  of  the  king." 


Choiseul  499 

The  exiles  lingered  for  a  while  in  various  parts  of 
Prance;  for  some  of  the  divisional  parliaments  were 
not  at  one  with  Paris  in  their  opposition  to  the  Society. 
Indeed,  in  many  of  them,  the  proscription  was  voted 
only  by  a  small  majority.  Thus  at  Rennes,  there  was 
a  majority  of  three;  at  Toulouse  two;  at  Perpignan 
one;  at  Bordeaux  five;  at  Aix  two;  while  Besangon, 
Alsace,  Flanders  and  Artois  and  Lorraine  pronounced 
in  their  favor  and  proclaimed  "  the  sons  of  St.  Ignatius 
as  the  most  faithful  subjects  of  the  King  of  France 
and  the  surest  guarantees  of  the  morality  of  the  people." 
On  the  other  hand,  Brittany,  the  country  of  Chalotais, 
author  of  the  "  Extraits,"  was  especially  rancorous  in 
its  hate.  Thus,  it  voted  to  deprive  of  all  civil  and 
municipal  functions  those  parents  who  would  send 
their  children  abroad  to  Jesuit  schools;  and  the  children 
on  their  return  home  were  to  be  punished  in  a  similar 
fashion.  The  Fathers  lingered  for  a  few  years  here 
and  there  in  their  native  country  employed  in  various 
occupations;  but  in  1767  a  decree  was  issued  expelling 
them  all  from  the  territory  of  France. 

An  interesting  manifestation  of  affection  by  the 
pupils  of  St.  Omers  for  their  persecuted  masters  occurred 
when  the  parliament  of  Paris  issued  its  order  of  ex- 
pulsion in  1767.  St.  Omers  was  founded  by  Father 
Persons  in  1592  or  1593.  It  was  not  for  ecclesiastics 
as  were  the  colleges  of  Douai,  Rome  and  Valladolid, 
but  to  give  English  boys  an  education  which  they  could 
not  get  in  their  own  country.  It  was  twenty-four 
miles  from  Calais  and  in  territory  which  at  that  time 
belonged  to  the  King  of  Spain.  Shortly  after  its 
transfer  from  Eu  in  Normandy  where  an  attempt 
had  been  made  to  start  it,  there  were  one  hundred 
boys  on  its  register  and,  thirty  years  later,  the  number 
had  doubled.  For  years  it  was  a  favorite  school  for 
English  Catholics  and  it  rejoices  in  having  had  twenty 


500  The  Jesuits 

of  its  students  die  for  the  Faith.  It  continued  its 
work  for  a  century  and  a  half.  When  the  expulsion 
of  the  Jesuits  left  the  college  without  teachers  it  was 
handed  over  to  the  secular  clergy,  but  when  they 
arrived  there  were  no  boys.  They  had  all  decamped 
for  Bruges  in  Belgium,  and  there  the  classes  continued 
until  the  general  suppression  of  the  Society  in  1773, 
Even  after  that,  the  English  ex- Jesuits  kept  the 
college  going  until  1794,  when  the  French  Revolution 
put  an  end  to  it.  By  that  time,  however,  one  of  the 
former  students,  Mr,  Thomas  Weld,  had  established  the 
Fathers  on  his  property  at  Stonyhurst  in  England,  so 
that  St.  Omcrs  and  Stonyhurst  are  mother  and 
daughter. 

The  buildings  and  land  at  St.  Omers  were  handed 
over  by  the  French  government  to  the  English  secular 
priests,  who  were  at  Douai.  Alban  Butler,  the  author 
of  .the  "  Lives  of  the  Saints,"  was  its  president  from 
1766  to  1773*  At  present  a  military  hospital  occupies 
the  site. 

In  Louisiana,  which  still  owed  allegiance  to  France, 
the  dismissal  of  the  Fathers  was  particularly  disgrace- 
ful. For  no  sooner  had  the  news  of  ChoisettTs  exploit 
in  the  mother-country  arrived  than  the  superior 
council  of  Louisiana  set  to  work.  "  This  insignificant 
body  of  provincial  officers  "  as  Sheu  calls  them  (I,  $#?)» 
11  issued  a  decree  declaring  the  Society  to  be  dangerous 
to  the  royal  authority,  to  the  rights  of  bishops,  to  the 
public  peace  of  society  "  and  pronounced  their  vows 
to  be  null  and  void.  These  judges  in  matters  eccle- 
siastical, it  should  be  noted,  were  all  laymen.  They 
ordered  all  the  property  to  be  seized  and  sold  at  auction, 
though  personal  books  and  clothes  were  exempted, 
The  name  and  habit  of  the  Society  were  forbidden ; 
the  vestments  and  plate  of  the  chapel  at  Now  Orleans 
were  given  by  the  authorities  to  the  Capudiins;  hut 


Choiseul  501 

all  the  Jesuit  churches  in  Louisiana  and  Illinois  were 
ordered  to  be  levelled  to  the  ground.  Every  Jesuit 
was  to  embark  on  the  first  ship  that  set  sail  for  Prance; 
and  arriving  there,  he  was  to  report  to  Choiseul.  Each 
one  was  given  about  $420  —  to  pay  for  his  passage 
and  six  month's  subsistence. 

There  was  a  deviation  in  some  cases  about  going  to 
France,  for  Father  Carette  was  sent  to  San  Domingo; 
and  Father  Le  Roy  made  his  way  to  Mexico.  A  diffi- 
culty arose  about  Father  Beaudoin,  who  was  a 
Canadian,  Why  should  he  be  sent  to  France  where 
he  had  no  friends?  Besides,  his  health  was  shattered 
by  his  privations  on  the  missions,  and  he  was  at  that 
time  seventy-two  years  old.  He  was  to  go  to  France, 
however,  but  just  as  he  was  about  to  be  dragged  to 
the  ship  a  wealthy  friend  interceded  for  him  and 
gave  him  a  home.  Another  Father  in  Alabama  did 
not  hear  of  the  order  for  several  months;  and  when 
at  last  he  made  his  appearance  in  New  Orleans,  he 
was  arrested  like  a  criminal  and  packed  off  to  France. 

On  September  22,  a  courier  reached  Fort  Chartres, 
which  was  on  English  territory;  and  in  spite  of  the 
danger  of  embroiling  the  government,  Father  Watron 
•\Ajho  was  then  sixty-seven  years  old  was  expelled,  and 
with  him  his  two  fellow  missionaries.  The  official 
from  Louisiana  gave  the  vestments  to  negro  wenches 
and  the  altar-plate  and  candelabra  were  soon  found 
in  houses  of  ill-fame.  The  chapel  was  then  sold  on 
condition  that  the  purchaser  should  demolish  it.  At 
Vincennes,  the  same  outrages  were  perpetrated  and 
Father  Duvcrnay,  who  had  been  for  six  months  con- 
fined to  his  bed,  was  carried  off  with  the  others  to  New 
Orleans  and  despatched  to  France.  Two  only  were 
allowed  to  remain,  owing  to  the  entreaties  and  protests 
of  friends.  One  of  the  exiles  was  Father  Viel,  who 
was  a  Louisianian  by  birth.  The  most  conspicuous 


502  The  Jesuits 

personage  enforcing  this  expulsion  was  a  certain 
LafreniSre,  but  he  soon  met  his  punishment.  In  1766 
Louis  XV  made  a  gift  of  the  entire  province  to  his 
cousin  of  Spain,  and  when  Count  Alexander  O'Reilly 
was  sent  out  with  three  thousand  soldiers  to  quell  the 
disturbance  that  ensued,  Lafreni£re  and  three  associates 
were  taken  into  the  back  yard  of  the  barracks  and  shot 
to  death.  Others  were  sent  in  chains  to  Havana. 

Thus  the  Suppression  of  the  Society  in  Prance  was 
not  carried  out  with  the  same  brutality  as  in  Portugal 
There  were  no  prisons,  or  chains,  or  deportation,  and 
they  had  not  the  glory  of  suffering  martyrdom.  They 
were  merely  stripped  of  all  they  had  and  told  to  go  where 
they  wished.  Whether  they  lived  or  died  was  a  matter 
of  unconcern  to  the  government.  It  was  merely  a 
difference  of  methods;  but  both  were  equally  effective. 
The  Portuguese  Jesuits  were  scourged;  their  French 
brethren  were  sneered  at.  Perhaps  the  latter  was 
harder  to  bear, 

There  is  a  curious  sequel  to  all  this,  Choiseul, 
proud  of  his  achievement  in  expelling  the  Jesuits  from 
Prance  and  its  colonies,  now  conceived  the  magnificent 
project  of  colonizing  Guyana  on  lines  quite  different 
from  those  followed  by  the  detested  Order.  He  induced 
14,000  deluded  French  people  to  go  and  take  possession 
of  the  rich  and  fertile  lands  of  Guyana.  They  found 
one  poor  old  Jesuit  there,  who  because  he  was  not 
a  subject  of  Prance,  had  refused  to  obey  the  decree 
of  expulsion.  His  name  was  O'Reilly,  but  what  could 
he  do  with  14,000  people  He  simply  disappeared 
from  the  scene.  Very  likely,  he  joined  the  Indians, 
who  fled  into  the  forests  at  the  sight  of  this  immense 
army  of  Frenchmen,  who  now  had  the  country  to 
themselves  without  striking  a  blow.  But  two  years 
later,  Chevalier  de  Bahac  had  to  report  back  to  France, 
that  of  the  14,000  colonists  only  918  were  alive.  Thus, 


Choiseul  503 

expelling  6,000  Jesuits  from  Prance,  Choiseul  had 
murdered  13,000  of  his  fellow-countiymen  (Christian 
Missions,  II,  168). 

In  1766,  M.  de  Piedmont,  the  governor  wrote  to  the 
Due  de  Praslin,  that  he  had  already  informed  the 
Due  de  Choiseul  how  necessary  it  was  to  send  priests 
to  this  colony.  He  then  described  the  destruction  of 
the  mission  posts,  the  flight  of  the  Indians,  the  growth 
of  crime  amongst  the  negroes  and  the  rapid  ruin  of 
the  colony,  and  added  that  religion  was  dying  out 
among  the  whites  as  well  as  among  the  colored  races. 
For  ten  years,  he  kept  on  repeating  this  complaint, 
but  no  heed  was  paid  to  him.  At  length,  Louis  XVI, 
who  was  so  soon  to  be  himself  a  victim  of  Choiseul's 
iniquity  sent  there,  three  Jesuits,  not  Frenchmen, 
perhaps  he  had  not  the  heart  to  ask  any  of  them, 
but  three  Jesuits,  who  had  been  expelled  from  Portugal 
by  Pombal,  Choiseul's  accomplice.  They  were  Padilla, 
Mathos,  and  Ferreira.  They  accepted  the  mission  and 
the  "  Journal  "  of  Christopher  de  Murr  says:  "  The 
poor  savages  beholding  once  again  men  clothed  in  the 
habit  which  they  had  learned  to  venerate,  and  hearing 
them  speak  their  own  language,  fell  at  their  feet, 
bathing  them  with  tears,  and  promised  to  become  once 
more  good  Christians,  since  the  Fathers,  who  had 
begotten  them  in  Jesus  Christ,  had  come  back  to  them." 
No  doubt,  these  three  holy  men  remained  till  they 
died  with  their  poor  abandoned  Indians. 

France's  folly  in  this  governmental  act  was  summed 
up  in  a  letter  of  d'Alembert  to,  Choiseul,  just  before 
the  expulsion.  In  it  he  says:  "  France  will  resort  to 
this  rigorous  measure  against  its  own  subjects  at  the 
very  moment  she  is  doing  nothing  in  her  foreign  policy, 
and  in  the  chronological  epitomes  of  the  future  we  shall 
read  the  words  for  the  year  1762 :  '  This  year  France 
lost  all  her  colonies  and  threw  out  the  Jesuits,'  " 


CHAPTER  XVI 

CHARLES   III 

The  Bourbon  Kings  of  Spain  —  Character  of  Charles  III  —  Spanish 
Vlinistries  —  O'Reilly  —  The  Hat  and  Cloak  Riot — -Cowardice  of 
Jharles  —  Tricking  the  monarch  —  The  Decree  of  Suppression  — 
3rief  of  the  Pope  —  His  death  —  Disapproval  in  Prance  by  the  Ency- 
clopedists —  The  Royal  Secret  —  Simultaneousness  of  the  Suppres- 
sion —  Wanderings  of  the  Exiles  —  Pignatclli  —  Expulsion  by  Tanucol 

SPAIK  had  begun  to  deteriorate  in  the  seventeenth 
century;  it  lost  all  of  its  European  dependencies  in 
the  eighteenth,  and  in  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth 
was  stripped  of  almost  every  one  of  its  rich  and  powerful 
colonies  in  America.  During  two-thirds  of  that  period, 
it  was  governed  by  foreigners,  none  of  whom  had  any 
claim  to  consideration,  much  less  respect.  Until  1700 
it  owed  allegiance  to  the  house  of  Austria;  after  that, 
the  French  Bourbons  hurried  it  to  its  ruin. 

Its  first  Bourbon  king,  Philip  V,  had  already,  in  1713, 
succeeded  in  losing  Sicily,  Milan,  Sardinia,  the  Nether- 
lands, Gibraltar,  and  the  Island  of  Minorca;  that  is 
one-half  of  its  European  possessions.  Meantime, 
Catalonia  was  in  rebellion.  But  little  else  could  bo 
expected  from  such  a  ruler.  He  was  not  only  consti- 
tutionally indolent,  but  apparently  mentally  defective. 
His  queen  kept  him  in  seclusion,  and  he  did  nothing 
but  at  her  dictation;  he  was  professedly  devout,  but 
was  racked  by  ridiculous  scruples;  "  outwardly  pious," 
says  Schoell,  quoting  Saint-Simon,  "  but  heedless  of 
the  fundamental  principles  of  religion;  he  was  timid 
and  hence  sporadically  stubborn;  and  when  not  in 
temper,  he  was  easily  led.  lie  was  without  imagi- 
nation, except  that  he  was  continually  dreaming  of 
conquering  Europe,  although  he  never  left  Madrid;  he 

$04 


Charles  III  505 

was  satisfied  with  the  gloomiest  existence,  and  his 
only  amusement  was  shooting  at  game,  which  his 
servants  drove  into  the  brush  for  him  to  kill."  His 
conscience  often  smote  him  for  the  sin  he  said  he  had 
committed  when  he  renounced  his  claim  to  the  throne 
of  France;  and,  in  consequence,  he  made  a  vow  to  lay 
aside  the  Spanish  crown  until  what  time  he  should  be 
summoned  by  England  to  be  King  of  France.  To  help 
him  keep  his  vow,  he  built  the  palace  of  San  Ildefonso, 
which  cost  the  nation  45,000,000  pesos.  He  appointed 
his  son  Louis,  a  lad  of  17,  to  reign  in  his  stead,  and  the 
boy,  of  course,  did  nothing  but  enjoy  himself,  and 
died  of  small-pox  in  six  months'  time,  having  first  gone 
through  the  ridiculous  farce  of  making  his  father  his 
heir.  Philip  then  began  to  doubt  whether  he  could 
resume  his  duties  as  king  after  having  vowed  to. 
relinquish  them.  Besides  being  thus  troubled  with 
scruples,  he  was  in  constant  dread  of  catching  the 
disease  which  carried  off  his  son;  he  died  of  apoplexy, 
July  9,  1764  at  the  age  ojt  53. 

Ferdinand  VI,  who  succeeded  him,  was  as  indolent 
as  his  father,  and  with  less  talent  and  strength  of  will; 
he  was  afflicted  with  melancholia,  and  like  his  father 
was  haunted  by  the  fear  of  death.  He  took  no  part 
in  the  government  of  the  kingdom,  but  spent  most  of 
his  time  listening  to  the  warblings  of  the  male-soprano, 
FarinelE,  who  was  so  adored  by  the  king  that  he  was 
sometimes  consulted  on  state  affairs.  The  queen  was 
another  of  his  idols,  and  when  she  died,  he  shut  himself 
in,  saw  no  one,  would  eat  next  to  nothing;  never 
diangcd  his  linen;  let  his  hair  and  beard  grow,  and 
never  went  to  bed.  An  hour  or  two  in  a  chair  was 
all  he  allowed  himself  for  rest.  Ho  died  at  the  end 
of  the  year,  leaving  a  private  fortune  of  72,000,000 
francs.  He  was  only  forty-seven  years  old.  Like  the 
king,  the  quean  was  dominated  by  fear,  not  however 


506  The  Jesuits 

of  death,  but  of  poverty.  To  guard  against  that 
contingency  she  hoarded  all  the  money  she  could  get; 
accepted  whatever  presents  were  offered;  and  let  it  be 
known  that  the  easiest  way  to  win  her  favor  was  to 
have  something  to  give.  It  is  gravely  said  that 
though  she  was  very  corpulent  she  was  extravagantly 
fond  of  dancing. 

Ferdinand  VI  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Charles 
III,  who  had  been  King  of  Naples  for  twenty-four 
years.  He  had  six  sons,  the  eldest  of  whom,  Philip 
Anthony  was  then  twelve  years  of  age,  but  a  hopeless 
imbecile.  The  right  of  succession,  therefore,  devolved 
on  his  second  son.  The  third,  who  was  then  eight 
years  old,  was  to  succeed  to  the  crown  of  Naples, 
and  was  left  in  the  hands  of  Tanucci  to  be  trained 
for  his  future  office.  As  Tanucci  was  a  bitter  enemy  of 
Christianity,  this  act  of  Charles,  who  had  a  Jesuit 
confessor  and  was  regarded  as  a  pious  man,  would 
imply  that  he  also  was  mentally  deficient.  Like  his 
forebears,  he  was  haunted  by  a  fear  of  death,  a  weakness 
that  revealed  itself  in  all  his  political  acts,  notably  in 
the  suppression  of  the  Society.  That  was  one  of  the 
reasons  why,  long  after  Prance  and  Portugal  would 
have  willingly  ended  the  fight  with  the  expulsion  of 
the  Jesuits,  the  supposedly  pious  Charles  persisted  until 
he  had  wrung  the  Brief  of  Suppression  from  the  un- 
willing hands  of  Clement  XIV. 

The  ministers  of  vState  who  controlled  the  destinies 
of  Spain  at  this  period  arc  erf  a  species  whoso  like  cannot 
bo  found  in  the  history  of  any  other  nation.  They 
begin  with  the  Italian  Albcroni  who  started  life  as 
a  farm  laborer;  then  became  an  ecclesiastic,  and 
ultimately  a  cardinal  "  He  was  destined  to  trouble 
the  tranquillity  of  the  world  for  yeans/'  says  SchoelL 
Acconling  to  Saint-Simon,  ho  prevented  the  restitution 
o£  Gibraltar  to  Spain  which  England  wan  willing  to 


Charles  III  507 

grant;  he  was  banned  by  the  Pope;  and  was  subse- 
quently turned  out  of  office,  chiefly  by  the  intrigues 
of  two  Italian  ecclesiastics.  The  queen's  nurse,  old 
Laura  Piscatori,  also  figures  in  the  amazing  diplomacy 
of  those  days,  and  is  charged  with  an  ambition  to  be  as 
important  as  Cardinal  Alberoni,  who  came  from  her 
native  village.  The  next  prime  minister  was  the 
Biscayan  Grimaldi,  whose  physical  appearance  Saint- 
Simon  describes,  but  which  we  omit.  It  will  suffice  to 
say  that  "  he  was  base  and  supple  when  it  suited  his 
convenience,  and  he  never  made  a  false  step  in  that 
direction."  Following  him,  came  Ripperda,  who  was 
born  in  the  Netherlands  and  educated  by  the  Jesuits 
at  Cologne,  but  became  a  Protestant  in  Holland,  and 
a  Catholic  in  Spain,  where  he  lasted  only  four  months, 
as  minister.  He  turned  Protestant  a  second  time,  on 
his  return  to  Holland,  and  subsequently  led  an  army 
of  Moors  against  Spain.  It  is  not  known  whether  he 
died  a  Christian  or  a  Mohammedan. 

Patino  and  de  la  Quadra  followed  each  other  in 
quick  succession,  one  good,  the  other  timid  and  weak. 
Ensefiada,  though  skilful,  was  greedy  of  money,  and 
was  considered  the  head  of  the  French  faction  in  court. 
Carvajal  is  next  on  the  list,  and  displays  the  English 
propensities  which  were  natural  to  him,  for  he  belonged 
to  the  house  of  Lancaster.  Indeed,  his  policy  was 
entirely  pro-English  and  he  was  in  collusion  with 
Keene,  the  British  ambassador.  Wall,  an  Irishman, 
then  flits  across  the  scene,  and  has  with  him  two 
associates:  Losada  and  Squillacc,  both  Italians,  When 
Wall  quarrelled  with  the  Pope  and  the  Inquisition, 
he  fell,  and  then  another  Grimaldi  came  to  the  fore; 
not  a  Biscayan,  like  his  namesake,  but  a  Genoese. 
Squillace,  apparently  from  the  Italian  branch  of  the 
Borgias,  was  next  in  order,  and  then  in  rapid  pro- 
cession came  the  Spaniards:  Roda,  dc  Alva,  Aranda, 


508  The  Jesuits 

Roda,  Moniiio,  Campom&nez,  either  as  prime  ministers 
or  prominent  in  the  government,  and  nearly  all  of  them 
under  French  influence.  Finally,  the  generalissimo  of 
the  army  and  the  most  popular  man  in  Spain  was  an 
Irishman,  Alexander  O'Reilly.  The  native  Spaniards 
counted  for  little;  even  the  king's  bodyguard  was  made 
up  of  Walloons. 

O'Reilly  was  probably  not  in  sympathy  with  the 
free-thinking  politicians  who  then  ruled  the  nation, 
for  the  reason  that  he  was  born  in  Ireland  and  had  all 
his  life  been  a  soldier,  Moreover,  he  was  hated  by 
the  Aranda  faction  and  retained  his  post,  at  the  head  of 
the  army,  only  because  the  king  thought  that  no  one 
could  vShicld  the  royal  life  as  well  as  O'Reilly,  He  was 
born  in  1735,  and  when  still  a  youth  was  sub-lieutenant 
in  the  Irish  Regiment  serving  in  Spain.  In  1757  he 
fought  under  his  countryman  de  Lacy  in  Austria,  and 
then  followed  the  flcur«de~lys  in  France,  He  so 
distinguished  himself,  that  the  Mar6chal  de  BrogHc 
recommended  him  to  the  King  of  Spain.  There  he 
soon  became  brigadier  and  restored  the  ancient  prestige 
of  the  Spanish  army.  He  was  made  a  commandant 
at  Havana,  and  rebuilt  its  fortifications,  and  from  there 
went  to  Louisiana  to  secure  it  to  the  Spanish  crown. 
His  only  military  failure  was  in  Algiers,  but  that  was 
not  clue  to  any  lack  of  wisdom  in  hispluivsjmtbecause 
his  fleet  did  not  arrive  at  the  time  appointed  Even 
then,  there  was  no  one  so  highly  esteemed  as  O'Reilly, 
and  when  he  died  at  an  advanced  age  in  1794,  the 
people  all  declared  that  the  disasters  which  fell  on  the 
nation  would  have  been  averted  if  ho  had  lived.  He  is 
credited  with  possessing  besides  his  military  ardor 
a  sweet  and  insinuating  disposition  which  may  explain 
how  he  could  easily  win  over  the  mob  which  so  terrified 
King  Charles  at  Madrid. 


Charles  III  509 

Meantime,  the  sinister  Choiseul  in  France  had  all  the 
ministers  of  Spain  in  his  grip,  and  he  then  determined 
to  capture  the  king.  He  first  made  him  a  present  of 
what  up  to  that  time,  had  been  the  special  pride  of 
France;  the  precedence  of  its  ambassadors  in  public 
functions  over  those  of  all  other  countries,  the  German 
Empire  excepted.  Charles  naturally  took  the  gift,  but 
apparently  failed  to  fathom  its  significance.  The  next 
move  was  to  get  rid  of  the  court  confessor;  and  his 
majesty  was  given  a  confidential  letter  from  Pombal 
of  Portugal  accusing  Father  Ravago  of  having  fo- 
mented the  insurrection  of  the  Indians  of  Paraguay, 
against  the  Spanish  troops  at  the  time  of  the  transfer 
of  that  territory.  The  plot  failed,  however,  for  Charles 
knew  Ravago  too  well,  and  then  something  more 
drastic  was  resorted  to.  Squillace  was  at  that  time 
in  power  and  under  him  occurred  the  historic  riot 
which,  in  the  course  of  time,  assumed  such  dimensions 
in  the  king's  imagination,  that  it  was  one  of  the  three 
or  four  things,  besides  his  "royal  secret,'*  which  he 
urged  on  the  Pope  as  a  reason  for  suppressing  the 
Society. 

The  story  of  the  riot  is  as  follows:  Squillace  was 
very  energetic  in  developing  the  material -resources 
of  the  kingdom,  but  always  with  an  eye  to  his  personal 
and  pecuniary  profit.  He  promoted  public  works; 
established  monopolies  even  in  food  stuffs;  loaded  the 
people  with  taxes;  and  being  intensely  anti-clerical, 
was  very,  active  in  curtailing  ecclesiastical  privileges. 
The  people  and  clergy  meekly  submitted,  but  something 
happened  which  brought  Squillace's  career  to  an  end; 
though  it  had  much  more  serious  consequences  than 
that.  It  scarcely  seems  credible,  but  the  incident 
became  one  of  the  serious  events  of  the  time.  Though 
none  suspected  it,  the  whole  thing  had  been  deliberately 


510  The  Jesuits 

planned,  and  was  the  initial  step  in  the  plot  to  expel 
the  Jesuits  from  Spain.  Squillace  objected  or  pre- 
tended to  object  to  the  kind  of  dress  especially  affected 
by  the  people  of  Madrid:  a  slouched  sombrero  and 
an  all-enveloping  cloak;  and  he  gave  orders  to  change 
it.  Naturally,  this  exasperated  the  people,  for  although 
they  had  patiently  submitted  to  the  imposition  of 
taxes;  the  creation  of  oppressive  monopolies;  the  cur- 
tailment of  ancient  rights  and  privileges,  etc.,  the 
audacity  of  a  foreigner  interfering  with  the  cut  of 
their  garments  brought  about  a  popular  upheaval. 
On  March  26,  1766,  the  mob  stormed  the  residence 
of  Squillace,  and  he  ignominiously  took  to  flight, 
All  night  long,  the  excited  crowds  swarmed  through 
the  streets  shouting,  "  Down  with  Squillace.*'  On 
the  following  morning,  they  surrounded  the  palace 
of  the  king  himself  and  he,  in  alarm,  called  for  O'Reilly 
to  quell  the  disturbance.  When  it  was  represented  to 
his  majesty  that  it  might  entail  bloodshed,  he  depre- 
cated that  and  hurriedly  left  Madrid.  Had  he  shown 
himself  to  the  people,  they  would  have  done  him  no 
harm,  for  reverence  for  royalty  was  still  deep  in  the 
popular  heart,  and  the  age  of  royal  assassinations  had 
not  yet  come.  But  the  king  was  not  a  hero,  and  ho 
thrust  his  subaltern  into  what  he  fancied  was  a  post 
of  danger.  Thereupon,  unarmed  and  unattended, 
O'Reilly  faced  the  excited  mob. 

Delighted  by  his  trust  in  them,  they  greeted  him 
with  cheers,  but  demanded  a  redress  of  thoir  grievances. 
Unfortunately,  while  he  was  keeping  them  in  good 
humor,  the  Walloons,  who  were  guarding  another 
gate  of  the  palace,  got  into  an  altercation  with  some 
of  the  rioters.  Hot  words  were  exchanged,  shots  were 
fired  and  several  persons  were  killed.  The  whole 
scene  changed  instantly,  and  the  capital  would  have 
been  drenched  in  blood,  and  perhaps  Charles  would 


Charles  III  511 

have  been  dethroned,  had  not  a  number  of  Jesuits 
headed  by  the  saintly  Pignatelli,  hurried  through  the 
crowd  and  held  the  rioters  in  check.  Finally,  when  a 
placard  was  affixed  to  the  palace  walls,  granting  all 
their  demands,  the  mob  dispersed,  cheering  for  the 
Jesuits  —  a  fatal  cry  for  those  whom  it  was  meant  to 
honor.  They  were  accused  of  provoking  the  riot;  and, 
from  that  moment,  the  king's  hatred  for  the  Society 
began.  It  was  made  more  acute  by  the  consciousness  of 
his  own  cowardice.  Thus,  a  farce  was  to  introduce  a 
tragedy.  Ten  years  afterwards,  the  Duke  of  Alva,  a 
descendant  of  the  old  tyrant  of  the  Netherlands, 
confessed  that  it  was  he,  who  had  planned  the  som- 
brero and  cloak  riot  to  discredit  the  Jesuits  (de  Murr, 
"Journal,"  ix,  222). 

Towards  the  end  of  January  1767,  another  episode 
in  this  curious  history  presents  itself.  Like  the 
affair  of  the  riot  it  seems  to  be  taken  from  a  novel, 
but  unfortunately  it  is  not  so.  Its  setting  is  the  princi- 
pal Jesuit  residence  at  Madrid.  The  provincial  and 
the  community  are  at  dinner,  when  a  lay-brother 
enters  with  a  package  of  letters,  which  he  places 
before  the  provincial.  It  is  not  the  usual  way  of 
delivering  such  communications  in  the  Society,  but  the 
story  is  told  by  de  Ravignan  in  "  Clement  XIII  et 
Clement  XIV  "  (I,  186),  and  he  is  quoting  from  Father 
Casscda,  who  is  described  as  "a  Jesuit  Father  of 
eminence  and  worthy  of  belief."  The  package  was 
handed  back  to  the  brother,  along  with  the  keys  of 
the  provincial's  room,  where  it  was  left.  Immediately 
afterwards,  an  officer  of  the  court  arrived,  searched  the 
room  and  extracted  one  of  the  letters,  said  to  be  from 
Father  Ricci,  the  General  of  the  Jesuits,  who  among 
other  things,  declared  that  the  king  was  an  illegitimate 
son  and  was  to  be  superseded  by  his  brother,  Don 
Luis.  That  such  a  letter  was  really  written,  is  vouched 


512  The  Jesuits 

for  by  several  historians:  Coxe,  Ranke,  Schoell, 
Adam,  Sismondi,  Darras,  and  others;  and  it  is  generally 
admitted  to  have  been  the  work  of  Choiseul  in  Prance 
though  he  covered  up  his  tracks  so  adroitly  that  no 
documentary  evidence  can  be  adduced  to  prove  it 
against  him.  His  intermediary  was  a  certain  Abb6 
Beliardy  an  attach^  of  the  French  embassy  in  Madrid. 

According  to  Carayon  (XV  Opp. >  16-23)  and  Boero 
("  Pignatelli "  Appendix)  there  is  a  second  scene  in 
this  melodrama.  Two  Fathers  are  leaving  Madrid  for 
Rome.  A  sealed  package  is  entrusted  to  them,  pur- 
porting to  be  from  the  papal  ambassador  in  Spain.  On 
the  road  they  are  held  up  and  searched;  the  package 
is  opened,  and  a  letter  is  found  in  it  reflecting  on  the 
king's  legitimacy.  Precisely  at  the  same  moment, 
the  trick  of  the  refectory  letter  was  being  played  in 
the  Jesuit  residence  at  Madrid,  and  thus  a  connection 
was  established.  With  this  scrap  of  paper  and  the 
"  cloak  and  sombrero  riot  "  at  their  disposal,  the 
plotters  concluded  that  they  had  ample  material  to 
cany  out  their  scheme,  and  the  next  chapter  shows 
Aranda,  the  prime  minister,  Roda,  Monifio  and 
Campomafiesj  meeting  frequently  in  an  old  abandoned 
mansion  in  the  country.  With  them  was  a  number 
of  boys,  probably  pages  about  the  court,  who  were 
employed  in  copying  a  pile  of  documents  whose  import 
they  were  too  unsophisticated  to  understand.  Older 
amanuenses  might  have  betrayed  the  secret. 

The  chain  of  evidence  was  finally  completed,  and 
these  grave  statesmen  then  presented  themselves 
before  his  majesty  and,  with  evidence  in  hand,  proved 
to  him  the  undoubted  iniquity  of  the  religious  order 
which  up  to  that  moment  he  had  so  implicitly  trusted. 
He  fell  into  the  trap,  and  a  series  of  cabinet  meetings 
ensued  in  which  information  previously  gathered  or 
invented  about  every  Jesuit  in  France  was  discussed. 


Charles  III  513 

The  result  was  that  on  January  29,  1767  a  proposal 
was  drawn  up  by  Campomafiez  and  laid  before  his 
majesty  to  expel  the  Society  from  Spain,  and  advising 
him,  first,  to  impose  absolute  silence  on  all  his  subjects 
with  regard  to  the  affair,  to  such  an  extent  that  no  one 
should  say  or  publish  anything  either  for  or  against 
the  measure,  without  a  special  permission  of  the 
government;  secondly,  to  withhold  all  knowledge  of 
the  affair,  even  from  the  controller  of  the  press  and 
his  subordinates;  and  finally  to  arrange  that  whatever 
action  was  taken,  should  proceed  directly  from  the 
president  and  ministers  of  the  extraordinary  council. 

The  advice  was  assented  to  by  the  king,  and  a 
decree  was  issued  in  virtue  of  which  silence  was  passed 
on  6,000  Spanish  subjects  who  not  only  had  no  trial 
but  who  were  absolutely  unaware  that  there  was  any 
charge  against  them.  They  had  been  as  a  body 
irreproachable  for  two  hundred  years,  had  reflected 
more  glory,  and  won  more  territory  for  Spain  than 
had  ever  been  gained  by  its  armies.  They  were  men 
of  holy  lives,  often  of  great  distinction  in  every  branch 
of  learning;  some  of  them  belonged  to  the  noblest 
families  of  the  realm;  and  yet  they  were  all  to  be  thrown 
out  in  the  world  at  a  moment's  notice,  though  not 
a  judge  on  the  bench,  not  a  priest  or  a  bishop,  not  even 
the  Pope  had  been  apprised  of  the  cause  of  it,  and,  as 
we  have  seen,  it  was  forbidden  even  to  speak  of  the 
act.  A  more  outrageous  abuse  of  authority  could 
not  possibly  be  conceived. 

It  was  arranged  that  on  the  coming  second  of  April, 
1767,  a  statement  should  be  made  throughout  Europe 
by  which  the  world  would  be  informed;  first,  that 
for  the  necessary  preservation  of  peace,  and  for  other 
equally  just  and  necessary  reasons  (though  the  world 
is  not  to  be  told  what  they  are),  the  Jesuits  are  expelled 
from  the  king's  dominions,  and  all  their  goods  confis- 


514  The  Jesuits 

cated;  secondly,  that  the  motive  will  forever  remain 
buried  in  the  royal  heart;  thirdly,  that  all  the  other 
religious  congregations  in  Spain  are  most  estimable  and 
are  not  to  be  molested.  The  decree  was  signed  by 
Charles  and  countersigned  by  Aranda  and  then  sent 
out.  The  ambassador  at  Rome  was  ordered  to  hand 
it  to  the  Pope  and  withdraw  without  saying  a  word. 
The  despatches  to  the  civil  and  military  authorities 
in  both  worlds  were  enclosed  in  double  envelopes  and 
sealed  with  three  seals.  On  the  inner  cover  appeared 
the  ominous  words,  as  from  a  pirate  addressing  his 
crew:  "  Under  pain  of  death  this  package  is  not  to  bo 
opened  until  April  2,  1767,  at  the  setting  sun."  The 
letter  read  as  follows:  "  I  invest  you  with  all  my 
authority  and  all  my  royal  power  to  descend  immedi- 
ately with  arms  on  the  Jesuit  establishments  in  your 
district;  to  seize  the  occupants  and  to  lead  them  as 
prisoners  to  the  port  indicated  inside  of  24  hours.  At 
the  moment  of  seizure,  you  will  seal  the  archives  of  the 
house  and  all  private  papers  and  permit  no  one  to  carry 
anything  but  his  prayer-book  and  the  linen  strictly 
necessary  for  the  voyage.  If  after  your  cmbarcation 
there  is  left  behind  a  single  Jesuit  cither  sick  or  dying 
in  your  department,  you  shall  be  punished  with  death/' 

"I,  the  King." 

The  motive  that  prompted  Charles  to  keep  the  secret; 
of  this  amassing  proceeding  "  shut  up  in  his  royal 
heart  "  has  been  usually  ascribed  to  his  intense  resent- 
ment at  the  suspicion  east  on  his  legitimacy,  and  his 
fear  that  even  the  mention  of  it  would  lead  people  to 
conclude  that  there  was  some  foundation  for  the  charge* 
Davila,  quoted  by  Pollen  in  "  The  Month  "  (August, 
1902),  finds  another  explanation. 

"  Charles  III,"  he  says,  4<  had  become  an  extravagant 
legalist,  and  was  convinced  by  his  Voltairean  ministers, 


Charles  III  515 

mostly  by  Tanucci,  whom  he  had  left  in  charge  of  his 
son  at  Naples,  that  in  all  things  the  Church  should  be 
subject  to  the  State.  It  was  on  that  account  that  he 
kept  the  reasons  for  the  expulsion  of  the  Jesuits 
'  buried  in  his  royal  heart/  The  sole  cause  of  this  act 
was  his  change  of  policy;  a  true  reason  of  state  such 
as,  on  some  occasions,  covers  grave  acts  of  injustice  — 
for  it  must  be  always  a  grave  injustice  to  charge  a 
religious  society  with  having  conspired  against  the 
fundamental  institutions  of  a  country,  and  yet  not  be 
able  to  point  out  in  any  way  the  object  and  plan  of  so 
dark  a  conspiracy.  If  such  be  the  case,"  continues 
Davila,  "it  is  easy  to  understand  why  his  majesty 
could  not  reveal  this  *  secret  of  his  royal  heart '  even 
to  the  Pope,  or  perhaps  least  of  all  to  him,  for  it  would 
be  a  painful  avowal  that  his  Catholic  Majesty  was  a 
yoke-fellow  with  the  Voltaireans  of  Europe  whose 
avowed  purpose  was  to  destroy  the  Church." 

Clement  XIII  was  overwhelmed  with  grief  when  he 
read  the  king's  decree  and  wrote  to  him  as  follows: 
"  Of  all  the  blows  I  have  received  during  the  nine 
unhappy  years  of  my  pontificate  the  worst  is  that  of 
which  your  majesty  informs  me  in  your  last  letter, 
telling  me  of  your  resolution  to  expel  from  all  your 
vast  dominions  the  religious  of  the  Society  of  Jesus. 
So  you  too,  do  this,  my  son,  Tu  quoque  fili  mi.  Our 
beloved  Charles  III,  the  Catholic  King,  is  the  one  who 
is  to  fill  up  the  chalice  of  our  woe  and  to  bring  down  to 
the  grave  our  old  age  bathed  in  tears  and  overwhelmed 
with  grief.  The  very  religious,  the  very  pious  King  of 
Spain,  Charles  III,  is  going  to  give  the  support  of  his 
arm,  that  powerful  arm  which  God  has  given  him  to 
increase  his  own  honor  and  that  of  God  and  the  Church, 
to  destroy  to  its  very  foundation,  an  order  so  useful 
and  so  dear  to  the  Church,  an  order -which  owes  its 
origin  and  its  splendor  to  those  saintly  heroes  whom 


516  The  Jesuits 

God  has  deigned  to  choose  in  the  Spanish  nation  to 
extend  His  greater  glory  throughout  the  world.  It  is 
you  who  are  going  to  deprive  your  kingdom  and  your 
people  of  all  the  help  and  all  the  spiritual  blessings 
which  the  religious  of  that  Society  have  heaped  on  it 
by  their  preaching,  their  missions,  their  catechisms, 
their  spiritual  exercises,  the  administration  of  the 
sacraments,  the  education  of  youth  in  letters  and  piety, 
the  worship  of  God,  and  the  honor  of  the  Church. 

"  Ah!  Sire!  our  soul  cannot  bear  the  thought  of  that 
awful  ruin.  And  what  cuts  us  to  the  heart  still 
deeper  perhaps  is  to  sec  the  wise,  just  King  Charles  III, 
that  prince  whose  conscience  was  so  delicate  and  whose 
intentions  were  so  right;  who  lest  he  might  compromise 
his  eternal  salvation,  would  never  consent  to  have  the 
meanest  of  his  subjects  suffer  the  slightest  injury  in 
their  private  concerns  without  having  their  case 
previously  and  legitimately  tried  and  every  condition 
of  the  law  complied  with,  is  now  vowing  to  total  destruc- 
tion, by  depriving  of  its  honor,  its  country,  its  property, 
which  was  legitimately  acquired,  and  its  establish- 
ments, which  wore  rightfully  owned,  that  whole  body 
of  religious  who  were  dedicated  to  the  service  of  God 
and  the  neighbor,  and  all  that  without  examining  them, 
without  hearing  them,  without  permitting  them  to 
defend  themselves,  Sire!  this  act  of  yours  is  grave; 
and  if  perchance  it,  is  not  sufficiently  justified  in  the 
eyes  of  Almighty  God,  the  Sovereign  Judge  of  all 
creatures,  the  approval  of  those  xvho  have  advised  you 
in  this  matter  will  avail  nothing,  nor  will  the  plaudits 
of  those  whose  principles  have  prompted  you  to  do 
this.  As  for  us,  plunged  as  we  are  in  inexpressible 
grief,  we  avow  to  your  majesty  that  we  fear  and  tremble 
for  the  salvation  of  your  soul  which  is  so  dear  to  us. 

14  Your  Majesty  tells  us  that  you  have  been  com- 
pelled to  adopt  these  measures  by  the  duly  of  main- 


Charles  III  517 

taining  peace  in  your  states, —  implying  we  presume 
that  this  trouble  has  been  provoked  by  some  individual 
belonging  to  the  Society  of  Jesus.  But,  even  if  it 
were  true,  Sire,  why  not  punish  the  guilty  without 
making  the  innocent  suffer?  The  body,  the  Institute, 
the  spirit  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  we  declare  it  in 
the  presence  of  God  and  of  man,  is  absolutely  innocent 
of  all  crime,  and  not  only  innocent,  but  pious,  useful, 
holy  in  its  object,  in  its  laws,  in  its  maxims.  It  matters 
not  that  its  enemies  have  endeavored  to  prove  the 
contrary;  all  calm  and  impartial  minds  will  abhor 
such  accusers  as  discredited  liars  who  contradict 
themselves  in  whatever  they  say.  You  may  tell 
me  that  it  is  now  an  accomplished  fact;  that  the 
royal  edict  has  been  promulgated  and  you  may  ask 
what  will  the  world  say  if  I  retract?  Should  you  not 
rather  askf  Sire,  what  will  God  say?  Let  me  tell  you 
what  the  world  will  say.  It  will  say  what  it  said  of 
Assuerus  when  he  revoked  his  edict  to  butcher  the 
Hebrews.  It  accorded  him  the  eternal  praise  of  being 
a  just  king  who  knew  how  to  conquer  himself.  Ah! 
Sire,  what  a  chance  to  win  a  like  glory  for  yourself. 
We  offer  to  your  majesty  the  supplications  not  only 
of  your  royal  spouse,  who  from  heaven  recalls  to  you 
the  love  she  had  for  the  Society  of  Jesus,  but  much 
more  so,  to  the  Sacred  Spouse  of  Jesus  Christ,  the 
Holy  Church,  which  cannot  contemplate,  without 
weeping,  *  the  total  and  imminent  extinction  of  the 
Society  of  Jestis,  which  until  this  very  hour  has  rendered 
to  her  such  great  assistance  and  such  signal  services. 
Permit,  then,  that  this  matter  be  regularly  discussed; 
let  justice  and  truth  be  allowed  to  act,  and  they  will 
scatter  the  clouds  that  have  arisen  from  prejudice  and 
suspicion.  Listen  to  the  counsels  of  those  who  are 
doctors  in  Israel;  the  bishops,  the  religious,  in  a  cause 
that  involves  the  interests  of  the  State,  the  honor  of 


518  The  Jesuits 

the  Church,  the  salvation  of  souls,  your  own  conscience 
and  your  eternal  salvation'/' 

How  Charles  could  resist  this  appeal,  which  is  among 
the  most  admirable  and  eloquent  state  papers  ever 
given  to  the  world,  is  incomprehensible.  But  he  did. 
He  merely  replied  to  the  Pope:  "  To  spare  the  world 
a  great  scandal,  I  shall  ever  preserve  as  a  secret  in  my 
heart  the  abominable  plot  which  has  necessitated  this 
rigor.  Your  Holiness  ought  to  believe  my  word,  the 
safety  of  my  life  exacts  of  me  a  profound  silence." 

Not  satisfied  with  writing  to  the  king  himself,  the 
Pope  also  pleaded  with  the  greatest  prelate  in  the 
realm,  the  Archbishop  of  Tarragona  as  follows :  "  What 
has  come  over  you?  How  does  it  happen  that,  in  an 
instant,  the  Society  of  Jesus  has  departed  so  far  from 
the  rules  of  its  pious  Institute,  that  our  dear  Son 
in  Jesus  Christ,  Charles  III,  the  Catholic  King,  can 
consider  himself  authorized  to  expel  from  his  realm 
all  the  Regular  Clerks  of  the  Society?  This  is  a 
mystery  we  cannot  explain;  only  a  year  ago,  the 
numberless  letters  addressed  to  us  by  the  Spanish 
episcopacy  afforded  us  some  consolation  in  the  deep 
grief  that  affected  us  when  these  same  religious  were 
expelled  from  Prance*  Those  letters  informed  us  that 
the  Fathers  in  your  country  gave  an  example  of  every 
virtue,  and  that  the  bishops  and  their  dioceses  received 
the  most  powerful  support  by  their  pious  and  useful 
labours.  And  now,  behold,  in  tin  instant,  there  come 
dreadful  charges  against  them  and  we  an*,  asked  to 
believe  that  all  these  Fathers  or  almost  all  have  com- 
mitted some  terrible  crime;  nay  the  king  himself, 
so  well  known  for  his  equity,  is  so  convinced  of  it, 
that  he  feels  obliged  to  treat  the  members  of  that 
Institute  with  a  rigor  hitherto  unheard  of." 

Addressing  himself  personally  to  the  king's  confessor 
he  says:  "We  write  to  you,  my  dear  son,  that  you 


Charles  III  519 

may  lay  this  before  the  prince  who  has  taken  you 
for  his  guide,  and  we  charge  you  to  speak  in  our  name 
and  in  virtue  of  the  obligations  which  the  duty  of  your 
office  imposes,  and  the  authority  it  bestows  on  you. 
As  for  us,  we  do  not  refuse  to  employ  measures  of  the 
severest  and  most  rigorous  justice  against  those 
members  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  who  have  incurred 
the  just  anger  of  the  king,  and  to  employ  all  our  power 
to  destroy  and  to  root  out  the  thorns  and  briars  which 
may  have  sprung  up  in  a  soil  hitherto  so  pure  and  fertile. 
As  for  you,  it  is  part  of  your  sacred  ministry  to  consider 
with  fear  and  trembling  as  you  kneel  at  the  feet  of  the 
image  of  Jesus  Christ,  to  compel  the  king  to  consider 
the  incalculable  ruin  that  religion  will  suffer,  especially 
in  pagan  lands,  if  the  numberless  Christian  missions 
which  are  now  so  flourishing,  are  abandoned  and  left 
without  pastors."  Evidently  the  confessor  could  do 
nothing  with  his  royal  penitent. 

This  mad  act  of  Charles  did  not  please  some  of  his 
friends  in  France.  Thus,  on  May  4,  1767,  D'Alembert 
wrote  to  Voltaire:  "  What  do  you  think  of  the  edict 
of  Charles  III,  who  expels  the  Jesuits  so  abruptly? 
Persuaded  as  I  am  that  he  had  good  and  sufficient 
reason,  do  you  not  think  he  ought  to  have  made  them 
known  and  not  to  'shut  them  up  in  his  royal  heart?' 
Do  you  not  think  he  ought  to  have  allowed  the  Jesuits 
to  justify  themselves,  especially  as  every  one  is  sure 
they  could  not?  Do  you  not  think,  moreover,  that  it 
would  be  very  unjust  to  make  them  all  die  of  starvation, 
if  a  single  lay-brother  who  perhaps  is  cutting  cabbage 
in  the  kitchen  should  say  a  word,  one  way  or  the  other 
in  their  favor?  And  what  do  you  think  of  the  com- 
pliments which  the  King  of  Spain  addresses  to  the 
other  monks  and  priests,  and  cur6s  and  sacristants  of 
his  realm,  who  are  not  in  my  opinion  less  dangerous 
than  the  Jesuits,  except  that  they  are  more  stupid  and 


520  The  Jesuits 

vile?  Finally,  does  it  not  seem  to  you  that  he  could 
act  with  more  common  sense  in  carrying  out  what 
after  all,  is  a  reasonable  measure ?" 

In  spite  of  the  royal  order  enjoining  silence  on  his 
subjects  high  and  low,  there  was  a  great  deal  of  feeling 
manifested  at  the  outrage.  Roda,  an  agent  of  the 
ministry  at  Madrid,  tried  to  conceal  it  and  wrote  to 
the  Spanish  Embassy  at  Rome  on  April  15,  1767: 
"  There  is  not  much  agitation  here.  Some  rich 
people,  some  women  and  other  simpletons  are  very 
much  excited  about  it,  and  are  writing  a  great  deal 
of  their  affection  for  the  Jesuits,  but  that  is  clue  to 
their  blindness.  You  would  be  astounded  to  find  how 
numerous  they  are.  But  papers  discovered  in  the 
archives  and  libraries,  garrets  and  cellars,  furnish 
sufficient  matter  to  justify  the  act.  They  reveal  more 
than  people  here  suspect/*  And  yet  not  one  of  these 
incriminating  documents  "  found  in  archives  and 
libraries  and  garrets  and  cellars  "  was  ever  produced 

Among  "  the  simpletons  "  who  denounced  the  act 
was  the  Bishop  of  Cuenca,  Isidore  de  Carvajal,  who 
told  the  king  to  his  face,  what  he  thought  of  the  whole 
business.  The  Archbishop  of  Tarragona  did  the  same, 
but  they  both  incurred  the  royal  displeasure.  The 
Bishop  of  Terruel  published  a  pamphlet  "  The  Truth 
unveiled  to  the  King  our  Master  "  and  he  was  immedi- 
ately confined  in  a  Franciscan  convent,  while  his  Vicar- 
general  and  chancellor  were  thrown  into  jail.  The 
Archbishop  of  Toledo,  Cardinal  de  C6rdova,  wrote  to 
the  Pope  and  the  contents  of  his  letters  were  known 
in  Spain,  for  Roda,  the  individual  above  referred  to, 
hastened  to  tell  the  Spanish  ambassador  on  May  12, 
1767:  "In  spite  of  all  their  tricks,  the  Archbishop  of 
Toledo  and  his  vicar-general  have  written  a  thousand 
stupid  things  to  the  Pope  about  this  affair,  We 
would  not  be  a  bit  surprised  if  the  Bishop  of  Cuenca, 


Charles  III  521 

Coria,  Cuidad  Rodrigo,  Terruel  and  some  others  have 
done  the  same  thing,  but  we  are  not  sure.1'  A  year 
and  a  half  after  the  blow  was  struck  something  happened 
which  again  threw  the  timid  Charles  into  a  panic 
about  his  royal  life.  According  to  custom,  he  pre- 
sented himself  on  November  4,  1768,  on  the  balcony 
of  his  palace  to  receive  the  homage  of  his  people, 
and  to  grant  them  some  public  favor  out  of  his  munifi- 
cence. To  the  stupefaction  of  both  king  and  court, 
one  universal  cry  arose  from  the  vast  multitude, 
"Send  us  back  the  Jesuits!*'  Charles  withdrew  in 
alarm  and  immediately  investigations  began  with  the 
result  that  he  drove  out  of  the  kingdom  the  Cardinal 
Archbishop  of  Toledo  and  his  vicar  on  the  charge 
that  they  had  prompted  the  demand  of  the  people 
(Coxe,  "  Spain  under  the  Bourbons/*  v,  25). 

With  regard  to  the  supposed  letter  of  Father  Ricci 
which  brought  on  this  disaster,  it  may  be  of  use  to 
refer  here  to  what  was  told  thirty  years  after  these 
events,  in  a  work  called  "Du  r6tablissement  des  Jdsuites 
et  de  T  6ducation  publique  "  (Emmerick,  Lambert, 
Rouen).  The  author  says:  "It  is  proper  to  add  an 
interesting  item  to  the  story  of  the  means  employed 
to  destroy  the  Society  of  Jesus  in  the  mind  of  Charles 
III.  Besides  the  pretended  letter  of  Father  Ricci, 
there  were  other  suppositious  documents,  and  among 
these  lying  papers  was  a  letter  in  the  handwriting  of 
an  Italian  Jesuit  which  had  been  perfectly  imitated. 
It  contained  outrageous  denunciations  of  the  Spanish 
government.  When  Clement  XIII  insisted  on  having 
some  proof  to  throw  light  on  the  allegations,  this  letter 
was  sent  to  him.  Among  those  who  were  commissioned 
to  examine  it,  was  a  simple  prelate,  who  afterwards 
became  Pius  VL  Glancing  at  the  missive  he  re- 
marked that  the  paper  was  of  Spanish  manufacture, 
and  he  wondered  why  an  Italian  should  send  to  Spain 


522  The  Jesuits 

for  writing  material.  Looking  at  it  closer  and  holding 
it  up  to  the  light  he  saw  that  the  water-mark  gave 
not  only  the  name  of  a  Spanish  paper-factory,  but  also 
the  date  on  which  it  was  turned  out.  Now  it  happened 
that  this  date  was  two  years  after  the  letter  was  sup- 
posed to  have  been  written.  The  imposture  was  mani- 
fest, but  the  blow  had  already  been  struck.  Charles  III 
was  living  at  the  time,  yet  he  was  not  man  enough 
to  acknowledge  and  repair  the  wrong  he  had  done." 
(Cr6tineau  -Joly,  v,  241). 

On  the  day  appointed  by  the  king,  April  2,  1767, 
every  ship  selected  to  carry  out  the  edict  was  in  the 
harbor  assigned  to  it,  in  every  part  of  the  Spanish 
world,  where  there  happened  to  be  a  Jesuit  establish- 
ment. The  night  before  at  sundown  the  captain  had 
opened  the  letter  which  had  the  threat  on  its  envelope: 
"  Your  life  is  forfeited  if  you  anticipate  the  day  or  the 
hour/'  He  obeyed  his  instructions;  and  early  in 
the  morning  the  Fathers  in  the  college  of  Salamanca, 
Saragossa,  Madrid,  Barcelona  and  all  the  great  citiCvS, 
as  well  as  in  every  town  where  the  Jesuits  had  any 
kind  of  an  establishment,  heard  the  tramp  of  armed 
men  entering  the  halls.  The  members  of  the  house- 
hold were  ejected  from  their  rooms,  seals  were  put 
on  the  doors,  and  the  community  marched  down  like 
convicts  going  to  jail  Old  men  and  young,  the  sick 
and  even  the  dying,  all  had  to  go  to  the  nearest  point; 
of  embaroatton.  Not  a  syllable  were  they  allowed  to 
utter  as  they  tramped  along,  and  no  one  could  speak 
in  their  defence  without  being  guilty  of  high  treason. 
When  they  reached  the  ships,  they  were  herded  on 
board  like  cattle  and  despatched  to  Civita  Vecohia, 
to  be  fixing  on  the  shores  of  the  States  of  the  Pope, 
whose  permission  had  not  even  been  asked;  nor  had 
any  notice  been  given  him.  It  was  a  magnificent 
stroke  of  organised  work,  and  incidentally  very 


Charles  III  523 

profitable  to  the  government,  for  at  one  and  the  same 
moment  it  came  into  possession  of  158  Jesuit  houses, 
all  of  considerable  value  as  real  estate  and  some  of 
them  magnificent  in  their  equipment.  How  much  was 
added  to  the  Spanish  treasury  on  that  eventful 
morning,  we  have  no  means  of  computing. 

There  was  one  difficulty  in  the  proceedings,  however. 
The  supply  of  ships  was  insufficient,  for  2,643  men  had 
to  be  simultaneously  cared  for;  but  their  comfort 
did  not  interfere  with  the  progress  of  the  movement. 
"  They  were  piled  on  top  of  each  other  on  the  decks  or 
in  the  fetid  holds,"  says  Sismondi,"  as  if  they  were  crimi- 
nals." It  was  worse  than  the  African  slave-trade. 
Saint-Priest  thinks  "  it  was  a  trifle  barbarous,  but  the 
precipitation  was  unavoidable."  It  was  indeed  a  trifle 
barbarous  and  the  precipitation  was  not  unavoidable. 

In  rounding  up  the  victims,  the  king  and  the  ministers 
were  naturally  anxious  about  the  effect  it  might  have 
upon  many  of  the  best  Spanish  families  who  had 
sons  in  the  Order;  notably  the  two  Pignatellis,  who 
were  of  princely  lineage.  Inducements  were  held  out 
to  both  of  them  to  abandon  the  Society,  but  the  offer 
was  spurned  with  contempt.  Indeed  very  few  even 
of  the  novices  failed  in  this  sore  trial.  As  for  the 
Pignatellis  they  were  the  angels  of  this  exodus,  par- 
ticularly Joseph,  whose  exalted  virtue  is  now  being 
considered  in  Rome  in  view  of  his  beatification.  He 
was  at  Saragossa  when  the  royal  order  arrived,  and 
though  suffering  with  hemorrhages,  he  started  out 
afoot  on  the  weary  journey  to  Tarragona,  and  from 
there  to  Salu,  nine  miles  further  on,  where  nineteen 
brigantincs  were  assembled  to  receive  this  first  batch 
of  600  outcasts.  He  was  so  feeble  that  he  had  to  be 
carried  on  board  the  ship. 

From  there,  they  set  sail  for  Civita  Vecchia,  where 
they  arrived  on  May  7,  but  were  not  allowed  to  land. 


524  The  Jesuits 

Even  the  generally  fair  Schoell  describes  the  Pope's 
action  in  this  instance  as  "  characterized  by  the  greatest 
inhumanity."  On  the  contrary,  it  would  have  been  an 
act  of  the  greatest  inhumanity  to  receive  them.  There 
were  some  thousands  of  Portuguese  Jesuits  there  already, 
who  had  been  flung  on  the  shore  unannounced,  and  in 
that  impoverished  region  there  was  no  means  of 
providing  them  with  food  or  medicine  or  even  clothes 
and  beds.  To  have  admitted  this  new  detachment  of 
600  who  were  merely  the  forerunners  of  4,500  more, 
and  who,  in  turn  were  to  be  followed  by  all  the  Jesuits 
whom  Tanucci  would  drive  out  of  the  Neapolitan 
Kingdom,  and  those  whom  Choiseul  would  hasten  to 
gather  up  in  France,  the  result  would  have  been  that 
ten  or  fifteen  thousand  Jesuits  without  money  or 
food  or  clothing,  some  of  them  old  and  decrepit  and  ill, 
would  have  to  be  cared  for  and  the  native  population 
in  consequence  would  be  subjected  to  a  burden  that 
would  have  been  impossible  to  bear.  It  was  "  in- 
human "  no  doubt,  but  the  inhumanity  must  be 
ascribed  to  Charles  III  who  had  plundered  these 
victims,  and  not  to  Clement  XIII  who  would  have 
died  for  them.  His  first  duty  was  to  his  own  people 
and  his  next  was  to  proclaim  to  the  world  and  to  all 
posterity,  the  grossness  of  the  .insult  as  well  a*s  the 
injustice  inflicted  on  the  Vicar  of  Christ  by  the  Most 
Catholic  King,  Charles  III.  Nor  were  the  "  unhappy 
wretches/'  as  Bohmcr-Monod  call  them,  "  received  by 
cannon  shot,  at  the  demand  of  their  own  General, 
who  had  trouble  enough  with  the  Portuguese  already 
on  his  hands;"  (p.  274)  nor  did  the  Jesuits,  as  Saint- 
Priest  adds :  "  vent  their  rage  against  Ricct  and  blame 
his  harsh  administration,  as  the  cause  of  all  their 
woes."  Ricci  was  begging  for  bread  to  feed  his  Portu- 
guese sons  at  that  time,  and  he  certainly  would  not 
have  received  those  from  Spain  with  a  cannon  shot,; 


Charles  III  525 

nor  would  the  Jesuits  have  vented  their  rage  against 
him  and  blamed  his  harsh  administration,  especially 
as  his  administration  was  the  very  reverse  of  harsh; 
and,  finally,  Jesuits  were  not  accustomed  to  vent  their 
rage  against  their  superior. 

Sismondi  (Hist,  des  Frangais,  xxix,  372)  says  that 
"many  of  them  perished  on  board  ship,  and  Schoell 
describes  them  as  lying  on  top  of  one  another  on  deck 
for  weeks,  under  the  scorching  rays  of  the  sun  or  down 
in  the  fetid  hold."  The  filthy  ships  finally  turned  their 
prows  towards  Corsica  where  arrangements  had  been 
made  for  them  to  discharge  their  human  cargo.  It 
took  four  days  to  reach  that  island,  but  Paoli  was 
just  then  fighting  for  the  independence  of  his  country, 
and  French  ships  which  were  aiding  Genoa  occupied 
the  principal  ports.  At  first  the  exiles  remained  in 
their  ships,  but,  later,  they  were  allowed  to  go  ashore 
during  the  day.  Meantime,  a  vessel  had  been  de- 
spatched to  Spain  for  instructions  and  when  it  returned 
on  July  8,  the  "  criminals  "  were  ordered  to  go  to 
Ajaccio,  Algoila  or  CalvL  They  reached  Ajaccio  on 
July  24,  and  as  they  were  then  in  a  state  of  semi- 
starvation.  Father  Pignatelli  went  straight  to  the 
insurgent  camp,  though  at  every  step  he  risked  being 
shot  or  seized  and  hanged,  but  he  did  not  care,  he 
would  appeal  to  Paoli's  humanity.  He  was  well 
received,  help  was  sent  to  the  sufferers,  and  they  were 
given  liberty  to  go  where  they  chose  on  the  island. 

They  remained  there  a  month  and  were  then  sent 
to  the  town  of  Saint-Boniface,  where  they  bivouacked 
or  lived  in  sheds  until  the  8th  of  December,  when  they 
were  ordered  to  Genoa.  This  time  the  number  of 
brigantines  in  which  they  embarked  had  been  reduced 
from  thirteen  to  five,  though  the  number  of  the  victims 
had  considerably  increased;  but  tkat  mattered  little; 
they  finally  reached  the  mainland  but  were  not  per- 


526  The  Jesuits 

mitted  to  go  ashore.  Meantime,  other  Jesuits  had 
arrived  and  they  now  numbered  2,000  or  2,400.  After 
a  short  delay  in  the  harbor,  they  made  their  way 
separately  or  in  groups  to  different  cities  in  the  Papal 
States,  chiefly  to  Bologna  and  Perrara. 

Their  ejection  from  the  Two  Sicilies  was  a  foregone 
conclusion,  for  it  was  ruled  by  the  terrible  Bernardo 
Tanucci,  whom  Charles  III  on  his  accession  to  the 
throne  of  Spain  had  left  as  regent  during  the  minority 
of  Ferdinand  IV.  Tanucci  was  a  lawyer  who  began 
his  career  in  a  most  illegal  fashion  by  exciting  riots;  in 
Pisa  against  his  rival  Grandi.  They  had  quarrelled 
about  the  discovery  of  the  Pandects  of  Justinian.  He 
next  drew  the  attention  of  Charles  by  assailing  the 
right  of  asylum  for  criminals,  which  he  maintained  was 
in  contravention  of  all  law  human  and  divine.  "  He 
attacked  the  prerogatives  of  the  Court  of  Rome  and 
of  the  nobles  of  Naples,  with  more  fury  than  prudence/' 
says  de  Angelis  (Biographic  universelle).  Subse- 
quently he  showed  himself  the  enemy  of  the  Church 
in  every  possible  way,  and,  meantime,  so  neglected  to 
provide  for  the  security  of  the  State  that  during  the 
war  of  the  Pragmatic  Sanction,  King  Charles  had  to 
sign  an  act  of  neutrality  at  the  mouth  of  the  cannons 
of  a  British  man-of-war.  His  political  incapacity  con- 
tinued to  injure  the  country  duxing  the  reign  of  Ferdi- 
nand until  it  was  no  longer  reckoned  among  the 
military  powers  of  Europe.  Meantime,  he  kept  the 
young  king  in  ignorance  of  everything  so  as  to  maintain 
himself  in  power.  He  robbed  the  courts  of  justice  of 
their  power;  drew  up  the  Caroline  Code  which  was 
never  published;  ruined  the  finances  of  the  country, 
as  well  as  its  industry  and  agriculture,  and  allowed 
men  of  the  greatest  ability  and  learning  to  die  in 
penury.  In  brief,  says  his  biographer,  "Tanuod's 
reputation  both  before  and  after  his  death  is  a  mystery- 


Charles  III  527 

It  is  probably  due  to  his  prominence  as  a  bitter  enemy 
of  the  Holy  See.  He  seized  Beneventum  and  Ponte- 
corvo  which  belonged  to  the  Patrimony  of  Peter;  he 
suppressed  a  great  number  of  convents,  distributed 
abbeys  to  his  followers,  fomented  dissensions  against 
the  bishops  and,  of  course,  persecuted  the  Jesuits/' 

"When  Charles  III  of  Spain  expelled  the  Society  from 
Spain  everyone  knew  what  was  going  to  happen  in 
Sicily,  and  news  was  eagerly  expected  from  the  pen- 
insula. While  they  were  waiting,  an  eruption  of 
Vesuvius  took  place,  which  the  excitable  Italians 
regarded  as  a  sign  of  God's  wrath.  Penitential 
pilgrimages  were  organized  to  avert  the  danger  and 
angry  murmurs  were  heard  against  tjie  government. 
To  quell  tjie  tumult,  Tanucci  sent  out  word  that  the 
Jesuits  would  be  undisturbed,  though  ships  were  at 
that  time  on  their  way  to  carry  off  the  victims.  The 
young  king's  signature  to  the  decree  had,  however,  to 
be  procured,  but  he  angrily  refused  to  give  it  until 
the  official  confessor,  Latelle,  the  retired  Bishop  of 
Avellino  entreated  him  to  yield,  saying  that  he  him- 
self would  answer  for  it  on  the  Day  of  Judgment. 
The  prelate  did  not  know  that  he  himself  was  to  die 
at  the  end  of  the  month.  The  expulsion  took  place 
in  the  usual  dramatic  fashion.  At  midnight  of 
November  3,  1767,  squads  of  soldiers  descended  on 
every  Jesuit  establishment  in  the  land.  The  doors  were 
smashed  in;  the  furniture  shattered;  all  the  papers 
seized,  both  official  and  personal,  and  then  surrounded 
by  platoons  of  soldiers,  the  Fathers  were  led  like 
criminals  through  the  streets  to  the  nearest  beach  with 
nothing  but  the  clothes  on  their  backs.  The  whole 
affair  was  managed  with  such  lightning-like  rapidity, 
that  though  the  prisoners  had  been  taken  from  their 
houses  at  midnight,  they  were  out  at  sea  before  dawn 
and  were  heading  for  Ferrara. 


528  The  Jesuits 

At  Parma  another  Spanish  prince  ruled.  He  was 
still  a  child,  however,  but  his  minister  was  du  Pillot, 
a  statesman  of  the  school  of  Tanucci  and  Choiseul. 
The  expulsion  took  place  simultaneously  on  the 
night  of  February  7,  1768  at  Piacenza,  Parma,  San 
Domino  and  Busseto.  In  the  first  city,  all  the  avail- 
able vehicles  of  the  place  had  been  requisitioned. 
At  seven  o'clock  at  night  a  dozen  soldiers  entered  the 
house.  Later,  an  officer,  two  adjutants  and  a  magis- 
trate appeared,  read  the  decree,  the  fourth  article  of 
which  declared  that  any  one  not  a  priest  or  professor 
who  would  take  off  the  habit  of  the  society  would  be 
received  among  the  faithful  subjects  of  his  royal 
highness.  The  fifth  announced  that  the  innate  clemency 
of  his  highness  accorded  an  annual  pension  of  sixty 
scud}  to  the  professed  and  forty  to  the  brothers  who 
were  his  subjects.  The  scholastics  were  to  get  nothing. 
In  a  quarter  of  an  hour  they  were  hurried  to  the  citadel 
where  carriages  and  carts  were  waiting  and  wore 
driven  all  night  at  top  speed  to  Parma,  where  they 
arrived  at  day  break.  Passing  through  the  city  they 
caught  up  with  those  who  had  been  expelled  from  the 
other  places.  Half  an  hour's  rest  and  a  bite  to  cat 
were  allowed  and  then  the  journey  was  continued  on  to 
Reggio  and  Bologna,  Not  to  be  outdone  in  zeal  for 
the  king,  the  Knights  of  Malta  drove  them  from  the 
island  on  April  aa,  1768.  The  expulsion  at  Parma  was 
disastrous  not  only  to  the  Jesuits  but  to  the  Pope. 
Parma  was  his  fief,  and  he  protested  against  the  action 
of  the  duke.  It  was  precisely  what  the  plotters  were 
waiting  for.  France  immediately  seized  the  Comtat 
Vcnaissin,  and  Naples  took  possession  of  Beneventum, 
both  of  which  belonged  to  the  Patrimony  of  St.  Peter. 
Of  course,  the  Jesuits  were  immediately  expelled  and 
their  property  confiscated 


Charles  III  529 

The  expulsion  in  Spanish  America  meant  the  seizure 
of  at  least  158  establishments  belonging  to  the  Jesuits 
in  Mexico,  New  Granada,  Ecuador,  Peru  and  Chili. 
It  involved  the  flinging  out  into  the  world  of  2,943 
Jesuits,  some  of  them  old  and  infirm  and  absolutely 
unable  to  earn  their  living.  Of  those  who  embarked 
at  Valparaiso  sixty  were  drowned  in  'the  wreck  of  the 
ship  "  Our  Lady  of  the  Hermitage/1  Carayon  gives 
some  interesting  diaries  of  the  journeys  of  these  exiles 
(Doc.  in£dits,  xvi),  while  Hubert  Bancroft  in  his 
monumental  work  of  thirty-nine  volumes  about  the 
Pacific  Coast  furnishe's  abundant  and  valuable  infor- 
mation about  the  exodus  from  the  missions  of  Mexico. 
The  victims  underwent  the  same  sufferings  as  their 
Portuguese  brethren  in  the  long  journeys  over  mountains 
and  through  the  primeval  forests  and  in  the  long, 
horrible  crossing  of  the  ocean  to  their  native  land, 
which  they  were  thought  unworthy  to  enter. 


CHAPTER  XVII 

THE  FINAL  BLOW 

Ganganclli  —  Political  plotting  at  the  Election  —  Bernis,  Aranda 
Aubeterre  —  The  Zdanti  —  Election  of  Clement  XIV  —  Renewal  of 
Jesuit  Privileges  by  the  new  Pope  —  Demand  of  the  Bourbons  for  a 
universal  Suppression  —  The  Three  Years  Struggle  —  Fanaticism  of 
Charles  III  —  Menaces  of  Schism  —  Moftino  —  Maria  Theresa  — 
Spoliations  in  Italy  —  Signing  the  Brief  —  Imprisonment  of  Father 
Ricci  and  the  Assistants  —  Silence  and  Submission  of  the  Jesuits  to 
the  Pope's  Decree. 

As  early  as  1768,  the  Bourbon  courts  let  it  be  known 
that  they  would  make  a  formal  demand  for  the  sup- 
pression of  the  Society  throughout  Christendom.  On 
January  14  of  that  year,  Cardinal  Torregiam  wrote 
to  the  papal  nuncio  at  Madrid  as  follows;  "  His 
Holiness  is  horrified  at  the  attitude  of  the  king,  and 
indignant  that  the  demand  should  be  accompanied 
by  threats  to  force  his  hand,  so  as  to  wring  from  him 
a  concession  which  is  in  violation  of  divine,  natural 
and  ecclesiastical  law.  If  any  mention  of  it  is  made 
to  you  again,  dismiss  immediately  the  person  who 
dares  to  suggest  it,'*  That  stinging  rebuke,  however, 
did  not  halt  the  stubborn  Charles,  and  in  the  January 
of  1769  the  coalition  began  its  attack.  First  came  the 
Spanish  representative  who  presented  himself  for  an 
audience  on  the  eighteenth.  The  Pope  received  him 
with  dignified  reserve;  gave  expression  to  the  intense 
pain  caused  by  the  request,  and  then,  bursting  into 
tears,  withdrew.  On  the  twentieth  and  twenty-second 
respectively,  Orsini,  representing  Naples,  made  his 
appearance  and  after  him  Aubctcrrc,  on  behalf  of 
Prance.  They  were  both  abruptly  dismissed.  The 
French  document  was  especially  insulting.  It  advised 


The  Final  Blow  531 

the  Pope  to  admit  the  demand  on  the  ground  that  it 
was  based  on  a  sincere  and  well-informed  zeal  for  the 
progress  of  religion,  the  interest  of  the  Roman  Church, 
and  the  peace  of  Christendom.  The  use  of  the  ex- 
pression "  Roman  "  Church  was  an  evident  hint  at 
schism. 

On  January  25,  a  formal  reply  was  sent  to  the  three 
courts,  informing  them  that  "  the  Pope  could  not 
explain  the  deplorable  audacity  they  had  displayed  in 
adding  to  the  sorrows  that  already  overwhelmed  the 
Church,  a  new  anguish  the  only  purpose  of  which 
was  to  torture  the  conscience  and  distress  the  soul 
of  His  Holiness.  An  impartial  posterity  would  judge 
if  such  acts  could  be  regarded  as  a  new  proof  of  that 
filial  love  which  these  sovereigns  boast  of  having  for 
His  Holiness  personally,  and  an  assurance  of  that 
attachment  which  they  pretend  to  show  for  the  Holy 
See/'  On  January  28,  Cardinal  Negroni  told  the 
ambassadors:  "You  are  digging  the  grave  of  the 
Holy  Father."  The  prophecy  was  almost  immediately 
fulfilled,  for  on  February  2  Clement  XIII  died  of  a 
stroke  of  apoplexy.  He  had  officiated  at  the  ceremonies 
of  that  day,  and  had  shown  no  sign  of  illness.  The 
blow  was  a  sudden  one,  and  there  is  no  doubt  that 
this  joint  act  of  the  Bourbon  kings  had  caused  his 
death*  De  Ravignan  does  not  hesitate  to  describe  him 
as  a  martyr  who  died  in  defence  of  the  rights  of  the 
Church.  He  is  blamed  by  some  for  "  his  lack  of 
foresight  in  not  yielding  to  the  exigencies  of  the  times." 
But  there  were  other  "  exigencies  of  the  times  "  besides 
those  formulated  by  the  men  "  who  knew  not  the  secrets 
of  God,  nor  hoped  for  the  wages  of  justice,  nor  esteemed 
the  honor  of  holy  souls,"  and  the  Pope's  foresight 
was  not  limited  by  the  horizons  of  Pombal,  Choiseul 
and  Charles  III,  "  His  pontificate,"  as  has  been  well 
said,  "  affords  the  spectacle  of  a  saint  clad  in  moral 


532  The  Jesuits 

strength,  contending  alone  against  the  powers  of 
the  world.  Such  a  spectacle  is  an  acquisition  forever." 
For  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  those  arrayed  against, 
him  in  this  fight  were  not  aiming  merely  at  the  anni- 
hilation of  the  Society  of  Jesus.  That  was  only  a 
secondary  consideration.  Their  purpose  was  to  destroy 
the  Church,  and  in  its  defence  Pope  Clement  XIII 
died. 

A  new  Pope  was  now  to  be  elected  and  the  alarming 
influence  wielded  by  the  statesmen  of  Europe  in 
ecclesiastical  affairs  now  assumed  proportions  which 
seemed  to  menace  the  destruction  of  the  Church 
itself.  In  his  "  C16ment  XIII  et  Clement  XIV" 
(p.  552)  de  Ravignan  gives  an  extract  from  Theiner 
which  is  startling.  In  1769,  that  is  before  the  election, 
we  find  all  the  cardinals  tabulated  as  "  good;'1  *'  bad;'1 
"indifferent;"  "doubtful;"  "worst;"  "null."  Their 
ages  are  given ;  their  characters* their  political  tendencies. 
Among  those  marked  "  good  "  is  Ganganelli;  Rczzonico, 
the  nephew  of  Clement  XIII  is  in  the  category  of  the 
"  worst;"  the  Cardinal  of  York  is  "  null/1  There  are 
eleven  who  are  labelled  "  papobili"  ten  to  be  excluded 
and  fourteen  to  be  avoided.  It  is  even  settled  who 
is  to  be  secretary  of  State.  Weekly  instructions  in 
this  matter  were  sent  from  the  court  of  Spain  to  its 
agents  at  Rome,  whose  motto  was;  "nee  turpe  ust 
quod  dominus  jubct— nothing  is  base  if  the  king  orders 
it."  They  were  at  that  time  precisely  the  kind  of 
men  that  the  implacable  Charles  III  needed  to  sustain 
him  in  his  iniquitous  measure:  unprincipled  qlerics  like 
Sales,  or  savages  like  Monifto,  or  Aspuru,  who  ex  mid 
write:  *'  What  matter  that  the  charges  are  not 
proved?  The  accused  has  been  condemned.  We  have 
not  to  establish  his  guilU"  As  for  the  flippant  Bernis 
and  the  infidel  Aubeterrc,  they  were  good  enough  for 
the  royal  debauchee*  Ixuiis  XV.  Aubelerre  had  been 


The  Final  Blow  533 

a  soldier,  was  now  a  diplomat  and  had  lost  his  faith 
by  contact  with  the  revolting  indecencies  of  the 
regency,  while  Bernis,  says  Carayon,  was  "  a  dis- 
tinguished type  of  French  vanity  who  talked  much, 
schemed  continually  and  fancied  he  controlled  the 
conclave  though  he  was  only  a  fly  on  the  wheel.  He 
was  not  ashamed  to  admit  that  he  owed  his  red  hat  to 
la  Pompadour."' 

Bernis'  correspondence  with  his  government  is 
valuable  not  only  in  showing  how  unscrupulous  were 
the  methods  of  coercion  employed  but  in  revealing 
the  ultimate  purpose  of  the  conspirators,  viz.  the 
establishment  of  state  churches  in  their  several  king- 
doms. He  and  de  Luynes  were  instructed  to  insist 
that  the  new  Pope  should:  first,  annul  the  Brief  of 
Clement  XIII  against  Parma;  secondly,  recognize  the 
independent  sovereignty  of  the  Prince;  thirdly,  re- 
linquish Avignon  and  the  Comtat  Venaissin  to  Prance, 
and  Beneventum  to  Sicily;  fourthly,  exile  Cardinal 
Torregiani,  the  prime  minister  of  Clement  XIII; 
fifthly,  completely  abolish  the  Society  of  Jesus; 
secularize  its  members,  and  expel  Father  Ricci,  the 
the  General,  from  Rome.  They  let  it  be  known  that 
there  would  be  no  backing  down. on  these  five  points. 

It  was  chiefly  to  secure  the  suppression  of  the 
Society  that  the  fight  was  to  be  made.  The  other 
matters  could  be  left,  if  necessary,  for  future  adjust- 
ment. If  every  other  means  failed,  intimidation  was 
to  be  resorted  to.  Indeed,  as  a  preparation,  veiled 
threats  began  to  be  heard  from  several  quarters. 
Thus,  for  instance,  Louis  XV  put  his  name  to  the 
following  insulting  letter:  "  My  sincere  and  constant 
wish  is,"  he  said,  "  that  the  Barque  of  Peter  should 
be  entrusted  to  a  pilot  who  is  enlightened  enough  to 
appreciate  the  necessity  of  having  the  Head  of  the 
Church  remain  in  the  most  perfect  harmony  with  all 


534  The  Jesuits 

the  sovereigns  of  the  Roman  Faith;  and  of  being  wise 
enough  to  avoid  every  inconsiderate  measure  prompted 
by  indiscreet  and  extravagant  zeal;  in  brief,  one  who 
will  shape  his  policy  by  the  rules  of  moderation, 
prudence  and  sweetness  in  keeping  with  divine  wisdom 
and  human  politics."  Such  language  from  the  "  Most 
Christian  King"  was  an  outrage  on  the  memory  of 
Clement  XIII;  and  the  words  "  Roman  Faith" 
contained,  as  on  a  previous  occasion,  a  threat  of  schism. 
Schoell,  the  Prbtestant  historian,  says  that  "the 
formation  of  State  Churches  in  the  three  kingdoms 
was  clearly  the  avowed  purpose  of  these  plotters." 

The  "Zelanti1"  were  in  the  majority,  but  that 
difficulty  was  soon  disposed  of  by  the  veto  power 
which  had  been  granted  to  the  Catholic  sovereigns. 
Making  full  use  of  it,  they  shamelessly  forbade  the 
consideration  of  any  candidate  who  was  suspected  of 
being  unfriendly  to  them,  with  the  result  that  the 
number  of  eligible  candidates  was  speedily  reduced 
to  eleven;  and  as  most  of  these  latter  were  old  or 
infirm  they  could  not  be  even  considered  by  the  electors. 
At  this  point,  Bcmis  protested  against  being  excessive 
in  the  eliminations.  Finally  there  were  only  two 
cardinals  who  could  be  considered  papabili :  Ganganelli 
and  Stoppani. 

On  March  7,  1769,  instructions  arrived  from  Madrid 
emphatically  insisting  that  the  election  of  no  Pope 
would  be  recognized  who  would  not  first;  bind  himself 
to  grant  the  five  points  insisted  upon  by  the  Bourbon 
kings,  hut  when  the  two  vSpanish  cardinals  at  Rome, 
represented  to  Charles  III  that  such  a  proposal  to  the 
electors  would  involve  serious  risks,  the  obstinate 
king  insisted,  nevertheless,  that  he  would  yield  on 
three  of  the  points,  but  that  he  would  have  to  exact 
absolutely  as  a  condition  of  election  that  the  new  Pope 
would  promise  to  caned  the  previous  Pontiff's  action 


The  Final  Blow  535 

with  regard  to  the  Duke  of  Parma,  and  also  suppress 
the  whole  Society  of  Jesus.  He  wanted  the  conclave 
to  pass  a  decree  to  that  effect.  Even  in  the  Parma 
affair,  he  was  willing  to  relent,  because  as  Clement 
XIII  was  dead,  his  ruling  might  be  considered  as 
having  lapsed,  but  as  for  the  Society  of  Jesus,  nothing 
would  satisfy  him  except  its  absolute  extinction.  That 
much  was  due,  he  said,  to  the  three  powerful  monarchs 
on  whom  the  Church  depended  for  support.  On  the 
other  hand,  as  it  would  not  be  proper  to  compromise 
the  reputation  of  these  kings  by  letting  it  be  known 
that  such  a  deal  was  being  made,  for  it  might  happen 
to  fail;  it  was  thought  better  not  to  give  any  precise 
orders,  but  to  leave  to  the  discretion  of  those  who  were 
on  the  spot  to  determine  what  means  should  be  em- 
ployed fpr  bringing  about  the  desired  results. 

The  project  of  getting  a  distinct  decree  from  the 
conclave  in  the  sense  of  the  King  of  Spain  was 
abandoned,  but  while  the  political  cardinals  would 
not  hear  of  exacting  a  written  promise,  the  ambassadors 
who  were  working  on  the  outside,  openly  avowed  that 
they  had  no  scruples  about  it.  Indeed,  Aubeterre,  the 
French  ambassador,  wrote  to  Choiseul  in  France 
complaining  that  he  and  his  fellow-diplomats  felt  hurt 
that  their  proposal  should  be  rejected  for  moral  reasons, 
especially  as  they  had  secretly  consulted  an  excellent 
canonist,  who  ruled  that  there  would  be  no  harm 
in  imposing  on  the  new  Pontiff  the  obligation  of 
fulfilling  the  contract  inside  of  a  year,  dating  from  the 
day  of  his  election.  Not  only  was  it  permissible,  he 
said,  but,  in  the  circumstances,  it  was  imperatively 
urgent  for  the  good  of  the  Church.  "  The  excellent 
canonist "  here  referred  to  was  Azpuru,  the  Spanish 
ambassador,  but  as  Cardinals  Orsini,  Bernis  and  de 
Luynes  insisted  that  such  a  contract  would  be 
simoniacal,  they  were  informed  that  if  an  unacceptable 


535  The  Jesuits 

Pope  was  elected  there  xvould  be  an  immediate  rupture 
of  relations  with  the  Holy  See  and  the  representatives 
of  the  three  Powens  would  withdraw  from  Rome. 
They  were  further  told  that  it  was  hoped  that  the 
fanatics,  or  Zelanti,  would  not  drive  them  to  such 
an  extremity.  D'Aubeterre  who  voiced  the  opinion 
of  his  associates  went  so  far  as  to  say,  that  any  election 
which  had  not  been  arranged  beforehand  with  the 
court  would  not  be  recognized. 

Finally,  after  the  conclave  had  been  in  session  from 
February  13  to  May  19,  Cardinal  Ganganelli  was 
elected  Pope  and  took  the  name  of  Clement  XIV.  He 
was  considered  "  acceptable/'  especially  by  Spain. 
According  to  Cordara,  however,  his  elevation  to  the 
pontifical  throne  was  not  due  to  the  influence  or  the 
manipulations  of  the  Spanish  cardinals  but  was.brought 
about  as  follows; —  "  Prom  the  beginning  of  the  con- 
clave two  or  three  votes  were  deposited  in  his  favor,  but 
he  was  never  seriously  thought  of  as  Pope*  Indeed, 
Cardinal  Castclli,  whose  learning  and  piety  gave 
him  great  influence  in  the  Sacred  College,  was  strongly 
opposed  to  him.  Suddenly,  however,  he  changed  his 
opinion  and  declared  that,  having  considered  the  matter 
more  thoroughly,  he  was  convinced  that  in  the  actual 
circumstances,  no  one  was  better  fitted  for  the  post 
than  Ganganelli.  Prom  that  moment,  those  who  had 
been  opposed  to  him  regarded  him  favorably.  Even 
Rezsonioo,  the  nephew  of  Clement  XIII,  who  had 
many  reasons  to  vote  against  him  said  ho  would  take 
the  opinion  of  the  majority  of  the  cardinals.  Hence  the 
only  one  against  him  was  Orsini  who  said  that  "  the 
Franciscan  was  a  Jesuit  in  disguise.*'  He  was,  there- 
fore, after  the  fight  had  raged  for  100  days,  elected  by 
forty-six  out  of  forty-seven  votes,  The  forty-seventh 
was  his  own,  which  he  cast  in  favor  of  Re^onieo. 
It  is  not  true  that  lie  had  made  a  promise  to  suppress 


The  Final  Blow  537 

the  Society  in  case  of  election.  Azpuru,  the  Spanish 
agent,  wrote  on  May  8 :  "No  one  has  gone  so  far  as 
to  propose  to  anyone  to  give  a  written  or  verbal 
promise  ";  and  after  May  13,  he  added:  "  Ganganelli 
neither  made  a  promise  nor  refused  it."  Unfortu- 
nately some  of  his  written  words  were  interpreted  as 
implying  it. 

Ganganelli  was  born  in  the  town  of  Sant'  Arcangelo, 
near  Rimini,  on  October  31,  1705,  and  was  baptised 
Giovanni  Vincenzo  Antonio,  but  took  the  name  of 
Lorenzo  when  he  became  a  Conventual  of  St.  Francis. 
His  life  as  a  friar  was  characterized  by  piety  and 
intense  application  to  study.  He  was  noted  for  his 
admiration  of  everything  pertaining  to  the  Society  of 
Jesus,  and,  indeed,  Pope  Clement  XIII  when  making 
him  a  cardinal  said,  "  there  is  now  a  Jesuit  in  the 
Sacred  College  in  the  habit  of  a  Franciscan. "  But 
"  the  purple  seemed  to  change  him,"  says  Cordara, 
"  and  from  that  out  he  was  more  reserved  in  his 
manifestations  of  friendship.'*  As  Pope  he  was  as 
simple  in  his  way  of  life  as  when  living  with  his  commu- 
nity; he  was  gentle,  affable,  kind,  rarely  ruffled,  never 
precipitate  and  never  carried  away  by  inconsiderate  zeal. 
He  would  have  made  an  admirable  Pope  in  better 
times.  But  when  he  was  given  control  of  the  Barque 
of  Peter  a  wild  storm  was  sweeping  over  the  world. 
Venice,  Parma,  Naples,  France,  Spain  and  Portugal 
were  arrayed  against  him  —  some  of  them  threatening 
separation  from  the  Church,  Austria,  the  only  Cath- 
olic government  that  remained,  observed  neutrality  at 
first,  but  finally  went  to  the  wrong  side.  In  brief, 
a  fierce  and  united  anti-religious  element  dominated  all 
Catholic  Europe,  and  the  rest  was  Protestant. 

Of  course,  immediately  after  his  election,  felici- 
tations rained  upon  him,  but  as  de  Ravignan  expresses 
it,  "  they  were  like  flowers  on  the  head  of  the  victim 


538  The  Jesuits 

that  was  to  be  immolated. "  Indeed,  even  in  the 
congratulations  harsh  notes  were  heard,  as  when  France 
expressed  its  hope  that  the  Holy  See  would  show  more 
condescension  to  the  powers  than  usual,  and  when 
Spain  "  urgently  called  the  attention  of  His  Holi- 
ness to  certain  petitions  which  had  been  presented 
to  him,"  The  Spanish  ambassador,  Azpuru,  reminded 
him  in  the  very  first  audience  that  application  had 
already  been  made  to  his  predecessor  for  the  suppres- 
sion of  the  Jesuits,  The  representatives  of  France, 
Portugal  and  Naples  chanted  the  same  dirge.  Before 
three  months  had  elapsed,  there  was  an  explosion  that 
shook  Christendom.  Following  an  accepted  custom, 
the  Pope  issued  the  septennial  Brief  of  indulgences  in 
favor  of  the  missionaries  "  to  bestow  the  treasures  of 
heavenly  blessings  on  those  who,  to  our  knowledge, 
arc  laboring  with  indefatigable  zeal  for  the  salvation 
of  souls.  We  include  among  these  fervent  apostles, 
the  Religious  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  especially 
those  whom  our  beloved  son,  Lorenzo  Ricci,  is  to  assign 
this  year  and  afterwards,  in  various  provinces  of  the 
Society,  to  that  work;  and  we  most  certainly  desire  to 
promote  and  increase  by  these  spiritual  favors  the  piety 
and  the  active  and  enterprising  zeal  of  those  Religious." 
It  was  a  thunderbolt.  Fierce  protests  were  made  in 
Spain,  Naples,  Parma  and  Prance.  Choisoul,  who,  up 
to  that  time,  had  been  suave  in  his  malice,  lost  his 
temper  completely  and  ordered  the  Ambassador  Bonus 
not  only  to  make  a  public  demand  for  the  suppression 
of  the  Society  but  to  order  the  Pope  to  begin  it  inside  of 
two  months.  "  This  Pope  is  trifling  with  us/'  he 
said;  "and  if  he  does  not  come  to  terms  he  can  con- 
sider all  relations  with  Franco  at  an  end/*  He  became, 
grossly  insulting  and  declared  that  "  he  had  enough  of 
this  monkery ;"  he  would  upset  the  plans  of  th&Fmtacci; 
and  annihilate  his  Roman  finesse,  "A  monk  was 


The  Final  Blow  539 

always  a  monk,"  he  said  "and  it  was  very  hard  for  an 
Italian  monk  to  be  honest  and  frank  in  business 
matters."  Choiseul's  varnish  of  courtesy  had  been  all 
rubbed  off  by  the  incident,  and  he  wanted  to  know 
"  who  were  going  to  win  in-  the  fight?  the  kings  or 
the  Jesuits?  If  I  were  amabssador  at  Rome/'  he 
wrote  to  Bernis,  "  I  would  be  ashamed  to  see  Father 
Ricci  the  antagonist  of  my  master." 

Bernis,  Cardinal  though  he  was,  meekly  replied: 
"  Of  course  the  kings  must  win,  but  only  the  Pope  can 
make  them  win.  However,  he  has  to  do  it  according  to 
the  prescriptions  of  canon  law,  and  must  save  his  own 
reputation  as  well  as  that  of  the  clergy.  Moreover, 
as  he  is  a  temporal  sovereign,  he  has  to  consider  the 
courts  of  Vienna,  Turin  and  Poland,  and  all  that  takes 
time.  Personally,  he  means  to  keep  the  promise  already 
given  to  the  three  crowns  to  suppress  the  Society,  and 
has  shown  his  mind  on  that  point  by  public  acts 
against  the  Fathers.  He  will  renew  the  promise 
explicitly  and  immediately,  in  a  letter  written  in  his 
own  hand  to  the  King  of  Spain,  He  is  not  feeble  or 
false  as  you  seem  to  think.  Time  will  show  that  such 
is  his  purpose.  But,  first,  the  way  to  lose  the  battle 
with  the  Jesuit  General  is  to  begin  now.  The  Pope 
cannot  and  will  not  do  it  without  preparation. 
Secondly,  France  and  Spain  must  agree  on  the  time 
and  manner  of  arriving  at  the  extinction  of  the  Jesuits. 
Thirdly,  it  would  be  wiser  to  restrict  the  suppression 
to  the  Papal  States,  and  not  attempt  it  in  countries 
that  are  favorable  to  the  Society.  Fourthly,  a  good 
preliminary  would  be  to  forbid  the  reception  of  novices, 
as  the  Pope  has  already  done  in  his  own  dominions. 
Marefoschi  and  I  put  that  into  his  head.  Fifthly,  I 
also  proposed  the  seizure  of  the  archives,  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  Vicar  General,  to  whom  Father  Ricci  will 
render  an  account  of  his  administration." 


540  The  Jesuits 

Serais'  temporising,  however,  only  exasperated  the 
foes  of  the  Society,  especially  Charles  III.  Never- 
theless, he  succeeded  in  inducing  the  Pope  to  write  to 
Louis  XV  on  September  30,  and  in  this  communica- 
cation  a  promise  was  made  to  do  all  the  king  wanted. 
But  that  was  not  enough  for  Charles.  To  force  the 
issue,  he  ordered  all  the  Jesuit  property  in  Spain^to  be 
put  up  at  auction,  and  a  copy  of  the  decree  was  sent 
to  the  Pope.  That  was  on  November  8,  and  on 
November  13,  a  joint  letter  was  sent  by  the  three 
powers  requesting  Clement  to  publish  a  Brief  motu 
proprio,  that  is  on  his  own  initiative,  as  if  they  had 
had  nothing  to  do  with  it,  approving  all  that  the 
Bourbon  princes  had  done  against  the  Society;  and 
also  to  send  to  their  majesties  the  plan  he  proposed 
to  follow  in  carrying  out  its  complete  suppression. 
Clement  humbly  submitted  to  the  outrage,  and  seven 
days  later,  Bernis  was  able  to  write  to  Choiseul: 
"  His  Holiness  has  renewed  in  the  strongest  manner 
the  two  promises  he  had  made  to  the  Bourbon  kings 
with  regard  to  the  Brief  approving  the  missionaries, 
and  the  plan  to  suppress  the  Jesuit  Order.  He  has 
commissioned  me  to  positively  assure  the  ministers  of 
the  powers  on  that  point." 

Spain  wanted  even  more  than  that;  and  on  November, 
22d,  Azpuru  told  the  Pope  that  if  he  did  not  send  a 
manuscript  letter  to  the  king  promising  the  suppression, 
extreme  measures  would  be  resorted  to,  and  the  rupture 
of  relations  which  had  been  begun  in  1767  and  which 
was  so  disastrous  to  the  Church  in  Spain  would  be 
carried  to  its  limit.  He  was  not  exaggerating,  and 
the  nuncio  at  Madrid  wrote  that  the  king  was  so  set 
on  his  purpose,  that  they  did  not  know  what  mad 
thing  he  might  do  to  gain  his  point.  The  general 
impression  was  that  Charles  was  on  the  verge  of 
insanity. 


The  Final  Blow  541 

To  quiet  him,  the  Pope  wrote,  on  November  30,  to 
say  positively  that  he  would  carry  out  the  will  of  the 
courts.  "  We  have  gathered  all  the  documents,'1  he 
said,  "  that  are  needed  for  writing  the  motu  proprio 
agreed  upon;  so  as  to  justify  to  the  whole  world,  the 
wise  conduct  of  your  majesty  in  expelling  the  Jesuits, 
as  troublesome  and  turbulent  subjects.  As  we  are 
carrying  on  our  government,  unaided,  although  crushed 
by  the  weight  and  multiplicity  of  questions  that 
have  to  be  settled,  you  will  understand  that  it  is 
not  forgetfulness  but  merely  the  unavoidable  delay 
required  to  bring  this  important  matter  to  a 
successful  issue."  Indeed  at  that  time  Clement 
had  secluded  himself  from  everyone.  He  was  in 
constant  fear  of  being  poisoned,  and  had  his  food 
prepared  by  a  Cordelier  lay-brother.  "  We  beg  Your 
Majesty ,"  he  continued,  "  to  put  your  entire  confi- 
dence in  us,  for  we  have  fully  resolved  to  act,  and  we 
are  preparing  to  give  to  the  public  incontestable 
proofs  of  our  sincerity.  We  shall  submit  to  the  wis- 
dom and  intelligence  of  Your  Majesty  a  plan  for  the 
total  extinction  of  this  Society;  and  Your  Majesty  will 
receive  it  shortly.  We  shall  not  cease  to  give  gen- 
uine proofs  of  our  attachment  and  our  veneration 
for  Your  Majesty  to  whom  in  the  plenitude  of  our 
paternal  affection  we  give  our  apostolic  benediction  " 
(De  Ravignan,  "  Cl&nent  XIII  et  Clement  XIV," 
I,  295). 

Bernis  gave  himself  the  credit  of  having  got  the 
Pope  to  write  this  letter,  and  said  that  now:  "  His 
Holiness  could  not  escape  carrying  out  his  promise. 
He  will  be  forced  to  do  it,  in  spite  of  his  unwillingness, 
for  he  knows  that  the  king  is  too  intelligent  not  to 
publish  the  letter,  and  the  Pope  will  be  disgraced  if  he 
does  not  keep  his  word"  (Saint-Priest,  p.  131).  Thus 
six  months  after  his  election,  he  was  bound  by  a  written 


542  The  Jesuits 

and  absolute  promise  to  suppress  the  Society;  though  h£ 
was  continually  saying  "  questa  supressione  mi  dar& 
la  morte"  (this  suppression  will  kill  me).  At  this 
stage  of  the  proceedings  little  Naples  was  becoming 
obstreperous.  Tanucci  had  seized  the  Greek  College 
and  expelled  the  Jesuits.  He  then  claimed  the  property 
of  all  religious  communities,  and  when  remonstrated 
with,  he  replied  that  "  he  was  going  to  keep  on  thwart- 
ing every  order  that  came  from  Rome,  until  the  Society 
of  Jesus  was  abolished.'*  In  1770  the  Pope  cancelled 
the  excommunication  of  the  Duke  of  Parma  to  gratify 
the  sovereigns,  but  the  satisfaction  that  ensued  did  not 
last  long.  Cardinal  Pacca,  who  was  quasi-nuncio  at 
Lisbon  just  then,  notes  the  disorders  prevalent  in 
the  country  especially  in  the  University  of  Coimbra, 
where  the  worst  kind  of  teaching  was  permitted. 
On  July  3,  1770,  Bernis  wrote  to  Choiseul:  "  I 
heard  that  the  Founder  of  the  Passionists,  Paul  of 
the  Cross,  has  warned  the  Pope  to  watch  over  his 
kitchen,  and  hence  Brother  Francisco  who  looks  after 
the  Pope's  household  has  redoubled  his  vigilance. 
I  do  not  know  if  it  is  on  account  of  this  warning,  but 
in  any  case  the  Pope  has  gone  to  some  mineral  springs 
for  treatment  and  is  to  be  there  for  the  next  fortnight/' 
Ten  days  afterwards,  Choiseul  replied:  "I  cannot 
imagine  the  Pope  is  so  credulous  or  so  cowardly  as  to 
be  so  easily  frightened  by  reports  about  attempts  on 
his  life.  The  Society  of  Jesus  has  been  looked  upon 
as  dangerous  because  of  its  doctrines,  its  Institute 
and  its  intrigues  in  the  countries  from  which  they 
have  been  expelled;  but  they  have  not  been  accused 
of  being  poisoners.  It  is  only  the  base  jealousy  and 
fanatical  hatred  of  some  monks  that  could  suspect 
such  a  thing.  The  General  of  the  Passionists  might 
have  dispensed  himself  from  giving  such  indiscreet 
advice  to  the  Pope,  which  seems  to  have  aggravated 


The  Final  Blow  543 

the  illness  of  which  he  was  already  complaining." 
As  this  General  of  the  Passionists  was  no  other  than 
the  saintly  Paul  of  the  Cross,  who  has  been  since 
raised  to  the  honors  of  the  altar,  one  may  form  some 
idea  of  the  infamous  devices  resorted  toinall  this  business. 
Far  from  being  unfriendly,  Paul  of  the  Cross  writes: 
"  I  am  extremly  pained  by  the  sufferings  of  the 
illustrious  Company  of  Jesus.  The  very  thought  of 
all  those  innocent  religious  being  persecuted,  in  so  many 
ways,  makes  me  weep  and  groan,  The  devil  is  triumph* 
ing;  God's  glory  is  diminished,  and  multitudes  of 
souls  are  deprived  of  all  spiritual  help.  I  pray,  night 
and  day  that,  after  the  storm  is  passed,  God  who  gives 
both  life  and  death  may  resuscitate  the  Society  with 
greater  glory  than  before.  Such  have  been  always,  and 
such  still  are,  my  feelings  towards  the  Jesuits." 

The  fact  is,  however,  that  the  Pope  was  really 
frightened.  His  cheerfulness  had  vanished,  hfe  health 
had  failed,  and  his  features  wore  an  anxious  and  haunted 
look.  He  kept  in  seclusion,  and,  as  has  been  said, 
would  let  no  one  prepare  his  meals  but  his  fellow-friar, 
Brother  Francisco,  who  remained  with  him  till  the  end. 
He  was  evidently  fighting  for  time;  hoping,  no  doubt, 
that  something  might  occur  to  absolve  him  from  his 
promise.  But  his  enemies  were  relentless.  Charles 
III  was  more  than  fanatical  in  his  insistency,  and 
finally  Clement  appointed  Marefoschi,  an  open  enemy 
of  the  Jesuits,  to  prepare  the  Brief.  The  task  was 
joyfully  accepted,  but  the  Pope  discovered  that  it 
was  not  written  in  the  usual  pontifical  style.  That 
excuse,  however,  was  regarded  by  his  assailants,  as 
a  trick,  and  they  complained  of  it  bitterly.  Then 
it  was  alleged  that  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa,  who 
was  not  averse  to  the  Jesuits,  had  to  be  consulted. 
Indeed,  she  had  given  out  that  as  long  as  she  lived 
they  had  nothing  to  fear  in  her  dominions,  but  she 


544  The  Jesuits 

failed  to  keep  her  word.  Subsequently,  a  promise 
was  given  not  to  allow  Father  Ricci  to  have  a  successor 
or  to  admit  novices  into  the  Order;  then  a  general 
council  was  proposed  to  decide  the  question,  but  all 
was  of  no  avail 

At  this  point,  December  25,  1770,  Choiseul  fell  from 
power,  and  the  world  began  to  breathe  for  a  short 
spell,  hoping  that  this  might  affect  the  situation,  but 
d'Aiguillon,  his  successor,  was  just  as  bad.  Moreover, 
Saint-Priest,  in  his  "  Ch^te  des  Jesuites  "  (p.  127) 
uses  the  incident  for  a  nasty  insult.  He  attributes 
Choiseul's  fall  to  the  regard  that  Madame  du  Barry 
had  for  the  Society.  "Thank  God!"  exclaims  de 
Ravignan,  "the  Society  has  never  had  such  a  pro- 
tectress." She  was  admired  by  Voltaire,  who  hailed 
her  as  another  Egeria,  but  no  Jesuit  ever  sought  her 
protection.  Their  only  advocate  at  the  court  at 
that  sad  period  was  the  saintly  daughter  of  the  king, 
who  became  a  Carmelite  nun  to  expiate  her  father's 
sins.  The  real  cause  of  Choiseul's  downfall  was  that 
Maupeou  showed  to  Louis  XV  some  of  Choiseul's 
letters  urging  parliament  "  not  to  yield  in  the  fight, 
for  the  king  would  sustain  the  Society  with  all  his 
power/'  "  It  was  not  hard,"  says  Foisset  in  "  Le 
President  des  Brosses  "  (p.  302),  "  for  du  Barry  to 
persuade  the  king  that  those  letters  were  meant  to 
incite  the  parliament  to  rebellion  against  him/'  She 
hated  Choiseul  who,  though  willing  to  pay  court  to 
Pompadour,  had  no  respect  for  the  low  and  coarse 
du  Barry. 

At  this  point,  the  Pope  offered  another  inducement 
to  the  King  of  Spain:  the  canonization  of  Palafox, 
whom  Charles  III  worshipped,  but  that  failed,  though 
a  little  respite  was  gained  by  the  help  of  the  king's 
confessor;  and  certain  discussions  with  regard  to  the 
restitution  of  the  papal  territories  also  contributed 


The  Final  Blow  545 

to  delay  the  disaster.  The  year  1771  had  now  been 
reached,  and  to  afford  some  satisfaction  to  the  foe, 
the  Pope  established  a  commission  or  congregation  of 
cardinals  to  examine  the  financial  conditions  of  the 
Society.  At  its  head  was  the  fierce  Marefoschi,  who 
began  by  seizing  the  Roman  Seminary.  Thus  matters 
dragged  on  till  1772.  Up  to  that  time  very  little 
progress  had  been  made,  and  people  were  beginning 
to  talk  about  the  impossibility  of  abolishing  the  whole 
Order,  or  even  a  part  of  it  without  "  proper  juridical 
investigation/'  Even  Bernis  told  his  government  that 
a  there  was  too  much  heat  in  this  Jesuit  affair  to 
permit  the  Pope  to  explain  his  real  thoughts  about 
the  suppression; "  but,  though  Aranda  was  out  of 
office  and  Choiseul  likewise,  the  implacable  Charles  III 
was  determined  to  put  an  end  to  the  delay  and  instead 
of  Azpuru,  he  sent  the  fierce  Jos6  Monino,  otherwise 
known  as  Florida  Blanca  to  be  his  ambassador  in  Rome. 
Under  an  affable  and  polished  exterior  Monino  was 
in  reality  very  brutal.  He  simply  terrorized  the  Pope, 
who  put  off  receiving  him  for  a  week  after  his  arrival 
and  invented  all  sorts  of  excuses  not  to  see  him.  When 
at  last  they  met,  the  Pope  was  pale  and  excited  but 
Monino  had  resolved  to  end  the  siege.  He  dismissed 
absolutely  all  question  of  a  reform  of  the  Order.  What 
he  wanted  was  suppression,  or  else  there  would  be  a 
rupture  with  Spain.  In  vain  the  Pope  entreated  him 
to  wait  for  Ricci's  death;  but  the  angry  minister  re- 
jected the  offer  with  scorn,  and  the  Pope  after  being 
humiliated,  insulted  and  outraged,  withdrew  to  his 
apartments,  exclaiming  with  sobs  in  his  voice:  "  God 
forgive  the  Catholic  King."  "  It  was  Monino,"  said  a 
diplomat  then  at  Rome,  "  who  got  the  Brief  of  1773; 
but  he  did  not  obtain  it;  he  tore  it  from  the  Pope's 
hand."  Under  instructions  from  Charles  III,  Monino 
told  the  Pope,  "  I  will  disgrace  you  by  publishing  the 
35 


546  The  Jesuits 

letter  you  wrote  to  the  king/'  and  he  laid  before  the 
Pontiff  a  plan  drawn  up  by  himself  and  the  other 
ministers  of  Charles  III  to  carry  out  the  suppression. 
De  Ravignan  condemns  Cr6tineau-Joly  for  having 
published  this  paper.  "  It  would  have  been  better  to 
have  left  it  in  the  secret  archives. " 

In  Mpiiino's  plan  of  action  he  declares  that  "  it  was 
not  advisable  to  enter  into  details;  so  as  not  to  allow 
any  ground  for  discussion,  as  it  would  do  harm  to 
religion  and  uselessly  defame  the  character  of  the 
Jesuits."  The  king's  reasons  had  already  been  made 
known  to  the  Holy  See.  They  were  three  in  number. 
The  first  was  "  they  had  caused  the  Sombrero  Riot 
in  Madrid; "  the  second:  "  their  moral  and  doctrinal 
teaching  was  bad;"  the  third,  and  this  was  the  most 
extraordinary  of  all:  "they  had  always  persecuted 
the  holiest  bishops  and  persons  in  the  Kingdom  of 
Spain."  The  last  item  probably  referred  to  Palafox. 
His  Majesty  had  not  yet  revealed  the  important 
secret  which  he  kept  "  locked  in  his  royal  heart."  All 
the  terrible  statements  of  the  documents  alleged  to 
have  been  seized  by  Marefoschi  were  to  be  of  no  use, 
when  compared  with  the  Riot  of  the  Sombreros. 

Meantime  conditions  were  every  day  growing  worse 
in  Europe.  The  publications  of  Voltaire  and  his 
friends  were  destroying  both  religion  and  morality. 
The  fulminations  of  the  Pope  against  these  books 
availed  little,  and  meantime  he  was  about  to  crush  the 
men  who  were  best  able  to  face  the  enemy.  Finally, 
poor  Poland  was  being  cut  up  by  Prussia,  Russia  and 
Austria  and  the  Pope  was  powerless  to  prevent  it.  On 
the  other  hand,  there  were  some  consolations.  Thus 
in  1771  the  Armenian  patriarch  and  all  his  people 
renounced  Nestorianism  and  returned  to  the  unity  of 
the  Church.  Between  1771  and  1772  seven  thousand 
families  and  their  ministers  in  the  country  of  Sickclva 


The  Final  Blow  547 

abandoned  Socinianism,  and  became  Catholics.  Again, 
wonderful  conversions  were  made  in  Transylvania  and 
Hungary,  not  only  among  Protestants  but  among  the 
schismatical  Greeks.  Similar  triumphs  had  been 
achieved  in  Armenia  and  Syria  among  the  subjects  of 
the  Grand  Turk,  and  the  whole  peninsula  of  Italy 
under  the  eyes  of  the  Pope  was  in  a  transport  of  religious 
zeal.  The  peculiarly  interesting  feature  about  all  this 
was  that  it  was  the  work  of  the  members  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus.  But  that  did  not  check  the  progress  of  the 
anti-Christian  plot  of  the  Catholic  kings  of  Europe 
to  obliterate  from  the  face  of  the  earth  the  organization 
which  even  in  its  crippled  condition  and  in  the  very 
last  moments  of  its  existence  was  capable  of  such 
achievements.  Cardinal  Migazzi,  the  Archbishop  of 
Vienna,  called  the  Pope's  attention  to  this  fact,  but 
without  avail. 

Up  to  this  time,  Maria  Theresa  had  been  the  devoted 
friend  of  the  Society.  She  had  even  said  she  would 
never  cease  to  be  so,  but  yielding  to  the  influence  of 
her  son,  Joseph  II,  and  of  her  daughter,  the  Queen 
of  Naples,  she  consented  to  their  supression,  on  condition 
that  she  could  dispose  arbitrarily  of  their  property 
(Ctement  XIII  et  Ctement  XIV,  I,  362.)  The  illus- 
trious queen  displayed  great  worldly  prudence  in  with- 
drawing her  affections.  This  desertion  destroyed  the 
last  hope  that  the  Pope  had  cherished  of  putting  off 
the  Suppression.  Monino  returned  to  the  attack 
again  and  received  an  assurance  from  Clement  that 
the  document  of  suppression  would  be  ready  in  eight 
days,  and,  copies  would  be  sent  to  the  Kings  of  Spain, 
France  and  Naples.  Meantime,  as  a  guarantee, 
he  began  the  work  in  his  own  States.  Under  all  sorts 
of  pretexts,  individuals  and  college  corporations  were 
haled  to  court;  and  official  visits  were  made  of  the 
various  establishments.  On  March  10,  1773,  Malvezzi, 


548  The  Jesuits 

the  Archbishop  of  Bologna,  applied  to  rthe  Pope  for 
"permission  to  dissolve  the  novitiate,  if  it  would 
seem  proper  to  do  so."  If  you  think  well  of  it,  I 
shall  carry  that  measure  into  effect,  as  soon  as  I  arrive, 
I  also  judge  it  advisable  to  shut  up  St.  Lucia,  by 
dismissing  the  Jesuit  theologians  and  philosophers. 
In  doing  so,  Your  Holiness  will  be  dispensed  from  the 
trouble  of  investigating  and  will  thus  avoid  the  publicity 
of  any  notable  offence  which  an  examination  might 
reveal." 

There  were  two  difficulties  in  the  way,  however. 
The  people  objected  to  the  expulsion,  and  the  Jesuits 
refused  to  be  released  from  their  vows.  The  latter 
obstacle  was  thought  to  be  overcome  by  tearing  off 
the  cassocks  of  the  young  men  and  sending  them 
adrift  as  laymen,  and  when  the  rector,  Father  Belgrado, 
who  besides  being  a  theologian  was  one  of  the  foremost 
physicists  and  mathematicians  of  the  day,  and  had 
been  the  confessor  of  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Parma, 
informed  the  archbishop  that  dispensation  from  sub- 
stantial vows  must  come  from  the  Pope  and  from  no 
one  else,  that  did  not  stop  Malvezzi.  He  had  the 
rector  arrested  and  exiled;  and  with  the  help  of  a  band 
of  soldiers  expelled  the  scholastics  from  the  house. 
He  then  wrote  to  the  Pope  regretting  that  he  had 
not  proceeded  more  rapidly.  Besides  this,  Frascati 
was  taken  from  the  Jesuits  and  given  to  the  Cardinal 
of  York,  who  asked  for  it,  though  his  royal  pension 
had  made  him  already  immensely  wealthy.  Similar 
visitations  were  made  in  Ferrara  and  Montalto,  and 
the  looting  became  general. 

In  Poland,  as  we  learn  from  "  Les  JSsuites  de  la 
Russie  blanche/'  the  spoliation  had  started  even  before 
the  promulgation  of  the  edict.  Libraries  were  broken 
up  and  the  books  were  often  used  to  kindle  bonfires; 
the  silver  of  the  churches  was  melted  down  and  sold, 


The  Final  Blow  549 

and  medals  and  chains  from  statues  were  seen  on  the 
necks  of  abandoned  women.  Even  the  cattle  on  the 
farms  were  seized.  The  Jews  were  especially  conspicu- 
ous in  these  depredations. 

All  this  was  the  prelude  of  the  fatal  Brief,  which  was 
signed  on  July  21,  1773,  but  was  not  promulgated 
until  August  16  of .  that  year.  Theiner  is  the  only 
author  who  gives  August  17  as  the  date.  As  a  matter 
of  fact  it  was  held  up  by  Austria  so  as  to  gain  time  to 
prevent  the  secular  clergy  from  seizing  the  property. 
The  preparation  of  the  Brief  was  conducted  with  the 
profoundest  secrecy.  Even  on  July  28,  the  French 
Ambassador  wrote  to  D'Aiguillon:  "the  Pope  is 
doing  nothing  in  the  Jesuit  matter."  He  was  unaware 
that  not  only  was  the  Brief  already  signed  but  that  a 
Congregatio  de  rebus  extinctse  Societatis  (a  Committee 
on  the  affairs  of  the  Extinct  Society)  had  been  appointed, 
and  that  its  members  had  been  bound  under  pain  of 
excommunication  not  to  reveal  the  fact  to  any  one. 
However,  Bernis  found  it  out  on  the  nth,  and  com- 
plained that  he  had  not  been  consulted.  He  wrote  as 
follows:  "  Last  Friday,  the  Pope  summoned  Cardinals 
Marefoschi,  Casali,  Zelada,  Corsini  and  Caraffa,  and 
after  having  made  them  take  an  oath,  he  put  a  Brief 
in  their  hands,  which  constituted  them  members  of  a 
congregation  which  was  to  meet  every  Monday  and 
Thursday  to  discuss  whatever  concerned  the  Jesuit 
establishments,  their  benefices,  colleges,  seminaries, 
foundations,  and  such  matters.  It  held  its  first  meeting 
last  Monday.  Macedonio,  the  Pope's  nephew,  was 
the  secretary;  Alfani,  a  prelate,  was  the  assessor;  and 
Fathers  Mamachi,  a  Dominican,  and  de  Casal,  a 
Recollect,  were  consulting  theologians.  The  last  two 
mentioned  are  men  of  repute/' 

"The  i6th  day  of  August  1773,  the  day  of  sad 
memories,"  writes  de  Ravignan,  "  arrived.  Towards 


550  The  Jesuits 

nine  at  night,  Macedonio  went  to  the  Gesu  and 
officially  notified  the  General  of  the  Brief  that  sup- 
pressed the  Society  throughout  the  world.  He  was 
accompanied  by  soldiers  and  officers  of  the  police 
to  keep  order,  though  no  one  dreamed  of  creating  any 
trouble.  At  the  same  hour,  also  by  command  of  the 
Pope,  other  distinguished  prelates  and  ecclesiastics 
gave  notice  of  the  Brief  to  the  various  Jesuit  rectors 
in  Rome.  They  also  were  accompanied  by  soldiers 
and  notaries.  Seals  were  put  on  the  archives,  the 
accounts,  the  offices  of  the  treasurers  and  the  doors 
of  the  sacristies.  The  Jesuits  were  suspended  from 
all  ecclesiastical  functions  such  as  confessions  and 
preaching,  and  they  were  forbidden,  for  the  time 
being,  to  leave  their  houses.  The  Father  General  and 
his  assistants  were  carried  off  to  jail."  "  Such/*  said 
Schoell  (xliv,  84),  "  was  the  end  of  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  institutions  that  perhaps  ever  existed. 
The  Order  of  the  Jesuits  was  divided  into  five  nations, 
Italian,  Portuguese,  Spanish,  French  and  German, 
each  one  of  which  had  a  representative  living  with  the 
General.  In  1750  the  organization  comprised  39 
provinces,  had  84  professed  houses,  which  were  resi- 
dences where  the  most  experienced  members  worked 
unceasingly  for  the  Order  without  being  distracted 
by  public  instruction.  There  were  679  colleges,  61 
novitiates,  176  seminaries,  335  residences,  and  273 
missions.  There  were  22,589  members  of  whom 
11,293  were  priests." 

This  official  act  of  the  Pope  really  added  very  little 
to  the  temporal  injury  already  done  to  the  Order  in 
Spain,  France  and  Portugal  where  they  had  already 
been  robbed  of  everything.  But  to  be  regarded  as 
reprobates  by  the  Pope  and  branded  as  disturbers 
of  the  peace  of  the  Church  was  a  suffering  with  which 
all  they  had  hitherto  undergone  bore  no  comparison. 


The  Final  Blow  551 

Nevertheless,  they  uttered  no  protest.  They  sub- 
mitted absolutely  and  died  without  a  murmur,  and 
in  this  silence  they  were  true  to  their  lifelong  training, 
for  loyalty  to  the  See  of  Peter  had  always  been  the 
distinctive  mark  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  from  the 
moment  that  Ignatius  Loyola  knelt  at  the  feet  of 
the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  for  his  approval  and  blessing. 
When  the  blow  fell,  the  Society  was  found  to  be  faith- 
ful. If  it  had  during  its  lifetime  achieved  something 
for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  souls;  if  it 
had  been  constantly  appealed  to  for  the  most  dangerous 
missions  and  had  accepted  them  with  enthusiasm; 
if*  it  had  poured  out  its  blood  lavishly  for  the  Faith; 
if  it  had  given  many  glorious  saints  to  the  Church, 
now,  in  the  last  terrible  crisis  which  preceded  the 
French  Revolution  and  perhaps  precipitated  it,  when 
the  ruler  of  the  Militant  Church  judged  that  by  sacri- 
ficing one  of  his  legions  he  could  hold  back  the  foe, 
the  Society  of  Jesus  on  being  chosen  did  not  hesitate; 
it  obeyed,  and  it  was  cut  to  pieces.  Not  a  word  came 
from  the  heroic  band  to  discuss  the  wisdom  or  the 
unwisdom  of  the  act.  Others  protested  but  not  they. 
Those  who  condemned  Clement  XIV  were  not  Jesuits, 
though  their  enemies  said  they  were.  On  the  contrary, 
the  Jesuits  defended  and  eulogized  him  and  some  of 
them  even  maintained  that  in  the  terrible  circum- 
stances in  which  he  found  himself,  he  could  not  have 
done  otherwise.  The  Suppression  gave  them  the 
chance,  which  they  did  not  miss,  to  prove  to  the  world 
the  solidity  of  virtue  that  reigned  throughout  the 
Order,  and  to  show  that  their  doctrine  of  "blind 
obedience  "  was  not  a  matter  of  mere  words,  but  an 
achievable  and  an  achieved  virtue.  They  would  have 
stultified  themselves  had  they  halted  when  the  supreme 
test  was  asked  for,  and  so  they  died  to  uphold  the 
judgment  of  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  and  in  similar 


552  The  Jesuits 

circumstances  would  do  it  again.  They  had  preached 
sermons  in  every  part  of  the  world,  but  never  one  like 
this.  Nor  was  it  a  sublime  act  such  as  some  individual 
saints  might  have  performed.  It  was  the  act  of  the 
whole  Society  of  Jesus. 

Silent  themselves,  they  did  their  best  to  persuade 
others  to  refrain  from  all  criticism.  One  example 
will  suffice.  It  was  after  the  Pope's  death  when  the 
ex- Jesuits  at  Pribourg  held  a  funeral  service  in  their 
collegiate  Church  of  St.  Nicholas.  The  whole  city 
was  present,  and  the  preacher,  Father  Matzel,  amid 
the  sobs  of  the  congregation  uttered  these  words: 
"Friends!  beloved  Friends  of  our  former  Society! 
whoever  and  wherever  you  may  be!  If  ever  we  have 
had  the  happiness  to  be  of  help  and  comfort  to  you 
by  our  labor  in  city  or  country;  if  ever  we  have  con- 
tributed anything  to  the  cause  of  Christianity  in 
preaching  the  word  of  God  or  catechising  or  instructing 
youth,  or  laboring  in  hospitals  or  prisons,  or  writing 
edifying  books  now,  on  this  occasion,  although  in  our 
present  distress  we  have  many  favors  to  ask  of  you, 
there  is  one  we  ask  above  all  and  we  entreat  and  implore 
you  to  grant  it.  It  is  never  to  speak  a  word  that  would 
be  harsh  or  bitter  or  disrespectful  to  the  memory  of 
Clement  XIV,  the  Supreme  Head  of  the  Church  of 
Christ." 

The*  famous  Brief  is  designated  by  its  first  words, 
Dominus  ac  Re&mptor.  Its  general  tenor  is  as  follows : 
It  begins  by  enumerating  the  various  religious  orders 
which,  in  course  of  time,  had  been  suppressed  by 
successive  Popes,  and  it  then  gives  a  list  of  the  privileges 
accorded  to  the  Society  by  the  Holy  See,  but  it  notes 
that  "  from  its  very  cradle  "  there  were  internal  and 
external  disagreements  and  dissensions  and  jealousies, 
as  well  as  opposition  to  both  secular  and  ecclesiastical 
authority,  chiefly  because  of  the  excessive  privileges  that 


The  Final  Blow  553 

had  been  granted  to  it  by  the  different  Sovereign  Pon- 
tiffs. Its  moral  and  dogmatic  theology  also  gave  rise 
to  considerable  discussion,  and  it  has  frequently  been 
accused  of  too  great  avidity  in  the  acquisition  of 
earthly  goods.  The  Pontiff  merely  declares  that  such 
"  charges  "  were  made  against  the  Society;  he,  in  no 
place,  admits  that  the  "  charges  "  were  based  on  truth. 
These  accusations,  he  continues,  caused  much  chagrin. 
to  the  Holy  See,  and  afforded  a  motive  for  several 
sovereigns  of  Europe  to  range  themselves  in  opposition 
to  the  Society;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  a  new  con- 
firmation of  the  Institute  was  obtained  from  Pope 
Paul  IV  of  happy  memory.  That,  however,  did  not 
succeed  in  putting  an  end  to  the  disputes  with  the 
ordinaries  or  with  other  religious  orders  on  many 
points,  and  notably  with  regard  to  certain  ceremonies 
which  the  Holy  See  proscribed  as  scandalous  in  doc- 
trine, and  subversive  of  morality;  nor  did  it  avail  to 
quell  the  tumult  which  ultimately  led  to  the  expulsion 
of  the  Society  from  Portugal,  France,  Spain  and  the 
Two  Sicilies,  and  induced  the  kings  of  those  countries 
to  ask  Clement  XIII  for  its  complete  suppression, 
"  Hence,  finding  that  the  Society  of  Jesus  can  no  longer 
produce  the  abundant  fruits  for  which  it  was  instituted, 
and  for  which  it  was  approved  by  so  many  Popes,  and 
rewarded  by  so  many  privileges,  we  now  abolish  and 
suppress  it.  But  as  the  purpose  which  we  have  set  for 
ourselves  and  are  eager  to  achieve  is  the  general  good 
of  the  Church  and  the  tranquillity  of  the  people,  and, 
at  the  same  time,  to  give  help  and  consolation  to  each 
of  the  members  of  this  Society,  all  of  whom  we  tenderly 
cherish  in  the  Lord,  we  ordain  as  follows  with  regard 
to  them."  He  then  explains  the  various  ways  in 
which  each  section  of  the  Society  is  to  be  dealt  with. 
Such  in  general  is  the  substance  of  this  very  long 
Brief.  In  it,  however,  there  is  not  one  word  about  the 


554  The  Jesuits 

decadence  of  the  Society  in  its  morality  or  its  theology. 
The  Pontiff  merely  says  that  many  have  "  charged  " 
them  with  such  offenses.  He  even  goes  so  far  as  to 
say  that  "  he  tenderly  loved  all  of  the  individuals  who 
composed  the  Society/'  The  real  purpose  of  it  was 
to  bring  peace  to  the  Church.  Cahours  in  his  "  Des 
Jesuites  par  un  J&uite,"  (II,  p.  278)  says,  "  Every 
judge  who  passes  a  sentence  affirms  two  things:  the 
existence  of  a  crime  and  the  fitness  of  the  penalty. 
Clement  XIV  pronounces  on  the  second,  but  says  noth- 
ing of  the  first.  Hence  the  sentence  is  not  something 
exacted  by  justice,  but  is  merely  an  administrative 
measure  called  for  by  the  embarrassment  of  the 
moment.'* 

Was  it  legitimate?    Yes;  for  the  Holy  See  has  a 
right  to  suppress  what  it  has  created. 


CHAPTER  XVIII 

THE   INSTRUMENT 

Summary  of  the  Brief  of  Suppression  and  its  Supplementary 
Document. 

THE  Brief  of  Clement  XIV  which  suppressed  the 
Society  begins  by  enumerating  the  various  religious 
orders  which  have  been  treated  in  a  similar  manner 
at  different  periods  in  the  history  of  the  Church,  but 
it  omits  to  note  that  their  extinction  occurred  only 
after  a  juridical  examination.  Thus,  for  instance, 
when  Clement  V  suppressed  the  Knights  Templars 
in  1321,  he  first  ordered  all  the  bishops  of  the  world  to 
summon  the  Knights  who  had  chapters  in  their  dioceses; 
to  subject  them  to  a  regular  trial  and  then  to  forward  a 
report  of  their  proceedings  to  Rome.  When  this  was 
done  a  general  council  was  convened  at  Vienne  in 
Dauphin6  to  go  over  the  whole  matter  and  then 
submit  its  decision  to  the  Pope.  The  council  brought 
in  a  favorable  verdict  by  a  majority  vote,  although 
the  Knights  were  very  poorly  defended,  but  the  Pope, 
terrorized  by  Philip  the  Fair,  ordered  the  dissolution 
of  the  Order.  In  the  case  of  the  Society  there  was  a 
dissolution  but  no  trial. 

After  recounting  these  facts,  the  Pontiff  says: 
"  Having  before  my  eyes  these  and  other  examples  of 
Orders  suppressed  by  the  Church  and  being  most 
eager  to  proceed  with  perfect  confidence  in  carrying 
out  the  purpose  which  shall  be  referred  to  later,  we 
have  left  nothing  undone  to  make  ourselves  acquainted 
with  the  origin,  progress  and  actual  condition  of  the 
religious  order  commonly  known  as  the  Society  of 
Jesus.  We  have  seen  that  it  was  established  by  its 
Holy  Founder  for  the  salvation  of  souls,  the  conver- 

555 


556  The  Jesuits 

sion  of  heretics  and  especially  of  the  heathen,  and  also 
for  the  increase  of  piety  and  religion.  To  accomplish 
these  purposes  its  members  were  bound  by  a  very 
strict  vow  of  evangelical  poverty  both  in  common  and 
individually,  with  the  exception  of  its  houses  of  study 
or  colleges  which  are  allowed  to  possess  certain  revenues, 
but  in  such  wise  that  they  could  not  be  diverted  or 
applied  to  the  use  of  this  Society. 

"  In  consequence  of  these  statutes  and  of  others 
equally  wise,  our  predecessor  Paul  III  approved  of 
the  Society  of  Jesus,  by  his  Bull  of  September  27,  1540, 
and  allowed  it  to  draw  up  rules  and  statutes  to  ensure 
its  peace,  its  existence  and  its  government;  and  although 
he  had  restricted  this  Society  to  sixty  members,  yet 
by  another  Bull  dated  February  28,  1543,  he  per- 
mitted the  superiors  to  receive  all  who  appeared  to 
possess  the  proper  qualifications  for  the  work  proposed. 
Subsequently,  the  same  Pontiff  by  a  Brief  of  November 
*5»  *549>  accorded  very  great  privileges  to  this  Society 
and  gave  its  Generals  the  power  of  accepting  twenty 
priests  as  spiritual  coadjutors  and  of  conferring  on 
them  the  same  privileges,  the  same  favor  and  the 
same  authority  as  the  Professed.  His  wish  was  and 
he  so  ordained  that  there  should  be  no  limit  or  restric- 
tion put  on  the  number  of  those  whom  the  General 
should  judge  worthy  of  being  so  received.  Further- 
more, the  Society  itself,  all  its  members  and  their 
possessions  were  entirely  withdrawn  from  all  superior- 
ship,  control  and  correction  of  bishops  and  taken  under 
the  protection  of  the  Holy  See. 

"  Others  of  our  predecessors  have  exhibited  the 
same  munificent  liberality  to  this  order.  In  effect 
Julius  III,  Paul  IV,  Paul  V,  Gregory  XIII,  Sixtus  V, 
Gregory  XIV,  Clement  VIII  and  other  Popes  have 
either  confirmed  or  augmented,  or  more  distinctly 
defined  and  determined  the  privileges  already  conferred 


The  Instrument  557 

on  these  religious.  Nevertheless,  the  tenor  and  even 
the  terms  of  these  Apostolic  Constitutions  show  that 
even  at  its  inception  the  Society  saw  spring  up  within 
it  various  germs  of  discord  and  jealousies,  which  not 
only  divided  the  members,  but  prompted  them  to 
exalt  themselves  above  other  religious  orders,  the 
secular  clergy,  the  universities,  colleges,  public  schools 
and  even  the  sovereigns  who  had  admitted  and  welcomed 
them  in  their  realms.  These  troubles  and  dissensions 
were  sometimes  caused  by  the  character  of  the  Society's 
vows,  by  its  power  to  admit  novices  to  the  vows,  to 
dismiss  from  the  Society,  to  present  its  subjects  for 
ordination  without  any  ecclesiastical  title  and  without 
having  made  solemn  vows.  Moreover,  it  was  in 
conflict  with  the  decisions  of  the  Council  of  Trent 
and  of  Pius  V,  our  predecessor,  both  with  regard 
to  the  absolute  power  arrogated  by  the  General,  as 
well  as  in  other  articles  which  not  only  relate  to  the 
government  of  the  Society,  but  also  on  different  points 
of  doctrine,  and  in  the  exemptions  and  privileges 
which  the  ordinaries  and  other  dignitaries  both 
ecclesiastical  and  secular  claim  to  be  an  invasion  of 
their  jurisdiction  and  their  rights.  In  brief,  there  is 
scarcely  any  kind  of  a  grave  accusation  that  has  not 
been  brought  against  this  Society,  and  in  consequence, 
the  peace  and  tranquillity  of  Christendom  has  been 
for  a  long  time  disturbed. 

11  Numberless  complaints  backed  by  the  authority 
of  kings  and  rulers  have  been  urged  against  these 
religious  at  the  tribunals  of  Paul  IV,  Pius  V  and  Sixtus 
V.  Thus,  Philip  II,  King  of  Spain,  laid  before  Sixtus 
V  not  only  the  urgent  and  grave  personal  reasons 
which  prompted  his  action  in  this  matter,  but  also  the 
protest  of  the  Spanish  Inquisition  against  the  excessive 
privileges  of  the  Society.  His  majesty  also  complained 
of  the  Society's  form  of  government,  and  of  points  in 


558  The  Jesuits 

the  Institution  which  were  disputed  by  some  of  the 
members  of  the  Society  who  were  conspicuous  for 
their  knowledge  and  piety,  and  he  asked  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff  to  name  a  commission  for  an  Apostolic  visitation 
of  the  Society. 

"As  the  zealous  demands  of  Philip  seemed  to  be 
based  on  justice  and  equity,  Sixtus  V  appointed  as 
visitor  Apostolic  a  bishop  generally  recognized  for 
his  prudence,  virtue  and  intellectual  gifts.  A  congre- 
gation of  cardinals  was  also  instituted  to  dispose  of  the 
matter,  but  the  premature  death  of  Sixtus  prevented 
any  action.  On  the  other  hand,  the  first  act  of  Gregory 
XIV  on  his  accession  to  the  Chair  of  Peter  was  to 
give  by  his. Bull  of  June  28,  1591,  the  most  extensive 
approval  of  the  Institute.  He  confirmed  and  ratified 
all  the  privileges  accorded  by  his  predecessors,  and 
especially  that  of  dismissal  from  the  Order  without 
juridical  procedure,  that  is  to  say  without  having 
taken  any  previous  information,  without  drawing  up 
any  indictment,  without  observing  any  legal  process, 
or  allowing  any  delay,  even  the  most  essential,  but 
solely  on  the  inspection  of  the  truth  of  the  fact  and 
without  regard  to  the  fault  or  whether  it  or  the 
attendant  circumstances  sufficiently  justified  the  expul- 
sion of  the  person  involved. 

"  Moreover,  Pope  Gregory  absolutely  forbade  under 
pain  of  excommunication  ipso  facto,  any  direct  or 
indirect  attack  on  the  institute,  the  constitutions, 
or  the  decrees  of  the  Society,  or  any  attempt  to  change 
them,  although  he  permitted  an  appeal  to  himself  or 
his  successors,  either  directly  or  through  the  legates 
and  nuncios  of  the  Holy  See,  and  also  the  right  to 
represent  whatever  one  might  think  should  be  added, 
modified  or  retrenched. 

"However,  all  these  precautions  did  not  avail  to 
silence  the  clamorous  complaints  against  the  Society. 


The  Instrument  559 

On  the  contrary,  strife  arose  everywhere  about  the 
doctrines  of  the  Order,  which  many  maintained  were 
totally  opposed  to  the  orthodox  faith  and  sound 
morality.  The  Society  itself  was  torn  by  internal 
dissensions  while  this  external  warfare  was  going  on. 
It  was  also  everywhere  reproached  with  too  much 
avidity  and  eagerness  for  earthly  goods  and  this 
complaint  caused  the  Holy  See  much  pain  and  exasper- . 
ated  many  rulers  of  nations  against  the  Society. 
Hence,  to  strengthen  themselves  on  that  point  these 
religious,  wishing  to  obtain  from  Paul  V  of  happy 
memory  a  new  confirmation  of  their  Institute  and  their 
privileges,  were  compelled  to  ask  for  a  ratification 
of  some  decrees  published  in  the  fifth  general  congre- 
gation and  inserted  word  for  word  in  his  Bull  of 
September  14,  1606.  These  decrees  expressly  declared 
that  the  Society  assembled  in  general  congregation 
had  been  compelled  both  by  the  troubles  and  enmities 
among  the  members,  and  by  the  charges  from  without, 
to  formulate  the  following  statute:- 

" '  Our  Society  which  has  been  raised  up  by  God  for 
the  propagation  of  the  Faith  and  the  salvation  of 
souls,  is  enabled  by  the  proper  functions  of  its  Institute 
which  are  the  arms  of  the  spirit  to  attain  under  the 
standard  of  the  Cross  the  end  it4  proposes,  with  edifica- 
tion to  the  neighbor  and  usefulness  to  the  Church. 
On  the  other  hand,  it  would  do  harm  and  expose 
itself  to  the  greatest  danger  if  it  meddled  in  affairs  of 
the  world  and  especially  with  what  concerns  the  politics 
and  government  of  States.  But,  as  in  these  unfortunate 
times  our  Order,  perhaps  because  of  the  ambition  or 
indiscreet  zeal  of  some  of  its  members,  is  attacked 
in  different  parts  of  the  world  and  is  complained  of  to 
certain  sovereigns  whose  consideration  and  affection  we 
have  been  bidden  by  St.  Ignatius  to  preserve  so  that 
we  may  be  more  acceptable  to  God,  and  as,  besides, 


560  The  Jesuits 

the  good  odor  of  Jesus  Christ  is  necessary  to  produce 
fruits  of  salvation,  this  congregation  is  of  the  opinion 
that  it  is  incumbent  upon  all  to  avoid  as  far  as  possible 
even  the  appearance  of  evil,  and  thus  to  obviate  the 
accusations  that  are  based  on  unjust  suspicions.  Hence, 
the  present  decree  forbids  all  under  the  most  rigorous 
penalties  to  concern  themselves  in  any  way  with 
public  affairs,  even  when  invited  to  do  so  or  when  for 
some  reason  they  may  seem  to  be  indispensable.  They 
are  not  to  depart  from  the  Institute  of  the  Society  no 
matter  how  entreated  or  solicited,  and  the  definitors 
are  to  lay  down  rules  and  to  prescribe  the  means  best 
calculated  to  remedy  abuses,  in  cases  which  may 
present  themselves.' 

"We  have  observed  with  bitter  grief  that  these 
remedies  and  many  others  subsequently  employed 
failed  to  put  an  end  to  the  troubles,  complaints  and 
accusations  against  the  Society,  and  that  Urban  VIII, 
Clement  IX,  Clement  X,  Clement  XI,  Clement  XII, 
Alexander  VII,  Alexander  VIII,  Innocent  X,  Innocent 
XI,  Innocent  XII,  Innocent  XIII,  and  Benedict  XIV 
were  unable  to  give  the  Church  peace.  The  constitu- 
tions which  were  drawn  up  with  regard  to  secular 
affairs  with  which  the  Society  should  not  concern 
itself,  whether  outside  of  these  missions  or  on  account 
of  them,  failed  to  have  any  result.  Nor  did  they  put 
an  end  to  the  serious  quarrels  and  dissensions  caused 
by  members  of  the  Society  with  the  ordinaries  and 
religious  orders,  or  about  places  consecrated  to  piety, 
and  also  with  communities  of  every  kind  in  Europe, 
Asia  and  America;  all  of  which  caused  great  scandal 
and  loss  of  souls.  The  same  was  true  with  regard  to 
the  practice  and  interpretation  of  certain  pagan 
ceremonies  which  were  tolerated  and  permitted  in 
many  places  while  those  approved  of  by  the  Universal 
Church  were  put  aside.  Then,  too,  there  was  the  use 


The  Instrument  561 

and  interpretation  of  maxims  which  the  Holy  See 
deemed  to  be  scandalous  and  evidently  harmful  to 
morality.  Finally,  there  were  other  things  of  great 
moment  and  of  absolute  necessity  for  the  preservation 
of  the  dogmas  of  the  Christian  religion  in  its  purity 
and  integrity  which  in  our  own  and  preceding  centuries 
led  to  abuses  and  great  evils  such  as  the  troubles  and 
seditions  in  Catholic  states,  and  even  persecutions  of 
the  Church  in  some  provinces  of  Asia  and  Europe. 

"  All  of  our  predecessors  have  been  sorely  afflicted 
by  these  things,  among  others  Innocent  XI  of  pious 
memory,  who  forbade  the  habit  to  be  given  to  novices; 
Innocent  XIII,  who  was  obliged  to  utter  the  same 
threat;  and,  finally,  Benedict  XIV,  who  ordered  a 
visitation  of  the  houses  and  colleges  of  our  dear  son 
in  Christ,  the  most  faithful  King  of  Portugal  and  the 
Algarves.  But  the  Holy  See  derived  no  consolation  from 
all  this;  nor  was  the  Society  helped;  nor  did  Christianity 
secure  any  advantage  from  the  last  letter,  which  had 
been  rather  extorted  than  obtained  from  our  immediate 
predecessor  Clement  XIII  (to  borrow  the  expression 
employed  by  Gregory  X  in  the  Ecumenical  Council 
of  Lyons.) 

"  After  so  many  terrible  shocks,  storms  and  tempests, 
the  truly  faithful  hope  to  see  the  day  dawn  which  will 
bring  peace  and  calm.  But  under  the  pontificate 
of  our  predecessor  Clement  XIII,  the  times  grew  more 
stormy.  Indeed,  the  clamors  against  the  Society 
augmented  daily  and  in  some  places  there  were  troubles, 
dissensions,  dangerous  strifes  and  even  scandals  which, 
after  completely  shattering  Christian  charity,  lighted  in 
the  hearts  of  the  faithful,  party  spirit,  hatred  and 
enmity.  The  danger  increased  to  such  a  degree  that 
even  those  whose  piety  and  well-known  hereditary 
devotion  to  the  Society,  namely  our  very  dear  sons  in 
Jesus  Christ,  the  Kings  of  Prance,  Spain,  Portugal  and 
36 


562  The  Jesuits 

the  Two  Sicilies,  were  forced  to  banish  from  their  king- 
doms, states  and  provinces  all  the  religious  of  this 
Order;  being  persuaded  that  this  extreme  measure  was 
the  only  means  of  remedying  so  many  evils  and  putting 
an  end  to  the  contentions  and  strife  that  were  tearing 
the  bosom  of  Mother  Church. 

"  But  these  same  kings,  our  very  dear  sons  in  Jesus 
Christ,  thought  that  this  remedy  could  not  be  lasting 
in  its  effects  or  could  avail  to  tranquillize  Christendom 
unless  the  Society  was  altogether  abolished  and  sup- 
pressed. Hence,  they  made  known  to  Clement  XIII 
their  desire  in  this  matter  and  asked  him  with  one 
accord  and  with  all  the  authority  they  possessed, 
adding  also  their  prayers  and  entreaties  to  bring  about 
in  tiiat  way  the  perpetual  tranquillity  of  their  subjects 
and  the  general  good  of  the  Church.  But  the  sudden 
death  of  that  Pontiff  checked  all  progress  in  the 
matter.  Hardly,  however,  had  we,  by  the  mercy 
of  God,  been  elevated  to  the  Chair  of  St.  Peter,  than 
the  same  prayers  were  addressed  to  us,  the  same 
insistent  demands  were  made  and  a  great  number  of 
bishops  and  other  personages  illustrious  by  their 
learning,  dignity  and  virtue  united  their  supplications 
to  this  request. 

"  Wishing,  however,  to  take  the  surest  course  in 
such  a  grave  and  important  matter,  we  believed  we 
needed  a  much  longer  time  to  consider  it,  not  only 
for  the  purpose  of  making  the  most  exact  examination 
possible  and  then  to  deliberate  upon  the  most  prudent 
methods  to  be  adopted  and  also  to  obtain  from  the 
Father  of  Light  His  especial  help  and  assistance,  we 
offered  our  most  earnest  prayers,  mourning  and  grieving 
over  what  was  before  us,  and  we  entreated  the  faithful 
to  come  to  our  aid  by  their  prayers  and  good  works. 
We  have  especially  thought  it  advisable  to  find  out 
upon  what  basis  this  widespread  feeling  rested  with  re- 


The  Instrument  563 

gard  to  the  Society,  which  had  been  confirmed  and  ap- 
proved in  the  most  solemn  manner  by  the  Council  of 
Trent.  We  discovered  that  the  council  mentions  the 
Order  only  to  exempt  it  from  the  general  decree  passed 
for  other  Orders.  The  Jesuit  novices  were  to  be  ad- 
mitted to  profession  if  judged  worthy,  or  they  were  to  be 
dismissed  from  the  Society.  Hence  the  council  (Session 
25,  c.  xvi,  de  reg.)  declared  that  it  wished  to  make  no 
innovation  nor  to  prevent  these  religious  from  serving 
God  and  the  Church  in  accordance  with  their  pious 
Institute  which  had  been  approved  by  the  Church. 
"  Wherefore,  after  having  made  use  of  so  many 
necessary  means,  and  aided  as  we  think  by  the  presence' 
and  inspiration  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and,  moreover, 
compelled  by  the  duty  of  our  office  which  essentially 
obliges  us  to  procure,  maintain  and  strengthen  with 
all  our  power,  the  repose  and  tranquillity  of  Christen- 
dom, and  to  root  out  entirely  what  could  cause  the 
slightest  harm;  and,  moreover,  having  recognized 
that  the  Society  of  Jesus  could  no  longer  produce  the 
abundant  fruit  and  the  great  good  for  which  it  was 
instituted  and  approved  by  so  many  Popes,  our  prede- 
cessors, who  adorned  it  with  so  many  most  admirable 
privileges,  and  seeing  that  it  was  almost  and,  indeed, 
absolutely  impossible  for  the  Church  to  enjoy  a  true 
and  solid  peace  while  this  Order  existed,  being  bound 
as  we  are  by  so  many  powerful  considerations  and 
compelled  by  other  motives  which  the  laws  of  prudence 
and  the  wise  administration  of  the  Church  suggest 
but  which  we  keep  in  the  depths  of  our  heart :  Following 
in  the  footsteps  of  our  predecessors  and  especially 
of  Gregory  X  at  the  Council  of  Lyons,  since  the  cases 
are  identical,  we  do,  hereby,  after  a  mature  examination, 
and  of  our  certain  knowledge,  and  by  the  plenitude  of 
our  Apostolic  power,  suppress  and  abolish  the  Society 
of  Jesus*  We  nullify  and  abrogate  all  and  each  of 


564  The  Jesuits 

its  offices,  functions,  administrations,  houses,  schools, 
colleges,  retreats,  refuges  and  other  establishments 
which  belong  to  it  in  any  manner  whatever,  and  in 
every  province,  kingdom  or  state  in  which  it  may 
be  found.  We  do  the  same  for  its  statutes,  customs, 
usages,  decrees,  constitutions,  even  those  confirmed  by 
the  oath  and  by  the  approbation  of  the  Holy  See  or 
otherwise,  as  well  as  all  and  each  of  its  indults,  both 
general  and  particular  whose  tenor  we  wish  to  be  regarded 
as  fully  and  sufficiently  set  forth  by  these  present  letters, 
as  if  they  were  here  inserted  word  for  word;  notwith- 
standing any  clause  or  formula  to  the  contrary,  no 
matter  upon  what  decrees  or  obligations  they  may  be 
based.  Hence,  we  declare  as  forever  broken  and 
entirely  extinct  all  authority,  spiritual  or  temporal, 
of  the  General,  provincials,  visitors  and  other  superiors 
of  this  Society,  and  we  transfer  absolutely  and  without 
restriction  this  same  authority  and  this  same  juris- 
diction to  the  ordinaries  of  the  places  where  the  afore- 
said are,  according  to  the  case  or  persons,  in  the  form 
and  under  the  conditions  which  we  shall  explain  here- 
after; forbidding,  as  we  do  by  these  presents  forbid, 
that  any  one  should  be  received  into  this  Society  or 
admitted  to  the  novitiate  or  invested  with  the  habit. 
We  also  forbid  any  of  those  who  have  already  been 
received  to  pronounce  the  simple  or  solemn  vows, 
under  pain  of  nullity  either  of  their  admission  or  pro- 
fession and  under  other  penalties  as  we  may  see  fit. 
Moreover,  we  wish,  ordain  and  enjoin  that  those  who 
are  at  present  novices,  should  be  immediately,  instantly 
and  effectually  dismissed,  and  we  forbid  those  who  have 
not  made  solemn  vows  and  who  have  not  yet  been 
admitted  to  the  priesthood  to  be  promoted  to  cither 
under  the  title  or  pretext  of  their  profession  or  in  virtue 
of  any  privileges  accorded  to  the  Society  and  in  con- 
travention of  the  decrees  of  the  Council  of  Trent. 


The  Instrument  565 

"  But  as  the  object  we  have  in  view  and  which  we 
are  most  eager  to  attain  is  to  watch  over  the  general 
good  of  the  Church  and  the  peace  of  the  nations,  and 
at  the  same  time  to  help  and  console  each  one  of  the 
members  of  this  Society  whom  we  tenderly  cherish 
in  the  Lord,  so  that,  freed  at  last  from  all  the  quarrels 
and  disputes  and  annoyances  in  which  they  have 
until  now  been  engaged,  they  may  cultivate  with 
more  fruit  the  vineyard  of  the  Lord  and  labor  with 
more  success  for  the  salvation  of  souls,  we  decree  and 
ordain  that  the  members  of  this  Society  who  have 
made  only  simple  vows  and  who  are  not  yet  in  Holy 
Orders  shall  depart  from  their  houses  and  colleges 
freed  from  their  vows,  and  that  they  are  free  to  embrace 
whatever  state  they  judge  most  conformable  to  their 
vocation,  their  strength  and  their  conscience.  The 
ordinary  of  the  place  will  fix  the  time  which  may  be 
deemed  sufficient  to  procure  an  employment  or  an 
occupation,  without,  however,  extending  it  beyond  a 
year,  just  as  in  the  Society  they  would  be  dismissed 
without  any  other  reason  than  because  the  prudence  of 
the  superior  so  judges,  and  that  without  any  previous 
citation  or  juridical  proof. 

"  We  allow  those  in  Holy  Orders  either  to  leave 
their  houses  and  colleges  and  enter  some  religious 
order  approved  by  the  Holy  See,  in  which  case  they 
must  pass  the  probation  prescribed  by  the  Council  of 
Trent,  if  they  have  only  taken  simple  vows,  if  they 
have  taken  solemn  vows,  the  time  of  their  probation 
will  be  sk  months  in  virtue  of  a  dispensation  which 
we  give  to  that  effect;  or  they  may  remain  in  the 
world  as  secular  priests  or  clerics,  and  in  that  case 
they  shall  be  entirely  subject  to  the  authority  and 
jurisdiction  of  the  ordinary  of  the  place  in  which  they 
reside.  We  ordain,  also,  that  a  suitable  pension  shall 
be  assigned  to  those  who  remain  in  the  world,  until 


566  The  Jesuits 

such  time  as  they  shall  be  otherwise  provided  for. 
This  pension  shall  be  derived  from  the  funds  of  the 
house  where  they  formerly  lived,  due  consideration, 
however,  being  had  to  the  revenues  and  the  indebted- 
ness of  such  houses, 

"  The  professed  who  are  already  in  Holy  Orders  and 
who  fear  they  may  not  be  able  to  live  respectably  on 
account  of  the  smallness  of  their  pension,  either 
because  they  can  find  no  other  refuge  or  are  very  old 
and  infirm,  may  live  in  their  former  houses  on  condition 
that  they  shall  have  no  share  in  its  administration, 
that  they  dress  like  secular  priests  and  be  entirely 
subject  to  the  bishop  of  the  place.  We  expressly 
forbid  them  to  supply  anyone's  place  or  to  acquire  any 
house  or  place  in  the  future,  or,  as  the  Council  of  Lyons 
decrees,  to  alienate  the  houses,  goods  or  places  which 
they  actually  possess.  They  may,  nevertheless,  meet 
in  one  or  more  houses,  in  such  a  manner  that  such 
houses  may  be  available  if  needed  for  pious  purposes, 
as  may  appear  most  in  conformity,  in  time  and  place, 
with  the  Holy  Canons  and  the  will  of  the  founders, 
and  also  more  conducive  to  the  growth  of  religion, 
the  salvation  of  souls  and  public  utility.  Moreover, 
some  one  of  the  secular  clergy,  commendable  for  his 
prudence  and  virtuous  life,  must  appear  in  the  adminis- 
tration of  such  houses,  as  the  name  of  the  Society  is 
now  totally  suppressed  and  abolished. 

"  We  declare,  also,  that  those  who  have  been  already 
expelled  from  any  country  whatever  are  included  in 
the  general  suppression  of  the  Order,  and  we  conse- 
quently decree  that  those  banished  Jesuits,  even  if 
they  are  in  Holy  Orders  and  have  not  entered  a  religious 
order,  shall  from  this  moment  belong  to  the  secular 
clergy  and  be  entirely  subject  to  the  ordinary  of  the 
place. 


The  Instrument  567 

"  If  the  ordinaries  recognize  in  those  who  in  virtue 
of  the  present  Brief  have  passed  from  the  Society  to 
the  state  of  secular  priests  necessary  knowledge  and 
correctness  of  life,  they  may  grant  or  refuse  them, 
as  they  choose,  the  permission  to  confess  and  preach, 
and  without  such  authorization  none  of  them  can 
exercise  such  functions.  However,  the  bishops  or 
ordinaries  will  never  grant  such  powers  as  are  conceded 
to  those  not  of  the  diocese,  if  the  applicants  live  in 
houses  or  colleges  formerly  belonging  to  the  Society; 
and  therefore  we  forbid  such  persons  to  preach  or 
administer  the  sacraments,  as  Gregory  X,  our  prede- 
cessor prescribed  in  the  general  council  already  referred 
to.  We  lay  it  on  the  conscience  of  the  bishops  to  watch 
over  the  execution  of  all  this  and  we  command  them 
to  reflect  on  the  rigorous  account  they  will  have  one 
day  to  render  to  God  of  the  sheep  committed  to  their 
care  and  of  the  terrible  judgment  with  which  the 
Sovereign  Judge  of  the  living  and  the  dead  menaces 
those  who  govern  others. 

"  Moreover,  if  among  those  who  were  members  of  the 
Society  there  are  any  who  were  charged  with  the 
instruction  of  youth  or  who  have  exercised  the  functions 
of  professors  in  colleges  and  schools,  we  warn  them 
that  they  are  absolutely  deposed  from  any  such 
direction,  administration  or  authority  and -that  they 
are  not  permitted  to  be  employed  in  any  such  work, 
except  as  long  as  there  is  a  reason  to  hope  for  some 
good  from  their  labors  and  as  long  as  they  appear  to 
keep  aloof  from  all  discussions  and  points  of  doctrine 
whose  laxity  and  futility  only  occasion  and  engender 
trouble  and  disastrous  contentions.  We 'furthermore 
ordain  that  they  shall  be  forever  forbidden  to  exercise, 
the  functions  aforesaid,  if  they  do  not  endeavor  to 
keep  peace  in  their  schools  and  with  others;  and  that 


568  The  Jesuits 

they  shall  be  discharged  from  the  schools  if  they  happen 
to  be  employed  in  them. 

"As  regards  the  missions,  we  include  them  in 
everything  that  has  been  ordered  in  this  suppression, 
and  we  reserve  to  ourselves  to  take  measures  calculated 
to  procure  more  easily  and  with  greater  certainty  of 
results  the  conversion  of  the  heathens  and  the  cessation 
of  disputes. 

"  Therefore,  we  have  entirely  abolished  and  abro- 
gated all  the  privileges  and  statutes  of  this  Order  and 
we  declare  that  all  of  its  members  shall  as  soon  as  they 
have  left  their  houses  and  colleges  and  have  embraced 
the  state  of  secular  clerics,  be  considered  proper 
and  fit  to  obtain,  in  conformity  with  the  Holy  Canons 
and  the  Apostolic  Constitutions,  all  sorts  of  benefices 
either  simple  or  with  the  care  of  souls  annexed;  and 
also  to  accept  offices,  dignities  and  pensions,  from 
which  in  accordance  with  the  Brief  of  Gregory  XIII  of 
September  10,  1584,  which  begins  with  the  words: 
*  Satis  superque/  they  were  absolutely  excluded  as 
long  as  they  belonged  to  the  Society.  We  allow  them 
also  to  accept  compensations  for  celebrating  Mass, 
which  they  were  not  allowed  to  receive  as  Jesuits,  and 
to  enjoy  all  the  graces  and  favors  of  which  they  would 
have  always  been  deprived  as  long  as  they  were  Clerks 
Regular  of  the  Society.  We  abrogate  likewise  all 
permissions  they  may  have  obtained  from  the  General 
and  other  superiors,  in  virtue  of  the  privileges  accorded 
by  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  such  as  leave  to  read  heretical 
books  and  others  prohibited  and  condemned  by  the 
Holy  See,  or  not  to  fast  or  abstain,  or  to  anticipate 
the  Divine  Office  or  anything,  in  fact,  of  that  nature. 
Under  the  severest  penalties  we  forbid  them  to  use 
such  privileges  in  the  future,  as  our  intention  is  to 
make  them  live  in  conformity  with  the  requirements 
of  the  common  law,  like  secular  priests, 


The  Instrument  569 

"  After  the  publication  of  the  Brief,  we  forbid 
anyone,  no  matter  who  he  may  be,  to  dare  to  suspend 
its  execution  even  under  color,  title  or  pretext  of  some 
demand,  appeal  or  declaration  or  discussion  of  doubt 
that  may  arise  or  under  any  other  pretext,  foreseen 
or  unforeseen;  for  we  wish  that  the  suppression  and 
cessation  of  the  whole  Society  as  well  as  of  all  of 
its  officers  should  have  their  full  and  entire  effect, 
at  the  moment,  and  instanteously,  and  in  the  form 
and  manner  in  which  we  have  described  above,  under 
pain  of  major  excommunication  incurred  if  so  facto 
by  a  single  act,  and  reserved  to  us  and  to  the  Popes, 
our  successors.  This  is  directed  against  anyone  who 
will  dare  to  place  the  least  obstacle,  impediment  or 
delay  in  the  execution  of  this  Brief.  We  order, 
likewise,  and  we  forbid  under  holy  obedience  all  and 
every  ecclesiastic  secular  and  regular,  whatever  be 
their  grade,  dignity,  quality  or  condition,  and  notably 
those  who  are  at  present  attached  to  the  Society  or 
were  in  the  past,  to  oppose  or  attack  this  suppression, 
to  write  against  it,  even  to  speak  of  it,  or  of  its  causes 
or  motives,  or  of  the  extinct  Institute  itself,  its  rules, 
constitutions  or  discipline  or  of  anything  else,  relative 
to  this  affair,  without  the  express  permission  of  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff.  We  likewise  forbid  all  and  everyone 
under  pain  of  excommunication  reserved  to  us  and 
our  successors  to  dare  to  assail  either  in  secret  or  in 
public,  verbally  or  in  writing,  by  disputes,  injuries 
and  affronts  or  by  any  other  kind  of  contempt,  anyone, 
no  matter  who  he  may  be  and  least  of  all  those  who 
were  members  of  the  said  Order. 

"  We  exhort  all  Christian  princes  whose  attachment 
and  respect  for  the  Holy  See  we  know,  to  employ  all 
the  zeal,  care,  strength,  authority  and  power  which 
they  have  received  from  God  for  the  execution  of  this 
Brief,, in  order  to  protect  and  defend  the  Holy  Roman 


570  The  Jesuits 

Church,  to  adhere  to  all  the  articles  it  contains;  to 
issue  and  publish  similar  decrees  by  which  they  may 
more  carefully  watch  over  the  execution  of  this  our 
present  will  and  so  forestall  quarrelling,  strife  and 
dissensions  among  the  faithful. 

"  Finally,  we  exhort  all  Christians  and  we  implore 
them  by  the  bowels  of  Jesus  Christ  Our  Lord  to 
remember  that  they  have  the  same  Master,  Who  is  in 
heaven;  the  same  Savior,  Who  redeemed  them  at 
the  price  of  His  blood;  that  they  have  all  been  regener- 
ated by  the  grace  of  Baptism;  that  they  have  been  all 
made  sons  of  God  and  co-heirs  of  Christ;  and  are 
nourished  by  the  same  bread  of  the  Divine  word, 
the  doctrine  of  the  Church;  that  they  are  one  body  in 
Jesus  Christ,  and  are  members  of  each  other;  and 
consequently,  it  is  necessary  that  being  united  by 
the  bonds  of  charity  they  should  live  in  peace  with  all 
men,  as  their  only  duty  is  to  love  each  other,  for  he 
who  loves  his  neighbor  fulfills  the  law.  Hence, 
also,  they  should  regard  with  horror  injuries,  hatred, 
quarrels,  deceits  and  other  evils  which  the  enemy  of 
the  human  race  has  invented,  devised  and  provoked 
to  trouble  the  Church  of  God  and  to  hinder  the  salva- 
tion of  souls;  nor  are  they  to  allege  the  false  pretext 
of  scholastic  opinions  or  that  of  greater  Christian 
perfection*  Finally,  let  all  endeavor  to  acquire  that 
true  wisdom  of  which  St.  James  speaks  (iii,i3) :  *  Who 
is  a  wise  man  and  indued  with  knowledge  among  you? 
Let  him  show,  by  a  good  conversation,  his  work  in 
the  meekness  of  wisdom.  But  if  you  haye  a  bitter 
zeal,  and  there  be  contentions  in  your  heart;  glory 
not,  and  be  not  liars  against  the  truth.  For  this  is 
not  wisdom,  descending  from  above;  but  earthly, 
sensual,  devilish.  For,  where  envying  and  contention 
is,  there  is  inconstancy,  and  every  evil  work.  For  the 
wisdom,  that  is  from  above,  first  indeed  is  chaste, 


The  Instrument  571 

then  peaceable,  modest,  easy  to  be  persuaded,  consent- 
ing to  the  good,  full  of  mercy  and  good  fruits,  without 
judging,  without  dissimulation.  And  the  fruit  of 
justice  is  sown  in  peace,  to  them  that  make  peace.' 

"  Even  if  the  superiors  and  the  other  religious  of 
this  Order,  as  well  as  all  those  who  are  interested 
or  pretend  to  be,  in  any  way  whatever,  in  what  has 
been  herein  ordered,  give  no  assent  to  the  present 
Brief  and  were  not  summoned  or  heard,  we  wish, 
nevertheless,  that  it  should  never  be  attacked,  weakened 
or1  invalidated  on  the  plea  of  subreption,  obreption, 
nullity,  invalidity  or  defect  of  intention  on  our  part 
or  for  any  other  motive,  no  matter  how  great  or  unfore- 
seen or  essential  it  may  be,  or  because  formalities 
and  other  things  have  been  omitted  which  should  have 
been  observed  in  the  preceding  enactments  or  in  any 
one  of  them,  or  for  any  other  capital  point  deriving 
from  the  law  or  any  custom,  or  indeed  contained  in 
the  body  of  the  law;  nor  can  there  be  any  pretext  of 
an  enormous  or  a  very  enormous  and  extreme  injury 
inflicted;  nor,  finally,  can  there  be  any  reasons  or 
causes  however  just  or  reasonable  they  may  be,  even 
one  that  should  have  necessarily  been  expressed, 
needed  to  give  validity  to  the  rules  above  given.  We 
forbid  that  it  should  be  ever  retracted,  discussed  or 
brought  to  court  or  that  it  be  provided  against  by 
way  of  restitution,  discussion,  review  according  to 
law  or  in  any  other  way  to  obtain  by  legal  procedure, 
fact,  favor  or  justice,  in  any  manner  in  which  it  might  be 
accorded,  to  be  made  use  of  either  in  court  or  out  of  it. 

"  Moreover,  we  wish  expressly  that  the  present 
Constitution  should  be  from  this  moment  valid, 
stable  and  efficacious  forever,  that  it  should  have  its 
full  and  entire  effect;  that  it  should  be  inviolably 
observed  by  all  and  each  of  those  to  whom  it  belongs 
or  will  belong  in  the  future  in  any  manner  whatever," 


572  The  Jesuits 

Such  was  the  famous  Brief  which  condemned  the 
Society  to  death.  Distressing  as  it  is,  it  attributes 
no  wrong  doing  to  the  Order.  It  narrates  a  few  of  the 
accusations  against  the  Jesuits,  but  does  not  accept 
them  as  ever  having  been  proved.  The  sole  reason 
given  for  the  suppression  —  and  it  is  repeated  again 
and  again  —  is  that  the  Society  was  the  occasion  of 
much  trouble  in  the  Church.  It  is  thus,  on  the  whole, 
a  vindication  and  not  a  condemnation.  It  was  not 
a  Bull  but  a  Brief,  and  on  that  account  could  be  much 
more  easily  revoked  than  the  more  solemn  document 
to  which  the  papal  India  is  affixed. 

Father  Cordara's  view  of  this  act  of  the  Pope  is 
generally  considered  to  reflect  that  of  the  Society  at 
large.  It  is  of  special  value  for  he  was  one  of  the 
suppressed  Jesuits  and  happened  to  be  living  in  Rome 
at  the  time.  He  maintained  that  "the  Pope  could, 
without  injustice,  suppress  the  Society,  even  if  inno- 
cent, just  as  a  king  can  deliver  over  an  innocent  man 
to  be  put  to  death  by  an  enemy  who  otherwise  would 
sack  a  city.  Clement  XIV  thought  to  save  the  Church 
whose  existence  was  menaced/* 

Two  years  later  however,  Cardinal  Antonelli  when 
interrogated  by  Clement's  successor,  Pius  VI,  and,, 
consequently,  when  he  was  compelled  to  speak,  did 
not  hesitate  to  condemn  the  Brief  absolutely.  His 
statement  is  quoted  here,  not  as  a  view  that  is  adopted, 
but  merely  as  a  matter  of  history.  The  document  is  of 
considerable  importance,  for  Antonelli  was  prefect  of 
the  Propaganda  and  with  Consalvi  was  the  confidant 
of  Pius  VII  and  was  his  fellow-prisoner  in  1804.  We 
sum  it  up  briefly,  omitting  its  harsher  phrases. 

"  Your  Holiness  knows  as  well  as  the  cardinals  that 
Clement  XIV  would  never  consent  to  give  the  Brief 
of  Suppression  the  canonical  forms  which  were  indis- 
pensable to  make  it  definitive.  Moreover  this  Brief 


The  Instrument  573 

of  Clement  XIV  is  addressed  to  no  one,  although 
such  letters  usually  are.  In  its  form  and  execution  all 
law  is  set  aside,  it  is  based  on  false  accusations  and 
shameful  calumnies;  it  is  self-contradictory,  in  speaking 
of  vows  both  solemn  and  simple.  Clement  XIV  claims 
powers  such  as  none  of  his  predecessors  claimed,  and, 
on  the  other  hand,  leaves  doubts  on  points  that  should 
have  been  more  clearly  determined.  The  motives 
alleged  by  the  Brief  could  be  applied  to  any  other 
Order,  and  seem  to  have  been  prepared  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  all  of  them,  without  specifying  reasons  it 
annuls  many  Bulls  and  Constitutions  received  and 
recognized  by  the  Church;  all  of  which  goes  to  show 
that  the  Brief  is  null  and  void." 

A  copy  of  the  Brief  was  sent  to  every  bishop  in 
Christendom,  even  to  the  remotest  missions.  Accom- 
panying it  was  another  document  called  an  "Ency- 
clical from  the  Congregation  styled  '  For  the  abolition 
of  the  Society  of  Jesus/  with  which  is  sent  an  exemplar 
to  every  bishop  of  the  Brief  of  Extinction:  Dominus 
ac  Redemptor,  with  the  command  of  His  Holiness 
that  all  the  bishops  should  publish  and  promulgate 
the  Brief."  The  Latin  text  may  be  found  in  de  Ravig- 
nan's  "  Cl&nent  XIII  et  C16ment  XIV "  (p.  560). 
We  give  here  the  translation: 

"  Most  Illustrious  and  Most  Reverend  Lord  and 
Brother. 

"From  the  printed  copy  herein  contained  of  the 
Apostolic  Letters  in  the  form  of  a  Brief,  under  the  date 
of  the  2ist  of  the  preceding  month  of  July,  your 
lordship  will  learn  of  the  suppression  and  extinction 
for  just  causes  of  the  Regular  Clerics  hitherto  called 
"  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  "  by  the  most  holy  Lord 
Clement  XIV;  you  will  also  learn  by  what  legal  process 
His  Holiness  has  decreed  that  the  suppression  should 
be  carried  out  in  every  part  of  the  world.  For  the 


574  The  Jesuits 

complete  destruction  of  the  same,  he  has  established 
a  special  congregation  of  their  eminences,  the  Cardinals 
Corsini,  Marefoschi,  Caraffa,  Zelada,  and  Casali, 
together  with  the  Reverend  Macedonio  and  Alfani, 
who  possess  the  most  ample  faculties  for  what  is 
necessary  and  proper.  The  Brief  establishing  this 
congregation,  under  date  of  the  i8th  of  the  current 
month  of  August,  is  herein  enclosed. 

"By  command  of  His  Holiness  the  same  congregation 
transmits  the  present  letters  to  your  lordship,'  in 
order  that  in  each  house  and  college  and  place  where 
the  individuals  of  the  aforesaid  suppressed  Society 
may  be  found,  your  lordship  shall  assemble  them  in 
any  house  whatever  (in  qualibet  domo)  and  you  shall 
regularly  (rite)  announce,  publish  and  intimate,  as 
they  say,  and  force  and  compel  them  to  execute 
these  letters;  and  your  lordship  shall  take  and  retain 
possession  for  the  use  afterwards  to  be  designated  by 
His  Holiness,  of  all  and  each  of  the  houses,  colleges 
and  places  of  the  same,  with  the  lawful  rights  to  their 
goods  and  appurtenances,  after  having  removed  the 
aforesaid  individuals  of  the  suppressed  Society;  and 
in  their  execution,  your  lordship  will  do  whatever 
else  is  decreed  in  the  letters  of  suppression  and  will 
advise  the  special  congregation  that  such  execution 
has  been  carried  out.  Your  lordship  will  see  to  it. 
Meantime  we  entreat  the  Lord  that  all  things  may 
prosper  with  you. 

"  Yours  with  brotherly  devotedness. 
"Rome,  Aug.  18,  1773." 

Carayon  gives  us  the  personnel  of  this  congregation 
(Doc,  in6dits,  xvii).  Cardinal  Marefoschi,  who  had 
been  for  sixteen  years  secretary  of  the  Propaganda, 
had  made  a  digest  of  all  the  complaints  uttered  by 
missionaries  in  various  parts  of  the  world  against  the 
Jesuits,  omitting,  however,  all  that  had  been  said  in 


The  Instrument  575 

their  favor.  The  Pope  had  named  him  visitor  of 
the  Irish  College,  which  had  been  entrusted  to  the 
Society  by  Cardinal  Ludovisi,  and  he  immediately 
removed  the  Jesuits.  Among  other  professors  he 
put  in  a  certain  Tamburini,  who  had  been  expelled 
from  Brescia  for  Jansenism.  In  Marefoschi's  report 
to  the  Pope,  the  former  professors  (the  Jesuits)  were 
accused  of  neglect  of  the  studies,  alienation  of  ecclesi- 
astical property  and  swindling,  with  a  consequent 
diminution  of  the  revenues.  He  was  then  sent  to 
visit  the  College  of  Tuccioli  and  similar  disastrous 
results  ensued.  In  June,  1772,  he  and  the  Cardinal 
of  York  expelled  the  Jesuits  from  the  Roman  Seminary 
and  in  the  same  year  from  Frascati.  The  entire  city 
addressed  a  petition  to  the  cardinal  begging  him  not 
to  drive  out  the  Fathers,  but  his  royal  highness  was 
so  wrought  up  by  the  audacity  of  the  request  that 
he  was  on  the  point  of  putting  some  of  the  chief 
petitioners  in  jail,  magistrates  though  they  were. 

With  Marefoschi  were  three  other  cardinals,  Casali, 
Caraffa,  and  Zelada,  all  three  of  whom  had  been  raised 
to  the  purple  in '  the  month  of  May  at  the  suggestion 
of  Mgr.  Bottari,  who  had  been  filling  Rome  with 
defamatory  books  against  the  Jesuits.  In  spite  of  the 
entreaties  of  his  family,  young  Cardinal  Cojrsini  accepted 
the  presidency.  Macedonio  was  made  secretary,  and 
Alfani,  assessor;  both  of  these  clergymen  were  subse- 
quently charged  with  pillage  of  the  sequestrated 
property.  Finally,  to  give  an  appearance  of  acting 
in  conformity  with  canon  law,  two  theologians  were 
added  to  the  commission;  Mamachi,  a  Dominican, 
and  de  Casal,  a  Minor  Reformed;  both  were  avowed 
enemies  of  Probabilism  and  Molinism,  and,  singularly 
enough,  were  bitterly  opposed  to  the  Apostolic  Con- 
stitution "  Unigenitus  "  in  which  Clement  XI  con- 
demned the  Jansenistic  errors  of  Pasquier  Quesnel. 


576  The  Jesuits 

The  Protestant  historian  SchoeU  (xliv,  83)  speaking 
of  the  brief  of  suppression  says:  "  This  Brief  does  not 
condemn  the  doctrine  nor  the  morals,  nor  the  rules  of 
the  Jesuits.  The  complaints  of  the  courts  are  the 
sole  motives  alleged  for  the  suppression  of  the  Order, 
and  the  Pope  justifies  himself  by  the  precedents  of  other 
Oniers  which  were  suppressed  to  satisfy  the  demands 
of  public  opinion."  As  he  was  about  to  sign  it,  he 
heard  the  bells  of  the  Gesu  ringing.  "What  is  that  for?  " 
he  asked.  "The  Jesuits  are  about  to  recite  the  Litany 
of  the  Saints,'*  he  was  told;  "  Not  the  Litany  of  the 
Saints/'  he  said,  "but  the  Litany  of  the  Dead."  It 
was  July  21,  1773. 


CHAPTER  XIX 

THE  EXECUTION 

Seizure  of  the  Gesft  in  Rome  —  Suspension  of  the  Priests  —  Juri- 
dical Trial  of  Father  Ricci  continued  during  Two  Years  —  The  Vic- 
tim's Death-bed  Statement — Admission  of  his  Innocence  by  the 
Inquisitors  —  Obsequies  —  Reason  of  his  Protracted  Imprisonment  — 
Liberation  of  the  Assistants  by  Pius  VI  —  Receipt  of  the  Brief  outside 
of  Rome  —  Refused  by  Switzerland,  Poland,  Russia  and  Prussia  — 
Read  to  the  Prisoners  in  Portugal  by  Pombal  —  Denunciation  of  it 
by  the  Archbishop  of  Paris  —  Suppression  of  the  Document  by  the 
Bishop  of  Quebec  —  Acceptance  by  Austria  —  Its  Enforcement  in 
Belgium  —  Carroll  at  Bruges  —  Defective  Promulgation  in  Maryland. 

Two  days  before  the  subsidiary  Brief  was  signed, 
namefy  on  August  16,  1773,  the  commissioner  began 
operations.  Led  by  Alfani  and  Macedonio,  a  squad 
of  soldiers  invaded  the  Gesti,  where  the  General  and 
his  assistants  were  notified  of  the  suppression  of 
the  Society.  Apparently  no  one  else  was  cited,  and 
hence,  according  to  de  Ravignan,  the  procedure  was 
illegal  as  far  as  the  rest  of  the  community  was  con- 
cerned. However,  they  made  no  difficulty  about  it 
and  from  that  moment  considered  themselves  as  no 
longer  Jesuits.  It  was  supposed  that  a  great  amount 
of  money  would  be  seized  at  the  central  house  of  the 
Society;  but  the  hope  was  not  realized;  for  only  about 
$50,000  were  found,  and  that  sum  had  been  collected 
to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  beatification  of  St. 
Francis  Hieronymo.  It  really  belonged  to  St.  Peter's 
rather  than  to  the  Gesti.  However,  there  was  plenty 
of  material  in  the  gold  and  silver  vessels  of  the  chapels, 
the  works  of  art,  the  valuable  library,  and  the  archives. 
The  same  process  was  followed  in  the  other  Jesuit 
establishments  of  the  city.  The  Fathers  were  locked 
up  while  the  soldiers  guarded  the  doors  and  swarmed 

37  577 


578  The  Jesuits 

through  the  rooms  and  passage  ways.  The  old  and 
infirm  were  carried  to  the  Roman  College,  and  then 
sent  back  to  the  place  whence  they  had  been  taken; 
in  both  instances  on  stretchers,  when  the  victim  was 
unable  to  walk.  One  old  Father  was  actually  breath- 
ing his  last  during  the  transfer.  They  were  all 
suspended  from  their  priestly  faculties,  and  ordered 
to  report  every  three  months  to  the  authorities  with 
a  certificate  of  their  good  behavior,  signed  by  the 
parish  priest.  They  were  ecclesiastical  "ticket  of 
leave  men."  Pretexts  were  multiplied  to  have  many 
of  them  arrested.  They  were  paraded  through  the 
streets  in  custody  of  a  policeman,  and  after  being  put 
in  the  dock  with  common  criminals  were  locked  up 
or  banished  from  the  Papal  States. 

On  August  17  at  night-fall,  the  carriage  of  Cardinal 
Corsini  drove  to  the  Gesft.  In  it  was  the  auditor  of 
the  congregation  with  a  request  to  Father  Ricci  to 
meet  the  cardinal  at  the  English  College.  The  invita- 
tion was  accepted  in  perfect  good  faith,  although  that 
very  morning  an  offer  made  by  the  minister  of  Tuscany 
to  take  the  General  under  his  protection  and  thus 
secure  him  from  arrest  had  been  declined  by  Ricci. 
The  freedom  of  the  house  was  given  to  him  on  his 
arrival,  but  soon  he  was  restricted  to  three  rooms, 
and  he  then  noticed  that  soldiers  were  on  guard  both 
inside  and  outside  of  the  college.  He  was  kept  there 
for  more  than  a  month,  during  which  time  he  was 
subjected  to  several  judicial  examinations;  finally  he 
was  transferred  to  the  Castle  Sant'  Angelo  where  he 
was  soon  followed  by  his  secretary,  Commolli,  and  the 
assistants,  Le  Forestier,  Zaccharia,  Gautier  and  Fauro. 
They  were  all  assigned  to  separate  cells.  The  enemies 
of  the  Society  now  had  the  arch-criminal  in  their 
hands,  the  General  himself,  Father  Ricci;  and  they 
could  get  from  him  all  the  secrets  of  the  redoubtable 


The  Execution  579 

organization  which  they  had  destroyed.  His  papers, 
both  private  and  official,  were  in  their  possession. 
The  archives  of  the  Society  were  before  them  with 
information  about  every  member  of  it  from  the  begin- 
ning, as  well  as  all  the  personal  letters  from  all  over  the 
world  written  in  every  conceivable  circumstance  of 
Jesuit  life.  They  were  all  carefully  studied  and  yet 
no  cause  for  accusation  was  found  in  them.  The 
jailors  seemed  to  have  lost  their  heads  and  to  have 
forgotten  their  usual  tactics  of  forgery  and  inter- 
polation. 

The  trial  of  Father  Ricci  was  amazing  both  in  its 
procedure  and  its  length.  There  were  no  witnesses  to 
give  testimony  for  or  against  him,  but  he  was  brutally 
and  repeatedly  interrogated  by  an  official  named 
Andrettiwho  was  suggestively  styled  "the  criminalist." 
The  interrogatories  have  all  been  printed,  and  some 
of  the  questions  are  remarkable  for  their  stupidity. 
Thus  for  instance,  he  was  asked,  "  Do  you  think  you 
have  any  authority  since  the  suppression  of  the 
Society?"  The  answer  was.  "  I  am  quite  persuaded 
I  have  none."  "  What  authority  would  you  have  if, 
instead  of  abolishing  the  Society,  the  Pope  had  done 
something  else?"  "  What  he  would  give  me."  "  Are 
there  any  abuses  in  the  Order?"  To  this  he  replied, 
"  If  you  mean  general  abuses,  I  answer  that,  by  the 
mercy  of  God  there  are  none.  On  the  contrary,  there 
is  in  the  Society  a  great  deal  of  piety,  regularity,  zeal, 
and  especially  charity,  which  has  shown  itself  in  a 
remarkable  way  during  these  fifteen  years  of  bitter 
trials."  "  Have  you  made  any  changes  in  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Order?"  "None."  "Where  are  your 
moneys?"  "I  have  none.  I  had  not  enough  to 
keep  the  exiles  of  Spain  and  Portugal  from  starvation." 

The  result  of  this  investigation  which  went  on  for 
more  than  two  years  was  that  nothing  was  found  either 


580  The  Jesuits 

against  him  or  against  the  Society,  and  yet  he  was 
kept  in  a  dungeon  until  he  died.  As  the  end  was 
approaching  Father  Ricci  read  from  his  dying  bed 
the  following  declaration: 

"  Because  of  the  uncertainty  of  the  moment  when 
God  will  please  to  summon  me  before  him  and  also  in 
view  of  my  advanced  age  and  the  multitude,  duration, 
and  greatness  of  my  sufferings,  which  have  been  far 
beyond  my  strength,  being  on  the  point  of  appearing 
before  the  infallible  tribunal  of  truth  and  justice, 
after  long  and  mature  deliberation  and  after  having 
hitfnbly  invoked  my  most  merciful  Redeemer  that 
He  will  not  permit  me  to  speak  from  passion,  especially 
in  this  the  last  action  of  my  life,  nor  be  moved  by 
atoy  bitterness  of  heart,  or  out  of  wrong  desire  or  evil 
purpose,  but  only  to  acquit  myself  of  my  obligation 
to  bear  testimony  to  truth  and  to  innocence,  I  now 
make  the  two  following  declarations  and  protests: 

"First,  I  declare  and  protest  that  the  extinct  Society 
of  Jesus  has  given  no  reason  for  its  suppression;  and 
I  declare  and  protest  with  that  moral  certainty  which 
a  well-informed  superior  has  of  what  passes  in  his 
Order.  Second,  I  declare  and  protest  that  I  have 
given  no  reason,  not  even  the  slightest,  for  my  imprison- 
ment, and  I  do  so  with  that  sovereign  certitude  which 
each  one  has  of  his  own  actions.  I  make  this  second 
protest  solely  because  it  is  necessary  for  the  reputation 
of  the  extinct  Society  of  which  I  was  superior, 

"  I  do  not  pretend  in  consequence  of  these  protests 
that  I  or  any  one  may  judge  as  guilty  before  God 
any  of  those  who  have  injured  the  Society  of  Jesus 
or  mysejf.  The  thoughts  of  men  are  known  to  God 
alone.  He  alone  sees  the  errors  of  the  human  mind 
and  sees  if  they  are  such  as  to  excuse  from  sin;  He 
alone  penetrates  the  motives  of  acts;  as  well  as  the 
spirit  in  which  things  are  done,  and  the  affections  of 


The  Execution  581 

the  heart  that  accompany  such  actions;  and  since  the 
malice  or  innocence  of  an  external  act  depends  on  all 
these  things,  I  leave  it  to  God  Who  shall  interrogate 
man's  thoughts  and  deeds. 

"  To  do  my  duty  as  a  Christian,  I  protest  that  with 
the  help  of  God  I  have  always  pardoned  and  do  now 
sincerely  pardon  all  those  who  have  tortured  and 
harmed  me,  first,  by  the  evils  they  have  heaped  on 
the  Society  and  by  the  rigorous  measures  they  have 
employed  in  dealing  with  its  members;  secondly,  by 
the  extinction  of  the  Society  and  by  its  accompanying 
circumstances;  thirdly,  by  my  own  imprisonment,  and 
the  hardships  they  have  added  to  it,  .and  by  the  harm 
they  have  done  to  my  reputation;  all  of  which  are 
public  and  notorious  facts.  I  pray  God,  out  of  His 
goodness  and  mercy,  through  the  merits  of  Jesus 
Christ,  to  pardon  me  my  many  sins  and  to  pardon 
also  all  the  authors  of  the  above-mentioned  evils  and 
wrongs,  as  well  as  their  co-operators.  With  this 
sentiment  and  with  this  prayer  I  wish  to  die. 

11  Finally  I  beg  afid  conjure  all  those  who  may  read 
these  declarations  and  protests  to  make  them  public 
throughout  the  world  as  far  as  in  them  lies.  I  ask 
this  by  all  the  titles  of  humanity,  justice  and  Christian 
charity  that  may  persuade  them  to  carry  out  my  will 
and  desire,  (signed)  Lorenzo  Ricci." 

The  trial  had  been  purposely  prolonged.  At  each 
session  only  three  of  four  questions  would  be  put  to 
the  accused,  although  he  constantly  entreated  the 
inquisitors  to  proceed.  Then  there  would  be  an 
interruption  of  eight,  ten  and  even  twenty  days  or 
more.  At  times  the  interrogations  were  sent  in  on 
paper,  until  finally,  Andretti,  the  chief  inquisitor,  said 
that  the  case  was  ended  and  he  would  return  no  more. 
Nevertheless  he  made  his  appearance  a  few  days  later. 

"  No  doubt,"  says  Father  Ricci,  "someone  had  told 


582  The  Jesuits 

him  that  the  whole  process  was  null  and  void;  and  I 
pitied  this  honest  man,  advanced  in  age  as  he  was,  and 
so  long  in  the  practice  of  his  profession,  who  was  now 
told  that  he  did  not  know  the  conditions  necessary  for 
the  validity  of  a  process.  Those  who  gave  him  that 
information  should  have  warned  him  long  before. 
So  he  began  again,  going  over  the  same  ground  in  the 
same  way,  and  I  gave  him  the  same  answers.  His 
questions  were  always  preceded  by  long  formulas  to 
whiich  I  paid  no  heed.  After  each  question,  he  made 
me  repeat  my  oath.  I  asked  him  to  let  me  know  the 
reason  of  my  incarceration  and  could  get  no  answer; 
but,  finally  he  uttered  these  words :  *  Be  content  to 
know  that  you  have  not  been  imprisoned  for  any 
crime;  and  you  might  have  inferred  that  from  the  fact 
that  I  have  not  interrogated  you  about  anything 
criminal  whatever.'  " 

As  a  necessary  consequence  of  this  exoneration  by 
the  official  deputed  to  try  him,  it  follows  that  the 
Order  of  which  he  was  the  chief  superior  was  also 
without  reproach;  for,  if  the  numberless  offences 
alleged  against  the  Society  were  true,  it  would  have 
been  absolutely  impossible  for  the  General  not  to 
have  known  them;  and  having  this  knowledge,  he 
would  have  been  culpable  and  deserving  of  the  severest 
punishment,  if  there  had  been  dissensions  in  the  Order 
and  he  had  not  endeavored  to  repress  them;  if  lax 
morality  had  been  taught  and  he  did  not  censure  it; 
if  the  Society  had  indulged  in  mercantile  transactions 
and  he  had  not  condemned  such  departures  from  the 
law;  if  it  had  been  guilty  of  ambition  and  he  had  not 
crushed  it.  Being  the  centre  and  the  source  of  all 
authority  and  of  all  activity  in  the  Order,  his  knowledge 
of  what  is  going  on  extends  to  very  minute  details 
and  hence  if  the  Order  was  guilty  he  was  the  chief 
criminal.  But  even  his  bitterly  prejudiced  judges 


The  Execution  583 

had  declared  him  innocent  and  he  was,  therefore, 
to  be  set  free. 

At  this  juncture,  the  Spanish  minister,  Florida 
Blanca,  intervened  and  in  the  name  of  Charles  III 
warned  the  Pope  not  to  dare  to  release  him.  The 
Bourbons  were  still  bent  on  terrorizing  the  Holy  See. 
The  difficulty  was  solved  by  the  victim  himself  who 
died  on  November  24,  1775.  He  was  then  seventy- 
two  years  of  age.  He  was  able  to  speak  up  to  the 
last  moment  and  was  often  heard  to  moan:  "Ah! 
poor  Society!  At  least  to  my  knowledge  you  did  not 
deserve  the  punishment  that  was  meted  out  to  you/' 

On  the  evening  of  the  25th,  Father  Ricci's  remains 
were  carried  to  the  Church  of  St.  John  of  the  Floren- 
tines. The  whole  edifice  was  draped  in  black,  and  the 
coffin  was  placed  on  the  bier  around  which  were 
thirty  funeral  torches.  A  vast  multitude  took  part 
in  the  services.  The  Bishop  of  Commachio,  a  staunch 
friend  of  the  Society,  celebrated  the  Mass.  He  came, 
he  said,  not  to  pray  for  the  General  but  to  pray  to  him. 
Another  bishop  exclaimed:  "Behold  the  martyr!" 
In  the  evening,  the  corpse  was  carried  to  the  Gesft. 
It  should  have  arrived  by  9  o'clock,  but  it  reached 
the  church  only  at  midnight.  To  avoid  any  demon- 
stration, the  approaches  to  the  church  had  been  closed, 
and  there  were  only  five  or  six  Fathers  present.  From 
Garayon's  narrative  it  would  appear  that  the  uncof- 
fined  body  was  carried  in  a  coach  and  was  clothed  in  a 
very  short  and  very  shabby  habit.  The  cur6  of  the 
parish  and  two  other  persons  were  in  the  conveyance. 
Two  other  carriages  whose  occupants  were  unknown 
but  who  were  suspected  of  being  spies  followed  close 
behind.  After  the  absolution,  the  body  was  placed 
in  the  coffin  and  laid  in  the  vault  beside  the  remains  of 
Ricci's  seventeen  predecessors.  The  tomb  was  then 
dosed  and  a  scrap  of  paper  was  fixed  on  it,  with  the 


584  The  Jesuits 

inscription:  "  Lorenzo  Ricci,  ex-General  of  the  Jesuits, 
died  at  Castle  Sant'  Angelo,  November  24,  1775." 

After  reciting  these  facts,  Boero  asks  why  the  ex- 
General  was  kept  in  such  a  long  and  severe  confinement? 
There  is  no  answer,  he  says,  except  that  such  was  the 
good  pleasure  of  His  Majesty  Charles  III.  The 
Spanish  minister,  Monino,  had  declared  that  such  was 
the  case.  To  let  him  out  alive  would  have  been 
an  indirect  condemnation  of  the  pressure  exerted  by 
the  court  of  Madrid  in  directing  the  course  of  the 
commission  which  had  been  expressly  created  to  pass 
a  sentence  of  death  on  the  Society.  The  knowledge 
that  the  General  and  his  assistants  had  issued  alive 
from  the  dungeons  of  Sant'  Angelo  would  have  troubled 
the  peace  of  Charles  III  and  his  fellow-conspirators; 
hence,  in  spite  of  the  good  will  and  the  affection  of 
the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  Father  Ricci,  after  two  years 
imprisonment  in  Adrian's  Tomb,  was  carried  out  a1 
corpse.  Those  of  his  companions  who  survived  were 
released,  but  were  commanded  by  the  judges  to 
observe  the  strictest  silence  on  what  had  passed  during 
their  captivity,  or  not  to  tell  what  questions  had  been 
put  to  them. 

One  of  the  victims  showed  his  indignation  at  this 
excessive  cruelty,  and  exclaimed,  "  Why  should  you 
require  me  to  swear  on  the  Holy  Gospels  not  to  speak 
of  my  trial,  when  you  know  very  well  that  it  con- 
sisted of  two  or  three  insignificant  and  ridiculous 
questions?"  Another  assistant  was  merely  asked  his 
name  and  birthplace,  and  no  more.  A  third  satis- 
fied the  judges  when  he  replied,  "  I  have  neither  said 
nor  done  anything  wrong."  He  was  never  interro- 
gated again.  The  secretary  of  the  Society  had  been 
asked  in  what  subterranean  hiding-place  he  kept  the 
treasures.  He  answered  that  there  were  no  sub- 
terranean hiding-places^  and  no  treasures.  In  that 


The  Execution  585 

consisted  his  whole  examination.  He  died  shortly 
afterwards  of  sickness  contracted  in  the  prison  and  his 
death  was  for  a  long  time  concealed. 

Father  Faure  inquired  of  one  of  his  judges:  "  For 
what  crime  am  I  in  jail?"  "  For  none/1  was  the  reply, 
'  'but  the  fear  of  your  pen,  and  especially  the  fear  of  having 
you  write  against  the  Brief.  That  is  the  only  cause  of 
your  imprisonment."  "By  the  same  rule,"  retorted 
the  prisoner,  "  you  might  send  me  to  the  galleys  for 
fear  I  might  steal,  or  to  be  hanged  to  prevent  me  from 
committing  murder."  He  was  the  only  recalcitrant, 
and  he  was  so  dreaded  that  during  his  incarceration  he 
was  ordered  to  keep  his  light  burning  all  night,  so 
that  he  might  be  watched.  This  was  after  they 
found  a  black  spot  on  his  bed.  They  thought  it 
was  ink.  Father  Ricci,  however,  contrived  to  keep 
an  exact  account  of  the  questions  that  were  asked. 
Carayon  has  published  them  in  'his  "  Documents 
in6dits." 

One  of  these  redoubtable  personages  so  rigidly 
kept  in  confinement  was  Father  Romberg,  the  German 
assistant,  who  was  eighty-two  years  of  age.  He 
became  very  feeble,  and  had  a  stroke  of  paralysis' 
which  kept  him  to  his  chair.  When  the  governor 
of  the  Castle  came  with  the  judges  and  officials  to 
tell  him  he  was  free,  he  thanked  them  effusively,  but 
requested  the  favor  of  being  left  in  his  cell  to  die. 
"  You  see,"  said  he,  "  I  have  two  fine  friends  who  are 
prisoners  here,  and  they,  out  of  charity,  come  regularly 
every  morning  and  carry  me  in  my  chair  to  the  chapel 
where  I  can  hear  Mass  and  go  to  Communion.  If  I 
leave  this  place,  God  knows  if  I  should  have  the  same 
help  and  the  same  consolation."  This  was  a  specimen  of 
the  men  who  made  Charles  III  and  Florida  Blanca 
tremble.  In  spite  of  the  protests  of  the  Spanish 
minister,  every  one  was  set  free  on  February  16,  1776, 


586  The  Jesuits 

and  Pius  VI  cancelled  the  order  of  the  inquisitors  who 
forbade  their  victims  to  hold  any  communication 
with  their  fellow- Jesuits. 

The  manner  in  which  the  Brief  was  executed  out- 
side of  Rome  varied  with  the  mentality  and  morality 
of  the  nations  to  which  it  was  sent.  Much  to  the 
chagrin  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  it  was  enthusiastically 
acclaimed  by  all  the  Protestants  and  infidels  of  Europe. 
For,  was  it  not  a  justification  of  all  the  hatred  they  had 
invariably  heaped  on  the  Society  wherever  it  happened 
to  be?  They  could  now  congratulate  themselves  that 
they  had  instinctively  divined  the  malignant  character 
of  the  Institute  which  it  took  centuries  for  the  Church 
to  discover,  and  they  logically  concluded  that  all  the 
laudatory  Bulls  lavished  on  the  Society  by  previous 
Pontiffs  were  intentional  deceits  or  ignorant  delusions. 
They  might  have  argued  contrariwise,  but  as  it  would 
have  been  against  themselves  they  refrained.  They 
were  jubilant  because  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  had 
slain  their  chief  enemy,  and  they  had  a  medal  struck 
to  commemorate  the  event. 

In  "  Les  J6suites  "  by  Bohmer-Monod  (p.  278)  we 
find  the  following:  "  Cultured  Europe  triumphed  in 
the  Suppression  of  the  Order,  and  the  people  every- 
where showed  their  approval.  Here  and  there  some 
pious  devotees  raised  their  voices  in  lamentation, 
but  nowhere  in  Europe  or  elsewhere  was  there  any 
serious  opposition  to  the  Brief,  The  Order  had  for* 
f cited  all  esteem;  and  public  opinion  evinced  no 
compassion  for  anything  tragic  that  occurred  in  its 
fall.  It  remained  quite  indifferent  to  the  atrocities  of 
which  Pombal  was  guilty.  The  injustices  which  cer- 
tain Fathers  suffered  in  various  places  were  considered 
a  just  retribution  or  at  least  were  regarded  as  necessary 
for  progress  of  light  and  virtue/*  This  is  not  very 
flattering  to  '  'cultured  "  Europe. 


The  Execution  587 

Apart  from  the  self -stultifying  utterances  on  this 
quotation,  as  for  instance,  that  "  the  injustices  suf- 
fered were  a  just  retribution,  or  were  at  least  regarded 
as  necessary  for  the  progress  of  light  and  virtue,"  and 
also  that  certain  Fathers  suffered  in  various  places; 
whereas  the  same  authors  give  23,000  who  suffered 
all  over  the  world,  it  is  an  absolute  contradiction  with 
the  facts  of  the  case  to  say  that  "  nowhere  in  Europe 
was  there  any  serious  opposition  to  the  Brief  "  and 
that  "  they  everywhere  showed  their  approval  and 
evinced  no  compassion  for  anything  tragic  that  occurred 
in  the  fall." 

In  the  first  place,  Frederick  the  Great  in  Prussia  and 
Catherine  II  of  Russia  not  only  would  not  allow  the 
Brief  in  their  dominions,  but  forbade  it  under  the 
severest  penalties.  Poland  for  a  long  time  refused  to 
receive  it,  and  the  Catholic  cantons  of  Switzerland  sent 
a  remonstrance  to  the  Pope.  Moreover,  although, 
even  before  the  document  was  promulgated,  the 
Fathers  had  secularized  themselves  of  their  own 
initiative,  yet,  the  authorities  would  not  allow  them 
to  give  up  the  colleges.  The  other  side  of  the  picture 
was  that  in  Naples,  Tanucci  not  only  forbade  the  Brief 
to  be  read  under  pain  of  death,  but  forbade  all  men- 
tion of  it.  In  Portugal,  of  course,  no  opposition  was 
made  for  there  were  no  Jesuits  to  suppress,  they  were 
either  dead  or  in  prison  or  exile.  It  was,  however, 
an  occasion  of  public  rejoicing,  and  the  document  was 
received  with  booming  of  cannon  and  ringing  of  bells, 
as  if  a  victory  had  been  won,  but  that  governmental 
device  did  not  extinguish  in  the  heart  of  the  suffering 
people  a  deep  compassion  for  the  victims  of  PombaTs 
"  atrocities." 

In  Spain,  it  was  absolutely  prohibited  to  read  it 
or  speak,  about  the  Brief,  because  by  its  eulogy  of 
the  virtues  of  the  members  of  the  Society,  it  gave  the 


588  The  Jesuits 

lie  to  the  government,  which  insisted  on  the  suppression 
of  the  Society  precisely  because  of  the  immorality  of 
its  members.  In  France,  its  promulgation  was  for- 
bidden for  the  very  opposite  reason,  that  is,  because  it 
praised  the  Institute,  which  the  politicians  had  declared 
to  be  essentially  vicious;  though  they  admitted  that 
the  individual  Jesuits  were  irreproachable.  Thus, 
like  Spain,  France  had  been  officially  convicted  by 
the  Brief  of  calumniating,  plundering  and  annihilating 
a  great  religious  order.  Voltaire,  commenting  on  the 
situation,  suggested  that  there  might  be  a  sort  of 
national  exchange  by  France  and  Spain.  "  Send  the 
French  Jesuits  to  Spain,*'  he  said,  "and  they  will 
edify  the  people  by  observing  the  Institute,  and  send 
the  Spaniards  to  France  where  they  will  satisfy  the 
people  by  not  observing  it." 

The  most  notable  opposition  to  the  Brief,  occurred 
in  France.  The  whole  hierarchy  and  clergy  positively 
refused  to  accept  it,  and  the  Archbishop  of  Paris, 
Christopher  de  Beaumont,  who  had  been  especially 
requested  by  the  Pope  to  promulgate  it,  answered  by 
a  letter  which  is  unpleasant  for  a  Jesuit  to  publish  on 
account  of  its  tone;  for  the  most  profound  affection 
and  reverence  for  the  Holy  See  is  one  of  the  ingrained 
and  distinctive  traits  of  the  Society.  However,  it  is 
a  historical  document  and  is  called  for  in  the  present 
instance  as  a  refutation  of  the  statement  that  there 
was  no  opposition  to  the  Brief  in  Europe  This  famous 
letter  was  dated  April  24,  1774,  that  is  more  than 
eight  months  after  the  Suppression.  It  is  addressed 
to  the  Holy  Father  himself  and  runs  as  follows: 

"This  Brief  is  nothing  else  than  a  personal  and 
private  judgment  Among  other  things  that  are  re- 
marked in  it  by  our  clergy  is  the  extraordinary,  odious, 
and  immoderate  characterization  of  the  Bull  "  Pascendi 
Munus  "  of  the  saintly  Clement  XIII,  whose  memory 


The  Execution  589 

will  be  forever  glorious  and  who  had  invested  the  Bull 
in  question  with  all  the  due  and  proper  formalities  of 
such  documents.  It  is  described  by  the  Brief  not 
only  as  being  inexact  but  as  having  been  '  extorted ' 
rather  than  obtained;  whereas  it  has  all  the  authority 
of  a  general  council;  for  it  was  not  promulgated  until 
almost  the  whole  clergy  of  the  Church  and  all  the 
secular  princes  had  been  consulted  by  the  Holy  Father. 
The  clergy  with  common  accord  and  with  one  voice 
applauded  the  purpose  of  the  Holy  Father,  and  earn- 
estly begged  him  to  carry  it  out.  It  was  conceived 
and  published  in  a  manner  as  general  as  it  was  solemn. 
And  is  it  not  precisely  that,  Holy  Father,  which  really 
gives  the  efficacity,  the  reality  and  the  force  to  a  general 
council,  rather  than  the  material  union  of  some  persons 
who  though  physically  united  may  be  very  far  from 
one  another  in  their  judgments  and  their  views?- 
As  for  the  secular  princes,  if  there  were  any  who 
did  not  unite  with  the  others  to  give  their  approbation, 
their  number  was  inconsiderable.  Not  one  of  them 
protested  against  it,  not  one  opposed  it,  and  even 
those  who,  at  that  very  time,  were  laying  their  plans 
to  banish  the  Jesuits,  allowed  the  Bull  to  be  published 
in  their  dominions. 

"  But  as  the  spirit  of  the  Church  is  one  and  indivisible 
in  its  teaching  of  truth,  we  have  to  conclude  that  it 
cannot  teach  error  when  it  deals  in  a  solemn  manner 
with  a  matter  of  supreme  importance.  Yet  it  would 
have  led  us  into  error  if  it  had  not  only  proclaimed 
the  Institute  of  the  Society  to  be  pious  and  holy, 
but  had  solemnly  and  explicitly  said:  'We  know  of 
certain  knowledge  that  it  diffuses  abroad  and  abund- 
antly the  odor  of  sanctity/  In  saying  this  it  put  upon 
that  Institute  the  seal  of  its  approbation,  and  confirmed 
anew  not  only  the  Society  itself,  but  the  members 
who  composed  it,  the  functions  it  exercised,  the  doctrines 


590  The  Jesuits 

it  taught,  the  glorious  works  it  accomplished,  all  of 
which  shed  lustre  upon  it,  in  spite  of  the  calumnies  by 
which  it  was  assailed  and  the  storms  of  persecution 
which  were  let  loose  against  it.  Thus  the  Church 
would  have  deceived  us  most  effectively  on  that 
occasion  if  it  would  now  have  us  accept  this  Brief 
which  destroys  the  Society;  and  also  if  we  are  to  sup- 
pose that  this  Brief  is  on  the  same  level  in  its  law- 
fulness and  its  universality  as  the  Constitution  to 
which  we  refer.  We  abstract,  Holy  Father,  from  the 
individuals  whom  we  might  easily  name,  both  secular 
and  ecclesiastical  who  have  meddled  with  this  affair. 
Their  character,  condition,  doctrine,  sentiment,  not  to 
say  more  of  them,  are  so  little  worthy  of  respect,  as  to 
justify  us  in  expressing  the  formal  and  positive  judgment 
that  the  Brief  which  destroys  the  Society  of  Jesus  is 
nothing  else  than  an  isolated,  private  and  pernicious 
judgment,  which  does  no  honor  to  the  tiara  and  is 
prejudicial  to  the  glory  of  the  Church  and  the  growth 
and  conservation  of  the  Orthodox  Faith, 

"  In  any  case,  Holy  Father,  it  is  impossible  for  me 
to  ask  the  clergy  to  accept  the  Brief;  for  in  the  first 
place,  I  would  not  be  listened  to,  were  I  unfortunate 
enought  to  lend  the  aid  of  my  ministry  to  its  accept- 
ance. Moreover,  I  would  dishonor  my  office  if  I  did 
so,  for  the  memory  of  the  recent  general  assembly 
which  I  had  the  honor  to  convoke  at  the  instance  of 
His  Majesty,  to  inquire  into  the  need  we  have  of  the 
Society  in  France,  its  usefulness,  the  purity  of  its 
doctrines,  etc.,  is  too  fresh  in  my  mind  to  reverse  my 
verdict.  To  charge  myself  with  the  task  you  wish  me 
to  perform  would  be  to  inflict  a  serious  injury  on 
religion  as  well  as  to  cast  an  aspersion  on  the  learning 
and  integrity  of  the  prelates  who  laid  before  the  king 
their  approval  of  the  very  points  which  are  now  con- 
demned by  the  Brief.  Moreover,  if  it  is  true  that  the 


The  Execution  591 

Order  is  to  be  condemned  under  the  specious  pretext 
of  the  impossibility  of  peace,  as  long  as  the  Society 
exists,  why  not  try  it  on  those  bodies  which  are  jealous 
of  the  Society?  Instead  of  condemning  it  you  ought 
to  canonize  it.  That  you  do  not  do  so  compels  us  to 
form  a  judgment  of  the  Brief  which,  though  just,  is 
not  in  its  favor. 

"  For  what  is  that  peace  which  is  incompatible  with 
this  Society?  The  question  is  startling  in  the  reflection 
it  evokes;  for  we  fail  to  understand  how  such  a  motive 
had  the  power  to  induce  Your  Holiness  to  adopt  a 
measure  which  is  so  hazardous,  so  dangerous,  and  so 
prejudicial.  Most  assuredly  the  peace  which  is  irrec- 
oncilable with  the  existence  of  the  Society  is  the  peace 
which  Jesus  Christ  calls  insidious,  false,  deceitful. 
In  a  word  what  the  Brief  designates  as  peace  is  not 
peace;  Pax,  pax  et  non  erat  pax.  It  is  the  peace 
which  vice  and  libertinism  adopt;  it  is  the  peace 
which  cannot  ally  itself  with  virtue,  but  which  on 
the  contrary  has  always  been  the  principal  enemy 
of  virtue. 

"  It  is  precisely  that  peace  against  which  the  piety 
of  the  Jesuits  in  the  four  quarters  of  the  world  have 
declared  an  active,  a  vigorous,  a  bloody  warfare; 
which  they  have  carried  to  the  limit  and  in  which  they 
have  achieved  the  greatest  success.  To  put  an  end 
to  that  peace,  they  have  devoted  their  talents;  have 
undergone  pain  and  suffering.  By  their  zeal  and 
their  eloquence  they  have  striven  to  block  every 
avenue  of  approach,  by  which  this  false  peace  might 
enter  and  rend  the  bosom  of  the  Church;  they  have 
set  the  souls  of  men  free  from  its  thralldom,  and  they 
have  pursued  it  to  its  innermost  lair,  making  light  of 
the  danger  and  expecting  no  other  reward  for  their 
daring,  than  the  hatred  of  the  licentious  and  the 
persecution  of  the  ungodly. 


592  The  Jesuits 

"  An  infinite  number  of  splendid  illustrations  of  their 
courage  might  be  adduced  in  the  long  succession  of 
memorable  achievements  which  have  never  been  inter- 
rupted from  the  first  moment  of  the  Society's  existence 
until  the  fatal  day  when  the  Church  saw  it  die.  If  that 
peace  cannot  co-exist  with  the  Society,  and  if  the 
re-establishment  of  this  pernicious  peace  is  the  motive 
of  the  destruction  of  the  Jesuits,  then  the  victims  are 
crowned  with  glory  and  they  end  their  career  like 
the  Apostles  and  Martyrs;  but  honest  men  are  dis- 
mayed by  this  holocaust  of  piety  and  virtue. 

"A  peace  which  is  irreconcilable  with  the  Society 
is  not  that  peace  which  unites  hearts;  which  is  helpful 
to  others;  which  each  day  contributes  an  increase  in 
virtue,  piety  and  Christian  charity;  which  reflects 
glory  on  Christianity  and  sheds  splendor  on  our 
holy  religion.  Nor  is  there  need  of  proving  this, 
though  proof  might  be  given,  not  by  a  few  examples 
which  this  Society  could  furnish  from  the  day  of  its 
birth  to  the  fatal  and  ever  deplorable  day  of  its  sup- 
pression, but  by  a  countless  multitude  of  facts  which 
attest  that  the  Jesuits  were  always  and  in  every  clime, 
the  supporters,  the  promoters  and  the  indefatigable 
defenders  of  true  and  solid  peace.  These  facts  are  so 
evident  that  they  carry  conviction  to  every  mind. 

"  In  this  letter  I  am  not  constituting  myself  an 
apologist  of  the  Jesuits;  but  I  am  placing  before  the 
eyes  of  Your  Holiness  the  reasons  which,  in  the  present 
case,  excuse  us  from  obeying.  I  will  not  mention 
place  or  time,  as  it  is  an  easy  thing  for  Your  Holiness 
to  convince  yourself  of  the  truth  of  my  utterance. 
Your  Holiness  is  not  ignorant  of  them. 

"  Moreover,  Holy  Father,  we  have  remarked  with 
terror,  that  this  destructive  Brief  eulogizes  in  the 
highest  way  certain  persons  whose  conduct  never 


The  Execution  593 

merited  praise  from  Clement  XIII,  of  saintly  memory. 
Par  from  doing  so,  he  regarded  it  always  as  his  duty 
to  set  them  aside,  and  to  act  in  their  regard  with  the 
most  absolute  reserve. 

"  This  difference  of  appreciation  necessarily  excites 
attention,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  your  predecessor 
did  not  consider  worthy  of  the  purple  those  whom 
Your  Holiness  seems  to  design  for  the  glory  of  the 
cardinalate.  The  firmness  on  one  side  and  the  conniv- 
ance on  the  other  reveal  themselves  only  too  clearly. 
But  perhaps  an  excuse  might  be  found  for  the  latter, 
were  it  not  for  the  fact  which  has  not  been  successfully 
disguised  that  an  alien  influence  guided  the  pen  that 
wrote  the  Brief. 

"  In  a  word,  most  Holy  Father,  the  clergy  of  France, 
which  is  the  most  learned  and  most  illustrious  of 
Holy  Church,  and  which  has  no  other  aim  than  to 
promote  the  glory  of  the  Church,  does  now  judge 
after  deep  reflection  that  the  reception  of  the  Brief 
of  Your  Holiness  will  cast  a  shadow  on  the  glory  of 
the  clergy  of  France;  and  it  does  not  propose  to  consent 
to  a  measure  which,  in  ages  to  come,  will  tarnish  its 
glory.  By  rejecting  the  Brief  and  by  an  active  resist- 
ance to  it  our  clergy  will  transmit  to  posterity  a 
splendid  example  of  integrity  and  of  zeal  for  the 
Catholic  Faith,  for  the  prosperity  of  the  Church  and 
particularly  for  the  honor  of  its  Visible  Head. 

"  These,  Holy  Father,  are  some  of  the  reasons  which 
determine  us,  myself  and  all  the  clergy  of  this  kingdom, 
never  to  permit  the  publication  of  such  a  Brief,  and  to 
make  known  to  Your  Holiness,  as  I  do  by  this  present 
letter,  that  such  is  my  attitude  and  that  of  all  the 
clergy,  who,  however,  will  never  cease  to  unite  in  prayer 
with  me  to  our  Lord  for  the  sacred  person  of  Your 
Holiness.  We  shall  address  our  humble  supplications 
38 


594  The  Jesuits 

to  the  Divine  Father  of  Light  that  He  may  deign  to 
diffuse  it  so  abundantly  that  the  truth  may  be  dis- 
cerned whose  splendor  has  been  obscure." 

The  Bishop  of  Quebec,  Mgr.  Briand,  refused  to  pro- 
mulgate the  Brief,  and  he  informed  some  of  his  intimate 
friends  that  he  had  no  fear  of  excommunication  in 
doing  so,  for  the  reason  that  he  was  in  constant  com- 
munication with  Pope  Clement  XIV,  who  approved  of 
his  course  of  action.  Associated  with  the  bishop  was 
Governor  Carleton,  who  was  interested  in  the  matter 
for  his  own  personal  reasons.  His  rival,  General 
Amherst,  the  conqueror  of  Quebec,  was  anxious  to 
see  the  Jesuits  driven  out,  so  as  to  secure  their  property 
for  himself.  Carleton,  on  the  contrary,  proposed  to 
keep  it  for  future  educational  purposes.  He  could 
not  seize  it  immediately,  for  the  treaty  at  the  conquest 
had  guaranteed  the  protection  of  the  Canadians  in 
their  religion.  Hence  he  did  not  molest  the  Fathers, 
though  he  refused  to  allow  any  accession  either  of 
novices  or  former  Jesuits  to  their  ranks.  The  result 
was  that  they  gradually  died  out.  The  last  of  all  was 
the  venerable  Casot,  who  gave  up  the  ghost  in  1800 
after  having  distributed  all  his  goods  to  the  poor. 
What  was  not  available  in  that  way  he  conveyed  to  re- 
ligious communities  or  to  churches.  The  relics  of  Br6beuf 
and  Lalemant  are  now  among  the  treasures  of  the 
Hotel-Dieu.  The  Jesuit  College,  which  was  opposite 
the  present  basilica  cathedral,  was  occupied  by  soldiers, 
and  was  first  known  as  the  "  Jesuit  Barracks, "  and 
subsequently  as  the  "  Cheshire  Barracks."  Later  it 
was  a  refuge  for  the  poor,  until  at  length  Cardinal 
Taschereau  ordered  it  to  be  demolished  as  unsafe* 
Thus  the  Brief  was  not  executed  in  Canada.  The 
Jesuits  of  New  Orleans  had  been  already  expelled  by 
Choiseul,  and  there  was  no  one  left  to  whom  it  could 
be  read. 


The  Execution  595 

The  suppression  of  the  Society  in  what  is  now  the 
United  States  is  of  special  interest  to  Americans, 
though  it  possesses  also  a  general  value  in  the  fact  that 
it  furnishes  the  only  account  in  English,  as  far  as  we 
are  aware,  of  what  took  place  in  Belgium  some  years 
before  as  the  prelude  of  the  general  suppression.  This 
is  based  on  the  highest  authority,  for  it  is  the  personal 
narrative  of  John  Carroll,  the  founder  of  the  American 
hierarchy.  He  had  gone  when  a  kd  of  fourteen  to 
St.  Omers  in  French  Flanders,  and  after  his  college 
course  entered  the  Jesuit  novitiate  at  Watten  about 
six  miles  away,  where  he  met  several  of  his  country- 
men who  were  to  distinguish  themselves  later  in 
the  Jesuit  mission  of  Maryland.  They  were  Home, 
Jenkins,  Knight,  Emmot  and  Tyrer.  There  also  was 
the  English  Jesuit,  Reeve,  whose  "Bible  History" 
was  once  an  indispensable  treasure  in  every  Catholic 
family* 

On  completing  his  novitiate,  Carroll  was  sent  for  his 
theology  and  philosophy  to  Li£ge,  and  was  ordained 
priest  in  1769,  after  having  proved  his  ability  by  a 
brilliant  public  defense  in  theology.  He  then  taught 
at  St.  Omers  and  was  subsequently  made  professor  of 
philosophy  and  theology  to  the  scholastics  at  Li&ge. 
He  pronounced  his  four  solemn  vows  as  a  Professed 
Father  on  February  2,  1771,  a  little  more  than  two 
years  before  the  suppression  of  the  Society.  As  St. 
Omer  was  in  France  the  Jesuits  were  expelled  from 
it  in  1764.  That  the  occupants  of  the  house  were 
English  did  not  matter.  International  comity  received 
scant  consideration  in  those  days  Every  one  was 
driven  out  except  Father  Brown,  who  was  then  ninety- 
four  years  of  age.  He  was  left  there  alone  to  die. 
The  others,  under  the  guidance  of  Father  Reeve,  crossed 
the  frontier  to  Bruges  where  they  had  been  invited 
by  the  authorities  to  found  a  college. 


596  The  Jesuits 

Here  begins  a  story  told  by  Carroll  of  government 
duplicity  which  shows  how  •  largely  the  motive  of 
plunder  entered  into  the  whole  movement  of  the 
suppression.  Belgium  was  then  under  the  domination 
of  Austria,  and  the  government  continually  urged 
the  Fathers  to  begin  the  erection  of  a  college  on  a 
grand  scale  at  that  place.  In  all  confidence  that  they 
would  never  be  disturbed,  they  expended  on  the 
first  set  of  buildings  the  sum  of  $37,000  a  considerable 
amount  of  money  in  those  days.  They  would  have 
gone  further  but  their  money  was  exhausted. 

While  teaching  there,  Father  Carroll  was  sent  on  a 
short  tour  through  Europe  as  tutor  to  the  young  son 
of  Lord  Stourton,  an  English  nobleman.  He  passed 
through  Alsace  and  Lorraine,  where  the  Jesuits  were 
still  protected;  was  welcomed  at  the  University  of 
Heidelberg,  and  finally  reached  Rome.  There,  though 
under  the  very  eyes  of  the  Pope,  he  was  compelled  to 
conceal  his  identity  as  a  Jesuit  and  hence  met  none  of 
his  brethren.  He  saw  everywhere  not  only  infamous 
libels  on  the  Society  which  were  for  sale  in  the  streets, 
but  books  and  pamphlets  assailing  the  devotion  to 
the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus,  and  ridiculing  the  cere- 
monies of  the  Mass.  The  overthrow  of  the  Jesuits 
was  the  common  topic  of  conversation  and  word  from 
the  King  of  Spain  was  momentarily  expected.  Henry 
Stuart,  Cardinal  of  York,  the  last  descendant  of  James 
II,  was  there  at  the  time,  but  as  he  was  a  rancorous 
enemy  of  the  Society,  Father  Carroll  did  not  dare  to 
present  the  young  Catholic  nobleman  to  him.  He 
returned  by  the  way  of  France  and  saw  the  ruins 
everywhere,  and  finally  arrived  at  Bruges  to  take  part 
in  the  tragedy  as  one  of  the  victims. 

The  Brief  was  promulgated  on  August  16,  and  the 
superiors  of  the  two  colleges  at  Bruges,  encouraged  by 
the  general  expectation  of  the  town  that  their  status 


The  Execution  597 

would  not  be  effected,  wrote  a  letter  to  the  presi- 
dent of  the  council  at  Brussels,  offering  their  services  as 
secular  clergy  to  continue  the  work  of  education.  The 
rectors  were  invited  to  Brussels,  and  assured  that  they 
would  be  treated  with  respect,  allowed  to  retain  private 
property  and  be  granted  proper  maintenance.  Even 
after  the  reception  of  the  Brief,  the  Bishop  of  Bruges 
assured  them  that  in  a  few  days  the  excitement  would 
pass  and  everything  would  go  on  as  usual.  Austria, 
however,  had  already  accepted  and  promulgated  the 
Brief. 

The  first  commissioners  of  the  Suppression  threw  up 
the  work  in  disgust.  It  was  then  handed  over  to  a 
coarse  young  fellow  named  Marouex  who  was  anxious 
to  make  a  name  for  himself.  He  succeeded.  Arriving 
at  the  college  on  September  20,  he  summoned  the 
community  to  his  presence  and  ordered  the  Brief 
and  edict  to  be  read.  He  then  forbade  anyone 
to  leave  the  house,  or  to  be  allowed  to  enter, 
or  to  write  any  letters,  or  to  direct  the  college,  or  to 
teach  the  pupils.  He  seized  the  account  books  and 
began  a  hunt  for  hidden  treasures.  Each  member  of 
the  community  was  examined  individually,  put  under 
oath,  and  ordered  to  produce  everything  he  had, 
even  family  letters;  "  which  explains,"  says  Shea, 
"  how  there  is  no  trace  of  Carroll's  letters  from  his 
mother  and  kindred  in  America." 

On  October  14,  Marouex,  accompanied  by  a  squad 
of  soldiers,  burst  into  the  community  rooms  and 
ordered  Fathers  Angier,  Plowden  and  Carroll  to  follow 
him.  He  would  not  even  permit  them  to  go  to  their 
rooms  for  a  moment  to  get  what  they  needed,  but 
sent  them  under  guard  to  wagons  waiting  outside, 
and  hurried  them  off  to  the  Flemish  college,  which 
had  been  already  plundered.  There  they  were  locked 
up  for  several  days  without  a  bed  to  He  on.  The 


598  The  Jesuits 

community  was  still  there  under  lock  and  key.  Three 
of  them  were  kept  as  hostages  and  the  rest  were 
ordered  out  of  the  country.  Thus  did  Maria 
Theresa  allow  her  beloved  Jesuits  to  be  treated,  in 
return  for  the  benefits  they  had  heaped  on  her  empire 
from  the  time  when  Paber  and  Le  Jay  and  Canisius 
and  their  great  associates  had  saved  it  from  destruc- 
tion. 

Thoroughly  heartbroken,  Carroll  turned  his  steps 
towards  Protestant  England*  Before  leaving  the 
Continent,  he  wrote  the  following  pathetic  letter  to  his 
brother  Daniel,  who  was  in  Maryland.  Because  of 
Carroll's  own  personal  character  and  his  prominence 
in  American  history,  it  is  a  precious  testimonial  of 
love  and  affection  for  the  Society,  as  well  as  a  splendid 
vindication  of  it  for  the  world  at  large.  It  is  dated 
September  n,  1773. 

"  I  was  willing  to  accept  the  vacant  post  of  prefect 
of  the  sodality  here,  but  now  all  room  for  deliberation 
is  over.  The  enemies  of  the  Society  and,  above  all, 
the  unrelenting  perseverance  of  the  Spanish  and 
Portuguese  ministries,  with  the  passiveness  of  the 
court  of  Vienna  have  at  last  obtained  their  ends; 
and  our  so  long  persecuted,  and,  I  must  add,  holy 
Society  is  no  more,  God's  holy  will  be  done  and 
may  His  Name  be  blessed  for  ever  and  ever!  This 
fatal  blow  was  struck  on  July  21,  but  was  kept  secret 
at  Rome  till  August  16,  and  was  only  made  known  to  me 
on  September  5.  I  am  not,  and  perhaps  never  shall 
be,  recovered  from  the  shock  of  this  dreadful  intelli- 
gence. The  greatest  blessing  which  in  my  estimation 
I  could  receive  from  God  would  be  immediate  death, 
but  if  He  deny  me  this,  may  His  holy  and  adorable 
designs  on  me  be  wholly  fulfilled, 

"I  find  it  impossible  to  understand  that  Divine 
Providence  should  permit  such  an  end  to  a  body. 


The  Execution  599 

wholly  devoted,  and  striving  with  the  most  dis- 
interested charity  to  procure  every  comfort  and 
advantage  to  their  neighbors,  whether  by  preaching, 
teaching,  catechizing,  missions,  visiting  hospitals, 
prisons  and  in  every  other  function  of  spiritual  and 
corporal  mercy.  Such  have  I  beheld  it  in  every  part 
of  my  travels,  the  first  of  all  ecclesiastical  bodies  in 
the  esteem  and  confidence  of  the  faithful,  and  cer- 
tainly the  most  laborious.  What  will  become  of  our 
flourishing  congregations  with  you  and  those  culti- 
vated by  the  German  Fathers?  These  reflections 
crowd  so  fast  upon  me,  that  I  almost  lose  my  senses. 
But  I  will  endeavor  to  suppress  them  for  a  few  moments. 
You  see  I  am  now  my  own  master  and  left  to  my  own 
direction.  In  returning  to  Maryland,  I  shall  have 
the  comfort  of  not  only  being  with  you,  but  of  befog 
farther  out  of  reach  of  scandal  and  defamation,  and 
removed  from  the  scenes  of  distress  of  many  of  my 
dearest  friends  whom  I  shall  not  be  able  to  relieve. 
I  shall  therefore  most  certainly  sail  for  Maryland  early 
next  spring  if  I  possibly  can." 

At  the  time  of  the  Suppression  there  were  nineteen 
Jesuits  in  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania;  as  it  was  then 
three  years  before  the  Declaration  of  Independence, 
they  were  still  English  subjects.  On  October  6, 
1773,  Bishop  Challoner,  the  Vicar  of  London,  though 
Chandlery  in  his  "Fasti  breviores"  says  it  was 
Talbot,  -sent  them  the  following  letter: 

"  To  Messrs  the  Missioners  in  Maryland  and 
Pennsylvania. 

"  To  obey  the  order  which  I  have  received  from 
Rome,  I  notify  to  you,  by  this  the  Breve,  of  the  total 
dissolution  of  the  Society  of  Jesus;  and  send  withal  a 
form  of  declaration  of  your  obedience  and  submission, 
to  which  you  are  all  to  subscribe,  as  your  brethren 


600  The  Jesuits 

have  done  here,  and  send  me  back  the  formula  with 
the  subscription  of  you  all,  as  I  am  to  send  them  up  to 
Rome. 

"  Ever  yours, 

"Richard  Deboren.  V.  Ap." 

In  passing,  it  may  be  remarked  that  as  a  missive 
from  a  Superior  to  a  number  of  devoted  priests  against 
whom  not  a  word  of  reproach  had  been  ever  uttered 
and  whose  lives  were  wrecked  by  this  official  act 
this  communication  of  the  vicar  cannot  be  cited  as  a 
manifestation  of  excessive  paternal  tenderness. 

The  formula  to  which  they  were  required  to  sub- 
scribe, was,  in  its  English  translation,  as  follows: 

"We  the  undersigned  missionary  priests  of  the 
London  District  of  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania, 
hitherto  known  as  the  Clerks  of  the  Society  of  Jesus, 
having  been  informed  by  the  declaration  and  publi- 
cation of  the  Apostolic  Brief  issued  on  July  21,  1773, 
by  our  Most  Holy  Lord  Pope  Clement  XIV,  by  which 
he  completely  suppresses  and  extinguishes  the  afore- 
said Congregation  and  Society  in  the  whole  world, 
and  orders  the  priests  to  be  entirely  subject  to  the 
rule  and  authority  of  the  Bishops  as  part  of  the  secular 
clergy,  we  the  aforesaid,  fully  and  sincerely,  submit 
to  the  Brief,  and  humbly  acquiescing  to  the  complete 
suppression  of  the  said  Society,  submit  ourselves 
entirely  as  secular  priests  to  the  jurisdiction  and  rule 
of  the  above  mentioned  Bishop,  the  Vicar  Apostolic. " 

In  this  document  of  the  vicar  there  are  some  features 
which  are  worthy  of  consideration.  The  first  is  that 
it  was  not  communicated  personally  to  those  interested 
but  through  the  post  —  and  it  might  have  been  a 
forgery.  Secondly,  it  was  not  correct  in  saying  that 
it  was  issued  on  July  21,  1773.  It  was  signed  on  July 
21  but  issued  or  published  only  on  August  16  of  that 


The  Execution  601 

year,  and  it  was  not  effective  or  binding  until  'that 
date.  Thirdly,  there  was  no  mention  of  the  renewal 
of  faculties  to  the  superior  whose  ecclesiastical  char- 
acter had  now  been  completely  transformed  from  that 
of  a  religious  to  a  secular  priest;  and  they  were  thus 
obliged  to  presume  that  they  were  not  suspended  and 
that  their  power  of  transmitting  faculties  was  not 
withdrawn.  Fourthly,  before  the  Suppression,  the 
vicar  Apostolic  had  warned  the  Propaganda  that  he 
could  do  nothing  to  aid  the  Maryland  missioners, 
and  after  the  Revolution  he  refused  absolutely  to 
have  any  communication  with  them.  Thus,  there 
was  no  possibility  of  fulfilling  the  injunction  of  becoming 
secular  priests,  as  the  Brief  enjoined. 

As  far  as  the  Jesuit  habit  was  concerned  there  was  no 
difficulty,  for  there  is  no  distinctive  habit  in  the  Society. 
The  Jesuits  are  ecclesiastically  in  the  rank  of  "  clerici 
regulares,"  and  can  wear  the  garb  of  any  secular 
priest,  just  as  they  do,  at  present,  in  many  parts  of 
the  world.  St.  Francis  Xavier  once  wore  green  silk, 
and  in  our  own  days,  the  English  Jesuit  dress  is  rather 
an  academic  gown  than  a  cassock.  Again  in  Mary- 
land and  Pennsylvania,  there  were  at  that  time 
no  secular  priests;  the  missionaries  were  all  Jesuits, 
and  it  would  have  been  difficult  to  get  any  other 
ecclesiastical  attire.  What  they  wore  was,  as  a 
matter  of  fact,  used  only  in  ecclesiastical  functions. 
An  analogous  obstacle  presented  itself  in  the  name. 
The  people  continued  to  recognize  them  as  Jesuits, 
and  it  would  have  been  very  imprudent  to  publicly 
announce  that  they  were  no  longer  such.  There  are 
several  letters  extant,  however,  in  which  the  Jesuits 
advise  their  friends  to  drop  the  S.  J.  in  their  correspond- 
ence, but  that  is  not  unusual  even  now.  Exteriorly, 
the  life  of  those  old  Maryland  Jesuits  continued  to  be 
precisely  the  same  as  it  had  always  been. 


602  The  Jesuits 

Moreover  they  retained  possession  of  their  property, 
for  unlike  the  Jesuits  of  Canada,  Illinois  and  Louisiana, 
they  held  their  estates  by  personal,  not  by  corporate 
title;  and  regularly  deeded  their  possession  by  will  or 
transfer*  from  one  to  another.  In  Maryland,  it  was 
impossible  to  do  otherwise,  for  the  English  government 
did  not  recognize  the  Jesuits  as  constituting  a  legal 
association. 

Indeed,  Challoner  informs  Talbot  that  he  considered 
the  promulgation  of  the  Brief  as  enjoined  by  the  Pope 
would  be  fraught  with  serious  danger,  and  hence  he 
was  convinced  that  the  method  adopted  for  the  extinc- 
tion of  the  Jesuits  of  England  and  her  colonies  was  the 
only  one  possible  and  that  the  Pope  would  be  so 
advised, 

A  lament  from  one  of  the  Maryland  missionaries  may 
be  of  interest.  Father  Mosley  is  the  writer.  ' '  I  cannot 
think  of  it,"  he  says,  "without  tears  in  my  eyes.  Yes, 
dear  Sister,  our  Body  or  Factory  is  dissolved  of  which 
your  two  brothers  are  members;  and  for  myself, 
I  know  I  am  an  unworthy  one  when  I  see  so  many 
worthy,  saintly,  pious,  learned,  laborious  missionaries 
dead  and  alive  who  were  or  who  have  been  members 
of  the  same,  for  the  last  two  ages.  I  know  no  fault 
that  we  are  guilty  of.  I  am  convinced  that  our  labors 
are  pure,  upright  and  sincere  for  God's  honor  and  our 
neighbor's  good.  What  our  Supreme  Judge  on  earth 
may  think  of  our  labors  is  a  mystery  to  me.  It  is  true 
he  has  stigmatized  us  through  the  world  with  infamy, 
and  declared  us  unfit  for  our  business  or  his  service. 
Our  dissolution  is  known  through  the  whole  world; 
it  is  in  every  newspaper,  and  I  am  ashamed  to  show 
my  face.  As  we  are  judged  unserviceable,  we  labor 
with  little  heart,  and  what  is  worse,  by  no  Rule. 

"  To  my  great  sorrow,  the  Society  is  abolished,  and 
with  it  must  die  all  the  zeal  that  was  founded  and 


The  Execution  603 

raised  on  it.  Labor  for  our  neighbor  is  a  Jesuit's 
pleasure;  destroy  the  Jesuit  and  labor  is  painful  and 
disagreeable.  I  must  allow  that  what  was  my  pleasure 
is  now  irksome.  Every  fatigue  I  underwent  caused  a 
secret  and  inward  .satisfaction;  it  is  now  unpleasant 
and  disagreeable.  I  disregarded  this  unhealthy  climate, 
and  all  its  agues  and  fevers  which  have  really  paid  me 
to  my  heart's  content,  for  the  sake  of  my  rule.  The 
night  was  as  agreeable  as  the  day;  frost  and  cold  as 
a  warm  fire  and  a  soft  bed;  the  excessive  heats  as 
welcome  as  a  cool  shade  or  pleasant  breezes, 
but  now  the  scene  is  changed.  The  Jesuit  is 
metamorphosed  into  I  know  not  what.  He  is  a 
monster;  a  scarecrow  in  my  idea.  With  joy  I  impaired 
my  health  and  broke  my  constitution  in  the  care  of 
my  flock.  It  was  the  Jesuit's  call;  it  was  his  whole 
aim  and  business.  The  Jesuit  is  no  more.  He  now 
endeavors  to  repair  his  little  remains  of  health  and  his 
shattered  constitution,  as  he  has  no  rule  calling  him 
to  expose  it. 

"Joseph  Mosley,  S.  J.  forever,  as  I  think  and  hope." 
It  must  have  been  a  very  hard  trial  for  the  Jesuit 
vicars  Apostolic  in  the  various  foreign  missions  to  be 
the  executioners  of  their  own  brethren  in  carrying  out 
this  decree.  One  of  these  sad  scenes  occurred  in 
Nankin,  where  Mgr.  Laimbeckhoven,  S.  J.,  was 
vicar.  He  did  not  live  to  see  the  Restoration,  for  he 
died  in  1787. 


CHAPTER  XX 

THE  SEQUEL  TO  THE  SUPPRESSION 

Failure  of  the  Papal  Brief  to  give  peace  to  the  Church  —  Liguori 
and  Tanucci  —  Joseph  II  destroying  the  Church  in  Austria  —  Vol- 
taireanism  in  Portugal  —  Illness  of  Clement  XIV  —  Death  —  Accu- 
sations of  poisoning  —  Election  of  Pius  VI  —  The  Synod  of  Pistoia  — 
Pebronianism  in  Austria  —  Visit  of  Pius  VI  to  Joseph  II  —  The  Punc- 
tation  of  Ems  —  Spain,  Sardinia,  Venice,  Sicily  in  opposition  to  the 
Pope  —  Political  collapse  in  Spain  —  Fall  of  Pombal  —  Liberation  of 
his  Victims  —  Protest  of  de  Guzman  —  Death  of  Joseph  II  —  Occu- 
pations of  the  dispersed  Jesuits  —  The  Theologia,  Wicebwgensis  — 
Feller  —  Beauregard's  Prophecy  —  Zaccaria  —  Tiraboschi  —  Boscovich 
—  Missionaries  —  Denunciation  of  the  Suppression  in  the  French 
Assembly  —  Slain  in  the  French  Revolution  —  Destitute  Jesuits  in 
Poland  —  Shelter  in  Russia. 

CLEMENT  XIV  did  not  give  peace  to  the  Church  as 
he  had  hoped.  On  the  contrary,  distressing  scandals 
were  continually  occurring  in  the  Holy  City  itself 
under  his  very  eyes.  Infamous  books  and  pamphlets 
directed  against  the  Church  were  hawked  about  the 
streets,  and  actors  and  buffoons  parodied  the  most 
sacred  ceremonies  in  the  public  squares.  Elsewhere 
the  same  conditions  obtained.  Tanucci  who  had 
governed  Naples  for  over  forty  years  was  continuing 
his  ruthless  persecution  of  every  thing  holy,  and  en- 
riching himself  by  the  spoliation  of  ecclesiastical 
property.  Even  St.  Alphonsus  .Liguori  could  not 
obtain  from  the  Pope  the  recognition  of  the 
Redemptorists  as  a  congregation  because  Tanucci 
opposed  it.  Doctrinal  views  leading  to  schism  in  the 
Church  were  openly  advocated  in  the  schools  and 
universities  of  Austria,  in  spite  of  the  entreaties  and 
threats  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff.  Maria  Theresa  had 
proved  feeble  or  false,  and  her  son  Joseph  II  was 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression   605 

in  league  with  the  Bourbon  princes  in  their  work  of 
destruction.  In  Portugal,  Pombal  was  still  raging  like 
a  wild  beast;  filling  the  schools  with  the  disciples  of 
Voltaire,  flouting  the  papal  nuncio,  and  keeping  in 
dark  and  filthy  dungeons  the  members  of  the  detested 
Order  which  he  had  exterminated.  The  Philosophers 
and  Jansenists  were  rejoicing  in  their  triumph,  and 
were  suppressing  all  religious  communities  and  seizing 
their  property;  the  morality  and  orthodoxy  of .  Poland 
were  being  rapidly  corrupted;  Catherine  of  Russia  was 
creating  bishops  and  establishing  sees  as  the  fancy 
prompted  her,  and  Freemason  lodges  were  multiplying 
all  over  Europe.  Worst  of  all,  the  Pope's  own  house- 
hold with  but  few  exceptions  kept  aloof  from  him  and 
were  silent  about  what  he  had  done,  while  many 
bishops  of  various  countries  of  Europe  and  the  entire 
episcopacy  of  France  endorsed  the  sentiments  ex- 
pressed in  the  terrible  letter  of  the  Archbishop  of  Paris, 
denouncing  the  Suppression* 

Ineffably  shocked  by  all  this,  the  Pope  began  to 
show  signs  of  depression,  and  everyone  was  in  con- 
sternation. St.  Alphonsus  Liguori,  especially,  was 
anxious  about  him  and  kept  continually  repeating: 
"  Pray  for  the  Pope;  he  is  distressed;  for  there  is 
nowhere  the  slightest  glimmer  of  peace  for  the  Church. 
He  is  praying  for  death,  so  crushed  is  he  by  the  sorrows ; 
that  are  overwhelming  the  Church;  he  remains  con- 
tinually in  seclusion;  gives  audience  to  no  one;  and 
attends  to  no  business.  I  have  heard  things  about 
him  from  those  who  are  at  Rome  that  would  bring 
tears  to  your  eyes."  His  mind  was  unbalanced,  and 
one  of  his  successors,  Pius  VII,  related  later  what  he 
had  been  told  by  a  prelate  who  was  present  at  the 
signing  of  the  fatal  Brief:  "  As  soon  as  he  had  affixed 
his  signature  to  the  paper  he  threw  the  pen  to  one  side 
and  the  paper  to  the  other.  He  had  lost  his  mind.'* 


606  The  Jesuits 

Before  that,  Pius  had  said  the  same  thing  to  Cardinal 
Pacca  at  Pontainebleau,  when  in  an  agony  of  remorse 
for  having  signed  the  Concordat  with  Napoleon: 
"I  cannot  get  the  cruel  thought  out  of  my  mind. 
I  cannot  sleep  at  night  and  I  am  haunted  by  the 
fear  of  going  mad  and  ending  like  Clement  XIV." 
Another  writer  who  received  his  information  from 
Gregory  XVI  tells  the  same  sad  story  (de  Ravignan, 
Clement  XIII  et  Clement  XIV,  I,  452).  St.  Alphonsiis 
Liguori  was  with  the  Pope  when  he  died,  but  according 
to  a  Redemptorist  writer,  it  was  "  in  spirit/'  and  not 
by  bodily  bilocation.  The  end  came  in  September 
22,  1774,  thirteen  months  after  the  unfortunate  Brief 
was  issued, 

Of  course,  when  he  died,  the  report  went  abroad 
that  the  Jesuits  had  poisoned  him,  by  .administering 
a  dose  of  aqua  toffana,  but  although  no  one  has  ever 
found  out  what  aqua  tojffana  is  or  was,  and  as  there 
were  no  Jesuits  in  Rome  at  the  time,  the  story  was 
nevertheless  believed  by  many  and  was  adduced  as 
a  proof  of  the  wisdom  of  the  Pope  in  suppressing  the 
iniquitous  organization.  The  Jansenists  even  made  a 
saint  of  the  dead  Pontiff  and  circulated  marvellous 
romances  about  the  ^corruption  of  his  body  and  the 
miracles  that  were  wrought  at  his  tomb. 

Cantft  in  his  "  Storia  dei  cent*  anni  "  says  that  "  the 
Pope  whose  health  and  mind  were  grievously  affected, 
died  in  delirium,  haunted  by  phantoms,  and  begging 
for  pardon.  It  was  claimed  that  he  had  been  poisoned 
by  the  Jesuits,  but  the  truth  is  that  the  physicians 
found  no  trace  of  poison  in  the  body.  Had  the  Jesuits 
possessed  the  power  or  the  will  to  do  so,  one  might 
ask  why  they  did  not  do  it  before  and  not  after  Clement 
had  struck  them.  But  passion  often  makes  light  of 
common  sense."  The  post-mortem  which  was  made 
in  the  presence  of  a  great  many  people  showed  that 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression   607 

the  sickness  to  which  he  had  succumbed  arose  from 
scorbutic  and  hemorrhoidal  conditions  from  which  he 
had  been  suffering  for  many  years,  and  which  were 
aggravated  by  excessive  work  and  the  system  he 
had  followed  of  producing  artificial  perspiration  even 
in  the  heats  of  summer." 

The  poor  Pope  had  exclaimed  before  he  signed  the 
Brief:  "  Questa  soppressione  mi  dar&  la  morte" 
(this  suppression  will  kill  me.)  "  After  it/'  says  Saint- 
Priest  in  his  '  Chute  des  J6suites/  "  he  would  pace 
his  apartments  in  agony,  crying:  *  Mercy!  Mercy! 
They  forced  me  to  do  it.  Compulsus  fed.9  However, 
at  the  last  moment  his  reason  returned.  He  showed 
his  indignation  at  a  proposal  made  to  him  even  then, 
to  raise  some  of  the  enemies  of  the  Society  to  the 
cardinalate  and  drove  them  from  his  bedside  with 
loathing. 

Bernis,  the  French  ambassador  at  Rome,  wrote  to 
Louis  XV  that  "  the  Vicar  of  Christ  prayed  like  the 
Redeemer  for  his  implacable  enemies/'  and  insinuated 
that  he  was  poisoned.  Knowing  this  d'Alembert 
warned  Frederick  II  to  be  on  his  guard  against  a  similar 
fate,  but  the  king  replied:  "  There  is  nothing  more 
false  than  the  story  of  the  poisoning;  the  truth  is 
that  he  was  profoundly  hurt  by  the  coldness  mani- 
fested by  the  cardinals  and  he  often  reproached  him- 
self, for  having  sacrificed  an  Order  like  that  of  the 
Jesuits,  to  satisfy  the  whim  of  his  rebellious  children." 
Becantini  (Storia  di  Pio  VI,  i,  31)  says:  "  Nowadays 
no  one  believes  the  story  of  the  poisoning  of  Clement 
XIV.  Even  Bernis  who  first  stood  for  it,  afterwards 
disavowed  it."  Canceller!  one  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished savants  of  Italy  denies  the  fact;  so  does 
Gavani,  a  bitter  enemy  of  the  Church  and  the  Society. 
Finally,  Salcetto  the  physician  of  the  Apostolic  palace, 
and  Adinolfi  the  Pope's  own  doctor,  in  their  official 


608  The  Jesuits 

report  to  the  majordomo,  Archinto,  declare  it  to 
have  been  an  absolutely  natural  death  and  they 
explain  that  the  corruption  which  set  in  was  due  to 
the  excessive  heat  that  prevailed  at  the  time. 

It  was  even  said  that  the  Pope  had  expressed  to 
the  General  of  the  Conventuals,  Marzoni,  a  fear  that 
he  had  been  poisoned.  Whereupon  Marzoni  caused 
the  following  statement  to  be  published: 

"  I,  the  undersigned  Minister  General  of  the  Order 
of  the  Conventuals  of  St.  Francis,  fully  aware  that  by 
my  oath  I  call  the  sovereign  and  true  God  to  witness 
what  I  say;  and  being  "certain  of  what  I  say,  I  now 
without  any  constraint  and  in  the  presence  of  God  who 
knows  that  I  do  not  lie,  do  by  these  words,  which  are 
absolutely  true,  and  which  I  write  and  trace  with  my 
own  hand,  swear  and  attest  to  the  whole  universe, 
that  never  in  any  circumstance  whatever  did  Clement 
XIV  ever  say  to  me  either  that  he  had  been  poisoned 
or  that  he  felt  the  slightest  symptom  of  poison.  I 
swear  also  that  I  never  said  to  any  one  soever  that 
the  same  Clement  XIV  assured  me  in  confidence 
that  he  had  been  poisoned  or  had  felt  the  effects  of 
poison.  So  help  me  God. 

"Given  in  the  Convent  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  at 
Rome  July  27,  1775. 

"I,  Bro.  Louis -Maria  Marzoni 

''Minister  General  of  the  Order." 

Thus  Clement  XIV,  far  from  giving  peace  to  the 
Church,  left  a  heritage  of  woe  to  his  successor,  Angelo 
Braschi,  who  was  elected  Pope  on  February  15,  1775, 
and  took  the  name  of  Pius  VI.  The  new  Pope  was 
painfully  conscious  that  an  error  had  been  committed 
by  suppressing  an  Order  without  trial  and  without 
even  condemnation,  and  that  a  reflection  had  been 
cast  upon  a  great  number  of  Pontiffs  who  had  been 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    609 

unstinted  in  their  praise  of  it,  no  one  more  so  than 
Clement's  immediate  predecessor.  The  act  had  also 
given  to  the  Jansenists  a  terrific  instrument  in  the 
implied  approval  of  them  by  the  Sovereign  Pontiff. 
They  became  more  aggressive  than  ever  and  organized 
their  forces  to  introduce  their  doctrines  into  Italy  itself. 

By  a  curious  coincidence  the  leader  of  the  move- 
ment was  of  the  same  family  as  the  General  of  the 
suppressed  Jesuits :  Scipio  Ricci,  the  Bishop  of  Pistoia. 
Supporting  him  in  the  civic  world  was  the  Grand  Duke 
of  Tuscany  who  was  the  brother  of  Joseph  II  of 
Austria.  Ricci  convened  the  famous  Synod  of  Pistoia, 
on  July  31,  1786.  No  doubt  July  31  was  chosen  pur- 
posely; it  was  the  feast  of  St.  Ignatius.  There  were 
247  members  in  attendance,  all  exclusively  Jansenists 
and  regalists.  The  four  Gallican  Articles-were  endorsed 
and  among  the  measures  was  that  of  conferring  the 
right  on  the  civil  authority  to  create  matrimonial 
impediments.  It  advocated  the  reduction  of  all 
religious  orders  to  one;  the  abolition  of  perpetual 
vows;  a  vernacular  liturgy;  the  removal  of  all  altars 
but  one  from  the  church;  etc.  The  Acts  of  the  synod 
were  promulgated  with  the  royal  imprimatur.  Indeed 
Pius  VI  found  himself  compelled  to  condemn  eighty- 
five  of  the  synod's  propositions. 

Worse  than  this  was  the  Febronianism  of  Austria, 
which  went  far  beyond  the  Gallicanism  of  France  or 
Italy  in  its  rebellious  aggressiveness.  It  maintained 
that  the  primacy  of  Rome  had  no  basis  in  the  authority 
of  Christ;  that  the  papacy  was  not  restricted  to  Rome, 
but  could  be  placed  anywhere;  that  Rome  was  merely 
a  centre  with  which  the  individual  churches  could 
be  united;  that  the  papal  power  was  simply  adminis- 
trative and  unifying  and  not  jurisdictional;  that  the 
papal  power  of  condemning  heresies,  confirming  epis- 
copal elections,  naming  coadjutors,  transferring  ^a 

39 


610  The  Jesuits 

removing  bishops,  erecting  primatial  sees,  etc.,  all 
rested  on  the  False  Decretals.  It  was  maintained 
that  the  Pope  could  issue  no  decrees  for  the  Universal 
Church,  and  that  even  the  decrees  of  general  councils 
were  not  binding  until  approved  of  by  the  individual 
churches. 

In  vain  Clement  XlV  had  begged  Maria  Theresa 
to  check  the  movement.  She  was  absolutely  in  the 
power  of  her  son  Joseph  II,  whose  very  first  ordinances 
forbade  the  reception  of  papal  decrees  without  the 
government's  sanction.  The  bishops,  he  ruled,  were 
not  to  apply  to  the  Pope  for  faculties;  they  could  not 
even  issue  instructions  to  their  own  flocks  without 
permission  of  the  civil  authority.  He  established 
parishes,  assigned  fast  days,  determined  the  number 
of  Masses  to  be  said,  and  sermons  to  be  preached. 
He  even  decided  how  many  candles  were  to  be  lighted 
on  the  altar;  he  made  marriage  a  civil  contract  and 
abolished  ecclesiastical  ceremonies. 

In  the  hope  that  a  personal  appeal  might  avail, 
the  Pope  determined  to  make  a  journey  to  Vienna  to 
entreat  the  emperor  to  desist.  He  arrived  there  on 
March  22,  1782,  and  was  courteously  received  by 
Joseph  himself,  but  brutally  Ijy  his  minister,  Kaunitz, 
who  forbade  any  ecclesiastic  to  present  himself  in 
the  city  while  the  Pope  was  there.  Pius  remained  a 
month  in  the  capital  and  succeeded  only  in  extracting  a 
promise  that  nothing  would  be  done  against  the 
Faith  or  the  respect  due  the  Holy  See.  How  far  the 
royal  word  was  kept  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact 
that  after  accompanying  the  Pope  as  far  as  the 
Monastery  of  Marianbrunn  Joseph  suppressed  that 
establishment  an  hour  after  the  Pope  had  resumed  his 
journey  to  Rome, 

In  Germany  the  three  ecclesiastical  Electors  of 
Mayence,  Treves  and  Cologne  with  the  Archbishop  of 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    611 

Salzburg  met  in  a  convention  at  Ems  in  1786,  and 
attempted  to  curtail  the  powers  of  the  Pope  in  dealing 
with  bishops.  That  assembly  was  also  strongly  Jansen- 
istic.  Thirty-one  of  its  articles  were  directed  against 
the  Pope.  Pacca,  the  papal  nuncio,  was  not  even 
received  by  the  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  and  three  of 
the  Elector  bishops  refused  to  honor  his  credentials. 
The  famous  "  Punctation  of  Ems,"  which  consisted  of 
twenty-three  articles,  declared  that  German  arch- 
bishops were  independent  of  Rome,  because  of  the 
"  False  Decretalfe."  They  pronounced  for  an  abolition 
of  all  direct  communication  with  Rome;  all  monasteries 
were  to  be  subject  to  the  bishops;  religious  orders 
were  to  have  no  superior  generals  residing  outside  of 
Germany;  Rome's  exclusive  power  of  granting  faculties 
was  denied;  Papal  Bulls  were  binding  only  after 
the  bishop  of  the  diocese  had  given  his  placet;  all 
Apostolic  nunciatures  were  to  be  abolished,  etc.  In 
brief,  the  synod,  or  "  Congress  "  as  it  was  called,  aimed 
at  establishing  a  schismatical  church.  But  the  Pope's 
remarkable  letter  to  the  dissidents  and  the  progress 
of  the  French  Revolution,  which  was  then  raging 
furiously,  prevented  the  application  anywhere  of  the 
doctrines  put  forth  at  the  meeting. 

Spain,  Sardinia,  Venice  and  Sicily  were  all  in  this 
movement  against  the  Church,  and  Ferdinand  IV 
of  Sicily  claimed  the  right  of  appointment  to  all 
ecclesiastical  benefices,  as  well  as  the  power  to  nullify 
all  Papal  Briefs  which  had  not  received  his  approval. 

Nor  did  the  Brief  of  Suppression  contribute  to  the 
political*  stability  of  the  nations.  In  Naples,  for 
example,  Tanucci  was  flung  from  power  when  the 
young  king  married  an  archduchess  of  Austria;  so  that 
he  disappeared  from  the  scene  three  years  after  the 
suppression  of  the  Society.  In  1798  the  Bourbons 
fled  from  Naples;  the  city  was  given  over  to  a  mob 


612  The  Jesuits 

directed  by  an  innkeeper  called  Michael  the  Madman; 
the  Duke  deUa  Torre  and  his-  brother  were  burned 
alive  in  the  public  square;  the  Senate  was  dissolved; 
the  palaces  were  pillaged;  a  republic  was  proclaimed 
and  the  whole  Peninsula  of  Italy  fell  into  the  hands  of 
the  French. 

Charles  III  of  Spain  died  in  1788,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Charles  IV,  whom  Arnado  describes  as  more  deficient 
in  character  and  ability  than  his  father.  The  rude 
Florida  Blanca,  who  was  so  conspicuous  for  his 
brutality  in  terrorizing  Clement  XIV,  was  thrown  out 
of  office  by  the  inept  Godoy,  who  allied  Spain  with 
France  against  England,  and  brought  on  the  disaster 
of  Trafalgar.  The  king  was  driven  from  his  throne  and 
country  by  his  rebellious  son,  Ferdinand,  and  then 
kid  his  royal  crown  at  the  feet  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte. 
Since  that  time,  the  country  has  been  in  a  ferment 
because  its  politics  are  filled  with  the  ideas  of  the 
French  Revolution  and  of  English  Liberalism. 

In  Portugal,  retribution  came  at  a  rapid  pace. 
Pombal  fell  from  power  in  1777  on  the  death  of  the 
king.  He  .had  been  detected  in  a  plot  to  have  the 
young  Prince  of  Beira  succeed  to  the  throne  to  the 
exclusion  of  Queen  Maria.  It  was  possibly  with  the 
same  end  in  view  that  he  had  endeavored  to  start  a 
war  with  Spain.  He  had  seized  Spanish  posts  in 
America,  mobilized  troops  and  fortified  Lisbon,  but 
hostilities  were  never  declared.  Queen  Maria's  first 
act  at  her  accession  was  to  open  Pomb^al's  dungeons. 
Eight  hundred  men  of  all  classes  issued  from  these 
sepulchres  in  which  some  of  them  had  been  for  eighteen 
years  without  a  trial.  They  were  like  ghosts;  emaci- 
ated; hollow-eyed  and  ghastly;  some  were  sightless, 
many  were  half-naked.  Among  them  were  sixty 
Jesuits.  The  populace  were  so  infuriated  at  the 
horrible  spectacle  that  Pombal  feared  to  venture  into 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    613 

the  street.  He  might  have  been  torn  to  pieces,  and 
he  was  conducted  under  guard  to  his  country  estates. 
Father  Oliviera,  the  confessor  of  the  queen,  was 
installed  in  court,  and  the  venerable  Father  de  Guzman 
issued  the  following  statement  to  the  public: 

'*  At  the  age  of  eighty-one  and  at  the  point  of  appear- 
ing before  the  tribunal  of  Divine  Justice,  John  de 
Guzman,  the  last  assistant  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  for 
the  provinces  and  dominions  of  Portugal,  would  believe 
himself  guilty  of  an  unpardonable  sin  of  omission,  if, 
in  neglecting  to  have  recourse  to  the  throne  of  Your 
Majesty  where  clemency  and  justice  reign,  he  did  not 
place  at  your  feet,  this  humble  petition  in  the  name  of 
six  hundred  subjects  of  Your  Majesty,  the  unfortunate 
remnants  of  a  wrong  inflicted  on  them. 

"  He  entreats  Your  Majesty  by  the  Sacred  Heart  of 
Jesus  Christ,  by  that  tender  love  which  Your  Majesty 
bears  to  the  August  Queen,  His  mother,  and  to  the 
illustrious  King  Don  Pedro,  to  the  princes  and 
princesses  of  the  royal  family,  that  you  would  deign 
and  even  command  that  the  trial^  of  so  many  of  the 
faithful  subjects  of  Your  Majesty,  who  have  been 
branded  with  infamy  in  the  eyes  of  the  world,  be  now 
reviewed.  They  are  groaning  under  the  accusation 
of  having  committed  outrages  and  crimes  which  the 
very  savages  would  shrink  from  even  imagining,  and 
which  no  human  heart  could  ever  conceive.  They 
lament  and  moan  that  they  were  condemned  without 
even  having  been  brought  to  trial,  without  being  heard 
and  without  being  allowed  to  make  any  defense. 
Those  who  have  now  issued  from  prison  are  all  in 
accord  in  this  matter,  and  unanimously  attest,  that 
during  all  the  time  of  their  imprisonment,  they  have 
not  even  seen  the  face  of  any  judge. 

"  On  his  part,  your  suppliant,  who  is  now  making 
this  appeal,  and  who  for  many  years  occupied  a  position 


614  The  Jesuits 

where  he  could  acquire  an  intimate  knowledge  of  what 
was  going  on,  is  ready  to  swear  in  the  most  solemn 
manner,  that  the  superiors  and  members  of  the  Spanish 
assistancy  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  were  without  reproach. 
He  and  all  the  other  exiles  are  ready  to  undergo 
sufferings  more  rigorous  than  any  to  which  they  have 
hitherto  been  subjected,  if  a  single  individual  has 
ever  been  guilty  of  the  least  crime  against  the  State. 

"  Moreover,  your  suppliant  and  his  brethren,  the 
chief  superiors  of  the  Society,  have  been  examined 
in  Rome,  again  and  again,  in  the  most  searching 
manner,  and  have  been  declared  innocent.  Pope 
Pius  VI,  now  gloriously  reigning,  has  seen  the  minutes 
of  those  investigations,  and  Your  Majesty  will  find  in 
that  great  Pontiff  an  enlightened  witness  whose 
integrity  nothing  on  earth  can  equal;  and  at  the  same 
time  you  will  find  a  judge  who  could  not  commit 
a  wrong  without  rendering  himself  guilty  of  an  un- 
paralleled iniquity. 

"  Deign,  then,  Your  Majesty,  to  extend  to  us  that 
clemency  which  belongs  to  you  as  does  your  throne; 
deign  to  hearken  to  the  prayers  of  so  many  unfortu- 
nates, whose  innocence  has  been  proven,  and  who  have 
never  ceased  in  the  midst  of  their  sufferings  to  be  the 
faithful  subjects  of  Your  Majesty;  and  who  could  never 
falter  or  fail  an  instant,  in  the  love  that  they  have 
from  childhood  entertained  for  the  royal  family.0 

This  appeal  had  its  effect.  An  enquiry  was  ordered, 
and  in  October  1780  a  revision  of  the  trial  of  the  alleged 
conspirators  of  1758  was  begun.  On  April  3,  1781,  the 
court  announced  that  "all  those,  either  living  or  dead, 
who  had  been  imprisoned  or  executed  in  virtue  of  the 
sentence  of  January  12, 1759,  were  absolutely  innocent." 
Pombal  himself  was  put  on  trial,  found  guilty,  and  con- 
demned to  receive'*  an  exemplary  punishment. "  He 
escaped  imprisonment  on  account  of  his  age,  but  he 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    615 

died  of  leprosy  on  May  8,  1782.  His  corpse  lay 
unburied  until  the  Society  which  he  had  crushed  was 
restored  thirty-one  years  later  to  its  former  place  in 
Portugal.  One  of  its  first  duties  was  to  sing  a  Requiem 
Mass  over  his  remains.  The  details  of  the  trial  were 
suppressed  at  the  request  of  the  Pope,  for  the  reason 
that  too  many  prominent  personages  in  the  Church 
were  implicated.  There  was  another  reason.  The 
spirit  of  Pombal  had  so  thoroughly  impregnated  the 
ruling  classes  that  the  report  was  withheld  out  of 
fear  of  a  revolution.  Indeed,  the  queen  was  so  terrified 
by  the  danger  that  she  lost  her  mind.  Finally,  in 
1807  a  French  army  occupied  Lisbon  and  the  royal 
family  fled  to  Brazil.  Since  then  Portugal  which  was 
once  so  great  counts  for  very  lit'tle  in  the  political 
world. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  refer  to  France,  except  to  note 
that  it  was  Choiseul  who  purchased  Corsica  and  thus 
gave  his  country  which  he  had  helped  to  ruin  an  alien 
ruler:  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  who  put  an  end  to  the 
orgies  of  the  Revolution  by  deluging  Europe  with 
French  blood;  who  imprisoned  the  Pope;  demolished 
the  Bourbon  dynasties  wherever  he  could  find  them, 
and  bound  France  in  fetters  which,  in  spite  of  its 
multiplied  changes  of  government,  it  has  never  shaken 
off. 

When  Joseph  II  of  Austria  ended  his  lonely  and 
unhappy  existence  in  1790,  he  saw  in  France  the  be- 
ginning of  the  wreck  which  his  friend  Voltaire  had 
helped  to  effect;  he  did  not  live  to  see  the  execution 
of  his  own  sister,  Marie  Antoinette,  but  enough  had 
occurred  to  fill  him  with  terror  especially  as  the  exist- 
ence of  his  own  monarchy  was  threatened;  Belgium 
was  lost;  Hungary  was  in  wild  disorder,  and  other  parts 
of  the  empire  were  about  to  rebel.  Before  he  died 
he  wrote  his  own  epitaph.  It  was:  "  Here  lies 


616  The  Jesuits 

Joseph  II,  who  never  succeeded  in  any  of  his  under- 
takings." 

What  became  of  the  scattered  Jesuits?  The 
scholastics  and  lay-brothers,  of  course,  went  back  to 
the  world,  but,  in  France,  by  a  refinement  of  cruelty 
they  were  declared  by  the  courts  to  be  incapable  of 
inheriting  even  from  their  own  parents,  because  of 
the  vows  they  had  pronounced  on  entering  the  Society. 
That  the  vows  no  longer  existed  made  no  difference  to 
the  lawmakers.  As  for  the  priests  they  were 
secularized,  and  in  many  places  were  welcomed  by 
the  bishops  as  rectors  or  professors  in  colleges  and 
seminaries.  They  were  in  demand,  also,  as  directors 
of  religious  communities  and  not  a  few  became  bishops. 
Thus,  in  America,  the  first  two  members  of  the 
hierarchy,  Carroll  and  Neale,  were  old  Jesuits,  as  was 
Lawrence  Graessel  who  had  been  named  as  Carroll's 
successor  but  who  died  before  the  Bulls  arrived. 
Cr6tineau-Joly  has  a  list  of  twenty-one  bishops  in 
Europe  alone.  Others  were  called  to  episcopal  sees, 
but  in  hopes  of  the  restoration  of  the  Society  they  had 
declined  the  honor. 

Father  Walcher  was  appointed  imperial  director  of 
navigation  and  mathematics  by  Maria  Theresa;  Cabral, 
Lecci,  and  Riccati,  were  engaged  by  various  govern- 
ments in  engineering  works;  Zeplichal  was  employed 
by  Frederick  II  in  exploiting  mines.  The  Theresian 
College  of  Vienna  became  one  of  the  best  schools  in 
the  world  under  their  direction;  and  Breslau  felt  the 
effects  of  their  assistance,  as  did  other  colleges  such 
as  the  Oriental  in  Vienna,  the  University  of  Buda, 
and  the  schools  of  Mayence,  and  of  various  cities  in 
Italy. 

They  must  have  been  often  amused  at  some  of  the 
situations  in  which  they  found  themselves.  Thus, 
for  instance  in  1784  the  Parliament  of  Languedoc, 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    617 

which  had  been  one  of  the  bitterest  enemies  of  the 
Society,  met  to  arrange  for  the  solemn  obsequies  of 
the  Jesuit  Father  Sesane  "  the  friend  of  the  poor," 
and  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  were  busy  taking 
juridical  information  for  his  canonization.  Again, 
although  not  permitted  to  exist  in  Switzerland  the 
Council  of  Soleuse  erected  a  statue  in  honor  of  the 
Jesuit  Father  Crollanza,  who  all  his  life  had  shunned 
honor  and  was  conspicuous  for  his  humility.  On  the 
pedestal  was  the  very  delightful  inscription: 
"  Pauperum  patrem,  aegrorum  matrem,  omnium 
fratrem,  virum  doctum  et  humilimum,  in  vita,  in  morte, 
in  feretro  suavitate  sibi  similem  amabat,  admirabatur, 
lugebat  Solodurum."  In  the  same  way,  Maria  Theresa 
in  an  official  document  dated  1776  declared  that 
"  moved  by  the  consideration  of  the  brilliant  virtues, 
the  science,  the  erudition  and  the  regular  and  exemplary 
life  of  Jean-Theophile  Delpini;  and  reflecting  more- 
over on  his  apostolic  labors  in  Hungary  and  the 
Principality  of  Transylvania  where  to  our  great 
consolation,  he  led  a  vast  throng  of  Anabaptists  back 
to  the  true  Faith,  we  have  chosen  and  we  hereby 
appoint  the  said  Theophile  Delpini  who  has  merited 
much  from  the  Church  and  the  State,  and  who  is 
therefore  very  acceptable  to  us  personally,  to  the 
post  of  Abbot  of  Our  Lady  of  Kolos-Monostros." 
Parhamer  obtained  a  similar  distinction  in  Austria 
and  Carinthia.  He  was  an  advanced  advocate  of  what 
is  now  called  social  service,  and  he  made  use  of  his 
position  as  confessor  and  friend  of  the  Emperor  Francis 
I  to  establish  useful  popular  institutions;  among  which 
was  an  orphanage  for  the  children  of  soldiers  who  had 
died  for  their  country.  It  *was  a  sort  of  child's 
H6tel  des  Invalides.  The  discipline  was  exclusively 
military,  with  drills,  camp  life,  etc.  Joseph  II 
wanted  to  make  him  a  bishop  but  Parhamer  asked 


618  The  Jesuits 

for  two  months  to  think  it  over  and  before  the  two 
months  had  expired  he  was  dead.  That  was  as  late 
as  1786.  Meantime,  Marie  Leczinska,  the  Queen  of 
France,  would  only  have  these  prescribed  Jesuits  hear 
her  confession,  and  two  Poles,  Radomiviski  and  Buganski 
were  chosen  for  that  office.  On  account  of  their  nation- 
ality they  could  not  be  exiled  from  Prance.  In  Austria, 
Father  Walcher  was  kept  busy  building  dykes  to  prevent 
inundations.  Father  Cabral,  a  Portuguese,  had  to 
harness  the  cataract  of  Velino,  which  had  so  long 
wrought  havoc  in  the  city  of  Terni,  and  then  he  did  the 
same  thing  for  his  own  country  by  confining  the 
Tagus  to  its  bed.  In  doing  so  he  did  not  remember 
that  his  country  had  kept  him  in  exile  for  eighteen 
years.  Ximenes  made  roads  and  bridges  in  Tuscany 
and  Rome.  Riccati  saved  Venice  from  inundations  by 
controlling  the  Po,  the  Adige  and  Brenta,  and  by 
order  of  Frederick  II  of  Prussia  Father  Zeplichal 
had  to  locate  the  metal  mines  of  Glatz,  and  so  on. 
All  this  was  over  and  above  their  ecclesiastical  work 
for  which  they  were  called  on  by  every  one,  even  by 
the  Pope  who  had  suppressed  them. 

The  famous  astronomer,  Maximilian  Hell,  was 
another  of  the  homeless  Jesuits  of  that  period;  and  as 
it  happened  that  from  the  beginning,  astronomy  had 
always  been  in  honor  in  the  Society,  there  was  a  great 
number  of  such  men  adrift  in  the  world  when  their 
own  observatories  were  taken  away  from  them.  The 
enthusiastic  historian  of  the  Society,  Cr6tineau-Joly 
has  an  extended  list  of  their  names  as  well  as  those 
who  were  remarkable  in  other  branches  of  science. 

The  "  Theologia  Wiceburgensis,"  which  is  so  popular 
in  the  modern  Society,  was  composed  by  dispersed 
Jesuits,  and,  according  to  Cardinal  Pacca,  "in  the 
difficulties  that  arose  between  the  Papal  nuncios  and 
the  ecclesiastical  Electors  of  Germany  it  was  the 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    619 

former  Jesuits  who  appeared  in  the  lists  as  the 
champions  of  the  Holy  See,  to  illumine  and  strengthen 
the  minds  of  the  faithful  by  their  solid  and  victorious 
writings/*  Prangois  Xavier  de  Peller  belonged  to  this 
period,  and  in  the  opinion  of  Gerlache,  the  historian 
of  the  Netherlands,  "  he  exerted  a  great  influence  on 
the  Belgian  Congress  of  1790."  It  was  he  who  led 
the  assault  on  Josephinism  and  Febronianism.  With 
him  in  this  fight  was  Francesco  Antonio  Zaccaria  who 
compelled  the  author  of  the ' '  Febronius  "  to  acknowledge 
his  errors.  Guillaume  Bertier  revived  the 'famous 
"  Journal  de  TrSvoux,  "  and  Fr6ron  made  a  reputation 
for  the  "Journal  des  D6bats,"  Girolamo  Tiraboschi 
•wrote  his  "History  of  Italian  Literature,"  Juan 
Andrfis,  his  "  Origin  of  All  Literature,"  Francisco 
Clavigero  continued  his  "  History  of  Mexico  "  and 
Antoine  de  Berault-Bercastel,  Frangois  De  Ligny, 
Jean  Grou,  Giulio  Cordara,  wrote  their  various  well- 
known  works.  Besides  writing  his  stiU  popular  "  Bible 
History"  Reeve  translated  into  Latin  verses  much  of  the 
poetry  of  Pope,  Dryden  and  Young.  The  list  is 
endless.  A  French-Canadian,  Xavier  du  Plessis,  was 
famous  in  the  pulpits  of  France  in  those  days,  as  was 
Nicholas  de  Beauregard,  who  in  1775  startled  all 
France  by  an  utterance  he  made  when  preaching  at 
Notre-Dame. 

"These  philosophers,"  he  exclaimed,  "are  striking 
at  the  king  and  at  religion.  The  axe  and  the  hammer 
are  in  their  hands.  They  are  only  waiting  for  the 
moment  to  overturn  the  altar  and  the  throne.  Yes 
Lord,  Thy  temples  will  be  plundered  and  destroyed, 
Thy  feasts  abolished,  Thy  name  proscribed.  But 
what  do  I  hear?  Great  God!  what  do  I  see.  Instead 
of  the  holy  canticles  which  resounded  beneath  these 
consecrated  vaults  till  now,  I  hear  lascivious  and 
blasphemous  songs.  And  thou,  the  infamous  divinity 


620  The  Jesuits 

of  paganism,  lascivious  Venus,  thou  darest  to  come 
to  take  the  place  of  the  living  God,  to  sit  upon  the 
throne  of  the  Holy  of  Holies  and  receive  the  guilty 
incense  of  thy  worshippers."  The  vision  was  realized 
eighteen  years  later. 

The  sermon  caused  a  tumult  in  the  church.  The 
preacher  was  denounced  as  seditious,  and  as  a  calum- 
niator of  light  and  reason.  •  Even  Condorcet  wrote  him 
down  as  a  ligueur  and  a  fanatic.  He  continued  preach- 
ing, nevertheless,  and  his  old  associates  followed  his 
example.  During  one  Lent,  out  of  twenty  of  the  great 
preachers,  sixteen  were  Jesuits. 

Three  of  these  former  Jesuits  especially  attracted 
attention  at  this  time  in  the  domain  of  letters  and 
science:  Zaccaria,  Tiraboschi,  and  Boscovich. 

Francesco  Antonio  Zaccaria,  whose  name  is  some- 
times written  Zaccheria,  was  a  Venetian  who  had 
entered  the  Austrian  novitiate  in  1731,  when  he  was 
a  boy  of  seventeen.  He  taught  literature  at  Goritz, 
but  was  subsequently  sent  to  Rome  where  he  became 
very  distinguished  both  for  his  eloquence  and  his 
marvellous  encyclopedic  knowledge.  In  1751  he  was 
appointed  to  succeed  Muratori  as  the  ducal  librarian 
at  Modena,  though  Cardinal  Quirini  had  asked  for 
him  and  the  celebrated  Count  Crustiani  subsequently 
tried  to  bring  him  to  Mantua.  His  fame  was  so  great 
that  the  most  illustrious  academies  of  Italy  claimed  his 
name  for  their  registers.  In  Rome  he  became  the 
literary  historiographer  of  the  Society,  and  had  been 
so  excellent  an  aid  for  Clement  XIII  in  the  fight 
against  GalHcanism  that  the  Pope  assigned  him  a 
pension.  That  was  just  before  the  Suppression  of 
the  Society;  when  that  event  occurred  he  was  deprived 
of  his  pension,  and  after  frequently  running  the  risk 
of  being  imprisoned  in  the  Castle  Sant'  Angelo,  he  was 
ordered  not  to  attempt  to  leave  Rome.  When  Pius  VI 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    621 

became  Pope,  Zaccaria's  life  became  a  little  happier. 
His  pension  was  restored  and  even  increased;  he  was 
made  Rector  of  the  College  of  Clerical  Nobles,  and 
regained  his  old  chair  of  ecclesiastical  history  in  the 
Sapienza.  He  died  in  1795  at  the  age  of  eighty-two. 
The  "  Biographie  Universelle "  says  that,  besides 
innumerable  manuscripts,  Zaccaria  left  one  hundred 
and  six  printed  books,  the  most  important  of  which  is 
the  "  Literary  History  of  Italy  "  in  14  octavo  volumes 
with  supplements  to  volumes  IV  and  V.  His  method  of 
leading  his  readers  through  the  literary  labyrinth 
deserves  no  less  praise  than  the  penetration  of  his 
views,  and  the  good  taste  of  his  criticism.  Besides 
this  literary  work,  he  wrote  on  moral  theology,  scrip- 
ture, canon  law,  history,  numismatics,  etc. 

Girolamo  Tiraboschi,  who  was  born  in  Bergamo  on 
December  28,  1731,  went  to  the  Jesuit  school  at  Monza, 
and  from  there  entered  the  Society.  His  first  character- 
istic work,  while  teaching  literature  in  Bergamo,  was 
to  re-edit  the  Latin-Italian  dictionary  of  Mandosio. 
He  made  so  many  corrections  that  it  was  substantially 
a  new  work.  When  occupied  as  librarian  in  Milan, 
he  discovered  a  set  of  valuable  manuscripts  about 
the  suppressed  Order  of  Humiliati.  The  publication  of 
these  MSS.  filled  up  a  gap  in  the  annals  of  the  Church, 
and  made  Tiraboschi's  reputation  in  the  world  of 
letters.  The  Duke  of  Modena  made  him  his  librarian, 
the  post  formerly  held  by  Zaccaria.  Thanks  to  the 
munificence  of  the  princes  of  Este,  the  library  was  a 
literary  treasure  house,  and  Tiraboschi  conceived  the 
idea  of  gathering  up  the  riches  around  him  and  writing 
a  good  history  of  Italian  literature;  a  task  that  seemed 
to  be  too  much  for  one  mind.  The  difficulty  was 
increased  by  the  jealousy  of  the  various  Italian  states, 
so  that  an  unbiased  judgment  about  the  merits  of 
this  army  of  writers  called  for  a  man  with  courage 


622  The  Jesuits 

enough  to  shut  his  ears  to  the  clamors  of  local  prejudice. 
It  supposed  also  a  profound  knowledge  of  ancient  and 
modern  literature,  a  sufficient  acquaintance  with  the 
arts  and  sciences,  and  skill  enough  not  to  be  over- 
whelmed by  the  mass  of  material  he  had  to  handle. 
It  took  him  eleven  years  to  complete  the  work, 

The  Spaniards  were  irritated  by  the  "  History  " 
for  they  were  blamed  for  having  corrupted  the  literary 
taste  of  Italy,  and  three  Spanish  Jesuits  attacked 
him  fiercely  on  that  score.  Nevertheless,  the  Academy 
accepted  a  copy  of  the  work  in  the  most  flattering 
terms.  The  Italians  regarded  it  as  a  most  complete 
history  of  their  literature  and  a  monument  erected  to 
the  glory  of  their  country.  He  was  made  a  knight 
by  the  Duke  and  appointed  counsellor  of  the  princi- 
pality. While  he  was  engaged  in  this  work,  the  Society 
was  suppressed,  and  like  Boscovich  and  Zaccaria, 
he  did  not  live  to  see  its  resurrection.  He  died  in 
Modena  on  June  3,  1794. 

Ruggiero  Giuseppe  Boscovich  was  a  Dalmatian 
from  Ragusa,  where  he  was  born  on  May  18,  1711. 
He  was  a  boy  at  the  Jesuit  college  of  that  town  and 
entered  the  Society  at  the  early  age  of  fourteen. 
He  was  sent  to  the  Roman  College,  where  his  unusual 
literary  and  philosophical  as  well  as  mathematical 
abilities  immediately  attracted  attention.  He  was 
able  to  take  the  place  of  his  professor  in  mathematics 
while  he  was  yet  in  his  theological  studies,  and  sub- 
sequently occupied  the  chair  of  mathematics  with  great 
distinction  for  a  generation.  His  bent,  however,  was 
chiefly  for  astronomy,  and  every  year  he  issued  a 
treatise  on  one  or  another  subject  of  that  science. 
Among  them  may  be  mentioned:  the  "Sun  spots" 
(1736);  "The  Transit  of  Mercury"  (1737);  "The 
Aurora  Borealis  "  (1738);  "Application  of  the  Tele- 
scope in  Astronomical  Studies  "  (1739);  "  The  Figure 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    623 

of  the  Earth  "  (1739) ;  "  The  Motion  of  the  Heavenly 
Bodies  in  an  unresisting  Medium  "  (1740);  "Various 
effects  of  Gravity"  (1741);  "The  Aberration  of  the 
Fixed  Stars  "  (1742);  and  numberless  others.  Foreign 
and  Italian  academies,  among  them  Bologna,  Paris 
and  London  admitted  him  to  membership.  It  was  he 
who  first  suggested  the  massive  pillars  of  the  college 
church  of  St.  Ignatius  as  the  foundation  of  the  Observ- 
atory in  Rome;  but  the  Suppression  of  the  Society 
prevented  him  from  carrying  out  the  plan.  When  the 
great  dome  of  St.  Peter's  began  to  crack,  he  allayed 
the  general  alarm  by  placing  iron  bands  around  it. 
His  advice  was  sought  for  the  draining  of  the  Pontine 
Marshes;  he  surveyed  the  Papal  States  by  order  of 
Benedict  XIV  and  induced  the  Pope  to  withdraw  the 
obsolete  decree  in  the  Index  against  the  Copernican 
system. 

When  King  John  V  of  Portugal  asked  for  ten  Jesuit 
Fathers  to  make  an  elaborate  survey  of  Brazil,  Bosco- 
vich  offered  himself  for  the  arduous  task,  hoping  thus 
to  make  a  survey  in  Ecuador,  so  as  to  obtain  data  for 
the  final  solution  of  the  problem  of  the  figure  of  the 
earth  which  was  then  exciting  much  attention  in 
England  and  France,  but  the  Pope  kept  him  for  the 
survey  of  Italy,  which  Boscovich  did,  and  in  1755  he 
published  a  large  quarto  volume  describing  the  work. 
In  1748,  he  had  already  revived  Leibnitz's  system  of 
dynamism  in  the  composition  of  bodies,  a  view  which 
his  fellow- Jesuits  generally  rejected.  When  this  vol- 
ume was  issued,  the  publisher  added  a  list  of  Bosco- 
vich's  previous  works.  They  amounted  to  sixty-six 
and  he  soon  added  three  more  quartos  on  "  The 
Elements  of  Mathematics."  He  even  wrote  Latin 
poetry,  mostly  eulogies  of  the  Pope  and  distinguished 
men,  and  published  five  volumes  of  verse  on  "  The 
Defects  of  the  Sun  and  the  Moon." 


624  The  Jesuits 

Boscovich's  advice  was  sought  as  an  engineer  for 
damming  the  Lakes  which  were  threatening  the  city 
of  Lucca;  and  he  acquitted  himself  so  well,  that  he 
was  made  an  honorary  citizen  and  his  expenses  were 
subsequently  paid  for  his  scientific  exploration  in 
Italy,  Prance  and  England.  He  settled  a  dispute 
between  his  native  town  arid  the  King  of  France.  He 
journeyed  with  the  Venetian  ambassador  to  Constanti- 
nople to  complete  his  archaeological  studies,  but  that 
journey  seriously  injured  his  health.  He  then  accepted 
the  appointment  of  professor  of  mathematics  at  the 
University  of  Pavia  and  helped  to  found  the  Observa- 
tory of  Brera  in  Milan  which  with  that  of  the  Col- 
legio  Romano  is  among  the  most  prominent  in  Italy. 
The  London  Academy  wanted  to  send  him  to  Cali- 
fornia in  1769  to  observe  the  transit  of  Venus,  but  the 
opposition  to  the  Jesuits,  which  was  four  years  later 
to  lead  to  their  suppression,  caused  the  invitation 
to  be  withdrawn.  Louis  XV  then  called  him  to  Prance 
where  he  was  made  director  of  optics  for  the  Navy 
with  a  salary  of  8,000  francs.  He  retained  this  posi- 
tion until  1783,  that  is  ten  years  after  the  Society  of 
Jesus  had  gone  out  of  existence.  He  then  went  to 
Italy  to  publish  five  more  books,  and  at  the  age  of 
eighty-six  retired  to  the  monastery  of  the  monks  of 
Vallombroso.  On  account  of  his  great  ability,  or 
rather  on  account  of  his  being  a  Jesuit,  he  was  bitterly 
assailed  by  Condorcet  and  d'Alembert  and  other 
infidels  of  Prance. 

Bolgeni,  who  died  in  1811,  was  made  penitentiary 
by  Pius  VI  in  recognition  of  his  services  against  Jan- 
senism and  Josephinism.  Unfortunately,  however,  he 
advocated  the  acceptance  of  some  scheme  of  Napoleon, 
for  which  Pope  Pius  VII  deposed  him  from  his  office 
and  called  Father  Muzzarelli  from  Parma  to  take  his 
place.  In  1809  when  Pius  VII  was  exiled,  MuzzarelH 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression   625 

went  with  him  to  Paris  or  at  least  followed  soon  after. 
His  work  on  the  "  Right  Use  of  Reason  in  Religion  " 
ran  up  to  eleven  volumes,  besides  which  he  produced 
other  books  against  Rousseau,  and  several  pious 
treatises,  like  the  "  Month  of  May,"  which  has  been 
translated  into  many  languages. 

Possibly  a  certain  number  of  missionaries  remained 
with  their  neophytes  because  they  were  too  remote 
to  be  reached.  Others,  who  owed  no  allegiance  to 
the  king  who  ordered  the  expulsion,  paid  no  attention 
to  it,  as  the  Englishman  King,  for  instance,  who  was 
martyred  in  Siam  after  the  Suppression;  or  the  Irish- 
man O'Reilly,  who  buried  himself,  in  the  forests 
of  Guiana  with  his  savages;  Poirot  was  kept  at  the 
court  of  Pekin  as  the  emperor's  musician;  and  Benoit 
constructed  fountains  for  the  imperial  gardens,  invented 
a  famous  waterclock,  which  spouted  water  from  the 
mouths  of  animals,  two  hours  for  each  beast,  thus 
running  through  the  twenty-four  hours  of  the  day; 
he  made  astronomical  observations,  brought  out 
copper-plate  engravings  of  maps  and  so  on,  and  finally 
died  of  apoplexy  in  1774,  one  year  after  Clement 
XIV  had  suppressed  the  Society.  Hallerstein,  the 
imperial  astronomer,  was  also  there  waiting  for  news 
of  the  coming  disaster. 

B.  N.  in  "  The  Jesuits;  their  history  and  foundation  " 
(II,  274)  and  Cretineau-Joly  both  declare  that  there 
were  four  of  the  proscribed  Jesuits  in  the  Etats  g6n6raux 
which  was  convened  in  Paris  at  the  opening  of  the 
Revolution:  Delfau,  de  Rozaven,  San-Estavan  and 
Allain.  Of  course,  the  Rozaven  in  this  instance 
was  not  the  John  Rozaven  so  famous  later  on.  In 
1789  John  was  only  eighteen  years  of  age.  In  the 
session  of  February  19, 1790,  the  famous  Abbe  Gr6goire, 
who  afterwards  became  the  Constitutional  Bishop  of 
Loir-et-Cher,  startled  the  assembly  by  crying  out, 
40 


626  The  Jesuits 

"  Among  the  hundred  thousand  vexations  of  the  old 
government,  whose  hand  was  so  heavy  on  France,  we 
must  place  the  suppression  of  the  celebrated  Order 
of  the  Jesuits. "  The  Deputy  Lavie  had  also  asked 
for  justice  in  their  behalf.  The  Protestant  Barnave 
declared  that  "  the  first  act  of  our  new  liberty  should 
be  to  repair  the  injustices  of  despotism;  and  I,  therefore, 
propose  an  amendment  in  favor  of  the  Jesuits/'  "They 
have,"  said  the  next  speaker,  the  Abb6  de  Montesquiou, 
"  a  right  to  your  generosity.  You  will  not  refuse 
justice  to  that  celebrated  Society  in  whose  colleges 
some  of  you  have  studied;  whose  wrongs  we  cannot 
understand,  but  whose  sufferings  were  to  be  expected/ ' 

The  sentiments  of  the  speakers  were  enthusiastically 
applauded,  but  it  was  all  forgotten  as  the  terrible 
Revolution  proceeded  on  its  course.  Jesuits  like  other 
priests  were  carried  to  the  guillotine;  but,  as  no  records 
could  now  be  kept,  it  is  impossible  to  find  out  how 
many  were  put  to  death.  We  find  out,  however, 
from  "  Les  martyrs  "  of  Leclercq  that  in  Paris  alone 
there  were  eleven :  DuPerron,  Benoit,  Bonnaiid,  Cayx, 
Friteyre,  du  Rocher,  Lanfant,  Villecrohain,  Le  Cue, 
Rousseau,  and  Seconds.  Cr6tineau-Joly  adds  to  this 
list  the  two  Rochefoucaulds;  Dulau,  who  was  Arch- 
bishop of  Aries;  Ddfaux;  Millou;  Gagni&re;  Le  Livec; 
another  Du  Rocher;  Vourlat;  Du  Roure;  Rouchon; 
Thomas;  Andrieux  and  Verron;  making  in  all  twenty- 
five.  In  "  Les  crimes  de  la  Revolution  "  there  are 
two  volumes  of  the  names  of  the  condemned  in  all 
parts  of  France,  but  as  the  ecclesiastical  victims  are 
merely  described  as  "  priests  "  it  is  impossible  to  find 
out  how  many  Jesuits  there  were  among  them.  The 
twenty-fivfe,  however,  make  a  good  showing  for  a  single 
city.  Probably  the  proportion  was  the  same  elsewhere. 

The  old  Jesuits  appear  again  for  a  moment  in  Spain, 
when  in  1800  Charles  IV  recalled  them.  A  pestilence 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    627 

was  raging  in  Andalusia  when  they  arrived,  and  they 
immediately  plunged  into  the  work  of  caring  for  the 
sick.  Twenty-seven  Jesuits  died  in  the  performance 
of  this  act  of  charity;  but  the  government  soon  forgot 
it  and  again  drove  into  exile  the  men  whom  they  had 
appealed  to  for  help..  In  Austria  they  remained  in 
the  colleges  as  secular  priests.  At  Pribourg,  Lucerne 
and  Soleure,  the  people  insisted  on  their  retaining  the 
colleges.  In  China,  they  clung  to  their  missions  until 
the  arrival  of  the  Lazarists  in  1783.  In  Portuguese 
India,  even  before  the  Suppression,  they  had  been 
forcibly  expelled,  and  the  same  thing  occurred  in 
South  America  wherever  Portugal  ruled.  The  Spanish 
missions  of  both  South  and  North  America  had  like- 
wise been  wrested  from  them.  In  Turkey  the  French 
ambassador,  Saint-Priest,  insisted  on  their  staying  at 
their  posts  in  Constantinople,  because  of  their  success 
in  dealing  with  the  Moslems  and  schismatics.  As  we 
have  seen  when  missionaries  were  needed  in  the 
deadly  forests  of  French  Guiana,  the  government  was 
shameless  enough  to  ask  the  Portuguese  Jesuits  to 
devote  themselves  to  the  work;  and  the  request  was 
acceded  to.  They  were  also  entreated  to  remain  in 
French  India. 

Speaking  of  Brazil,  Southey  says  (III) :  "  Centuries 
will  not  repair  the  evil  done  by  their  sudden  expulsion. 
They  had  been  the  protectors  of  a  persecuted  race; 
the  advocates  of  mercy,  the  founders  of  civilization; 
and  their  patience  under  their  unmerited  sufferings 
forms  not  the  least  honorable  part  of  their  character." 
What  Southey  says  of  Brazil  applies  to  Paraguay, 
Chile  and  other  missions. 

Montucla  in  his  "Histoire  des  math6matiques " 
tells  us  that  Father  Hallerstein,  the  president  of  the 
tribunal  of  astronomy  in  China  hearing  of  the 
Suppression,  died  of  the  shock,  as  did  his  two  dis- 


628  The  Jesuits 

tinguished  companions.  The  story  related  by  the 
Protestant  historian  Christopher  de  Murr  in  his 
"  Journal "  is  also  illustrative  of  the  general  attitude 
of  mind  in  this  trying  conjuncture.  Just  before  the 
Suppression,  he  informs  us,  a  French  Government  ship 
left  Marseilles  for  Pekin  with  four  Jesuits  on  board. 
One  was  a  painter,  another  a  physician  and  the  two 
others  were  mathematicians.  All  of  them  were  to  be 
in  the  personal  entourage  of  the  Emperor  of  China. 
They  were  Austrians  from  the  Tyrol,  but  France, 
which  had  expelled  the  French  Jesuits  a  few  years 
before,  was  sending  these  foreign  Jesuits  to  represent 
her,  and  to  promote  the  interests  of  science  in  the 
Chinese  court.  They  set  sail  in  the  month  of  July, 
1773,  and  not  a  word  was  said  to  them  about  the  general 
Suppression,  which  Choiseul  knew  perfectly  well  would 
soon  take  place.  The  Archbishop  of  Paris,  de  Beau- 
mont, had  warned  them  of  what  was  in  the  air,  but  they 
could  not  believe  it  possible  and  so  they  departed  for 
the  Par  East. 

After  a  weary  journey  of  four  months,  they  arrived 
at  'Macao.  Meantime  the  Brief  had  been  published, 
and  the  Bishop  of  Macao,  a  creature  of  Pombal's  made 
haste  to  inform  them  of  the  fact.  Had  he  held  his 
peace  there  would  have  been  no  difficulty  about  the 
continuance  of  the  journey  to  Pekin,  and  their  sub- 
sequent standing  at  the  court,  for  the  Brief  was  not 
effective  until  it  was  promulgated.  But  once  they 
knew  it,  the  poor  men  were  in  a  dilemma.  Not  to 
heed  the  invitation  of  the  Chinese  emperor  meant 
death,  if  he  laid  hold  of  them;  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
to  go  to  China  without  the  power  of  saying  Mass  or 
preaching,  or  hearing  confessions,  namely  as  suspended 
priests,  was  unthinkable.  For  three  days,  the  un- 
fortunate wanderers  studied  the  problem  with  aching 
hearts,  and  finally  determined  to  run  the  risk  of  capture 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression   629 

by  the  Chinese  with  its  subsequent  punishment  of 
death.  They  stowed  themselves  away  on  separate 
ships  and  thus  got  back  to  Europe.  Incidentally,  it 
serves  as  a  proof  that  the  Jesuits  did  not  go  out  to  China 
to  be  mandarins,  as  some  of  their  enemies  alleged. 
They  accepted  what  honors  came  to  them,  but  only 
to  help  them  in  their  apostolic  work. 

It  was  found  out  subsequently  that  these  poor 
men  would  have  had  better  luck  had  they  continued 
on  their  journey  to  China  instead  of  returning  to 
Europe.  The  promulgation  of  the  Brief  and  the 
observance  of  all  the  legal  technicalities  connected  with 
its  enforcement  was  next  to  impossible  in  China, 
and  hence  we  find  a  letter  of  Father  Bourgeois  from 
Pekin  to  his  friend  Duprez  in  France,  which  bears 
the  date  May  15,  1775,  announcing  that  "  the  Brief 
is  on  its  way."  It  had  been  issued  two  years  pre- 
viously. Of  course,  Bourgeois  is  in  tears  over  the 
prospective  calamity,  and  tells  his  friend:  "I  have 
nothing  now  but  eternity  and  that  is  not  far  off. 
Happy  are  those  of  Ours  who  are  with  Ignatius  and 
Xavier  and  Aloy sius  Gonzaga  and  the  numberless  throng 
of  saints  who  follow  the  Lamb  under  the  glorious 
banner  of  the  Name  of  Jesus/' 

Cr6tineau-Joly  discovered  another  letter  from  an 
Italian  lay-brother  named  Panzi,  who  writes  eighteen 
months  later  than  Bourgeois.  It  is  dated  November 
ii,  1776.  In  it  he  says  "the  missionaries  had  been 
notified  of  the  Bull  of  Suppression  (he  does  not  state 
how),  nevertheless  they  live  together  in  the  same 
house,  under  the  same  roof  and  eat  at  the  same  table." 
Apparently  there  had  been  a  flaw  in  the  promulgation 
of  the  "Bull"  or  Brief.  The  brother  goes  on  to 
say,  that  "  the  Fathers  preach,  confess,  baptise,  retain 
possession  of  their  property  just  as  before.  No  one 
has  been  interdicted  or  suspended  for  the  reason  that 


630  The  Jesuits 

in  a  country  Eke  this  it  would  have  been  impossible 
to  do  otherwise.  It  is  all  done  with  the  permission 
of  the  Bishop  of  Nankin,  to  whom  we  are  subject. 
If  the  same  course  had  been  pursued  here  as  in  some 
parts  of  Europe,  it  would  have  put  an  end  not  only 
to  the  missions  but  to  all  religion,  besides  being  a 
great  scandal  to  the  Chinese  Christians  who  could  not 
be  provided  for  and  'who  would  have  abandoned  the 
Faith. 

"  Thanks  be  to  God,  our  holy  Mission  is  going  on 
well  and  at  present  everything  is  very  tranquil.  The 
number  of  converts  increases  daily.  Father  DolliSres 
brought  over  an  entire  tribe  which  lives  on  the 
mountains  two  days'  journey  from  Pekin.  The 
Emperor,  so  far,  shows  no  signs  of  embracing  the 
Catholic  Faith,  but  he  protects  it  everywhere  through- 
out  his  vast  dominions,  and  so  do  the  other  great 
men  of  the  Empire.  I  am  still  at  my  work  of  painting. 
I  am  glad  I  am  doing  it  for  God;  and  I  am  determined 
to  live  in  this  holy  mission  until  God  wishes  to  take 
me  to  himself," 

About  this  time,  the  Fathers  addressed  a  joint 
letter  to  Cardinal  de  Bernis,  the  French  ambassador 
at  Rome,  who  had  been  so  conspicuous  in  wresting  the 
Brief  of  Suppression  from  Clement  XIV  and  had 
originated  the  calumny  about  the  poisoning  of  the 
Pope. 

"  Would  your  Eminence,"  says  the  document,  "  oast 
a  glance  at  the  inclosed  report  on  the  present  condition 
of  the  French  missions  of  China  and  the  Indies  which 
has  been  asked  for  by  the  Holy  Congregation  of  the 
Propagation  of  the  Faith.  To  these  missions  as  you 
know,  his  majesty  has  sent  great  amounts  of  money 
and  a  large  number  of  his  subjects,  knowing  as  he  did 
that  the  interests  of  France  are  bound  up  with  those 
of  religion,  and  the  advancement  of  the  latter  was 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression  631 

what  he  had  chiefly  in  view.  It  will  be  gratifying  to 
you  to  learn  that  the  Chinese  Emperor  takes  great 
pleasure  in  having  these  French  missionaries  employed 
in  his  palace;  he  frequently  takes  them  with  him  on 
his  journeys  through  the  empire,  and  makes  use  of 
them  to  draw  up  maps  of  the  country,  which  are  of 
invaluable  service  to  him.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
missionaries,  on  account  of  the  esteem  in  which  they 
are  held,  use  all  their  influence  to  prevent  the  per- 
secution of  Christians  and  have  succeeded  in  obtaining 
favors  for  Europeans  and  especially  for  the  Frenchmen 
who  arrive  at  Canton,  by  protecting  them  from  the 
annoyances  to  which  they  are  exposed.  Over  and  above 
this,  several  of  the  Fathers  are  in  correspondence  with 
the  Paris  Academy  of  Science,  and  also  with  the 
ministers  of  State,  and  are  sending  them  the  results  of 
their  astronomical  observations,  and  of  their  dis- 
coveries in  botany,  natural  history,  in  brief,  whatever 
can  contribute  to  the  advancement  of  science  and  art. 
"  The  king  and  his  ministers,  have  in  the  past  few 
years,  accorded  free  transportation  to  the  Fathers  who 
are  sent  out  here  to  the  French  missions  of  India, 
and  deservedly  so,  for  these  missionaries  have  fre- 
quently rendered  important  service  to  France,  and 
for  that  reason,  the  Supreme  Council  of  Pondicherry 
has  taken  up  their  defense  against  the  rulings  of  the 
Parliament  of  Paris,  which  sent  officers  out  here  to 
seize  the  little  property  we  possess.  The  Pondicherry 
authorities  would  concede  only  that  the  Fathers 
might  make  a  small  change  in  their  soutane  and  be 
called  the  "  Messieurs  les  missionnaires  de  Malabar. " 
It  is  in  accordance  with  this  arrangement  that  we 
continue  to  exercise  our  functions  under  the  juris- 
diction of  the  bishop.  We  are  the  only  ones  who 
understand  the  very  difficult  language  of  the  country 
and  there  does  not  seem  to  be  any  reason  why  we  should 


632  The  Jesuits 

not  be  left  as  we  are.  Besides  these  two  missions, 
there  are  two  others  in  the  Levant,  one  in  Greece, 
the  other  in  Syria.  They  have  always  been  and  still 
are  tinder  the  protection  of  France.  M.  le  Chevalier 
de  Saint-Priest,  who  is  ambassador  to  Turkey,  said, 
on  his  arrival  at  Constantinople,  that  the  long  had 
explicitly  recommended  to  him  the  French  missions 
and  ordered  him  to  assure  the  Fathers  of  the  continu- 
ance of  his  protection." 

Of  the  missions  in  Hindostan  it  may  be  of  use 
to  quote  here  the  utterance  of  M.  Perrin  of  the  Mis- 
sions Etrang&res,  who  went  out  to  India  three  years 
after  the  destruction  of  the  Jesuit  Missions  in  those 
parts.  "I  cannot  be  suspected  when  I  speak  in 
praise  of  those  Fathers.  I  was  never  associated  with 
them.  Indeed,  they  were  already  extinct  as  a  body 
when  Providence  placed  me  in  the  happy  necessity  of 
having  had  to  do  with  some  of  the  former  members. 
I  belonged  to  an  association  which  had  protracted  and 
sometimes  very  lively  debates  with  the  Jesuit  Fathers, 
who  might  have  regarded  us  as  their  enemies,  if 
Christians  are  capable  of  entertaining  that  feeling; 
but  I  feel  bound  to  say  that,  notwithstanding  these 
discussions,  we  always  held  each  other  in  the  highest 
esteem,  and  I  hereby  defy  the  most  audacious  calumni- 
ator to  prove  that  the  Society  of  Jesus  had  ever  to 
blush  for  the  conduct  of  any  of  its  Malabar  missionaries 
either  at  Pondicherry  or  in  the  interior.  All  were 
formed  and  fashioned  by  virtue's  hand  and  they 
breathed  virtue  back  in  their  conduct  and  their  ser- 
mons." (Voyage  daas  Tliadostan,  II,  261.) 

Among  tike  Preach  Jesuits  in  China,  Father  Amiot 
was  conspicuous,  Langl&s,  the  French  Academian  who 
was  ambassador  in  China,  dedicated  to  him  a  trans- 
lation of  Holme's  "  Travels  in  China,"  in  which  the 
Jesuit  is  described  as  "  Apostolic  Missionary  at  Pekin, 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression  633 

Correspondent  of  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions  and 
Belles  Lettres;  an  indefatigable  savant,  profoundly 
versed  in  the  knowledge  of  the  history  of  the  sciences, 
the  art's  and  the  language  of  China  and  an  ardent 
promoter  of  the  Tatar-Manchou  language  and  lit- 
terature."  With  Amiot  was  Father  Joseph  d'Espinha, 
who  was  president  of  the  imperial  tribunal  of  astronomy, 
and  simultaneously  administrator  of  the  Diocese  of 
Pekin.  Fathers  de  Rocha  and  Rodrigues  presided 
over  the  tribunal  of  mathematics,  and  Father  Schel- 
barth  replaced  Castiglione  as  the  chief  painter  of  the 
emperor;  there  were  other  Jesuits  also  who  evangelised 
the  various  provinces  of  the  country  under  the  direction 
of  the  Ordinary. 

This  condition  of  things  lasted  for  ten  years  and  it 
was  only  then  that  the  question  arose  of  handing  over 
the  work  to  the  Lazarists.  Thus  in  a  letter  of  Father 
Bourgeois,  of  whom  we  have  already  spoken,  he  says: 
"  they  have  given  our  mission  to  the  Lazarist  Fathers!!" 
The  letter'  is  dated  November  15,  1783,  namely  ten 
years  after  the  suppression  of  the  Society.  "They 
were  to  have  come  last  year,"  continues  the  writer; 
"  Will  they  come  this  year?  They  are  fine  men  and 
they  can  feel  sure  that  I  shall  do  all  in  my  power  to 
help  them  and  put  them  in  good  shape."  It  was  not 
until  1785  that  a  Lazarist,  Father  Raux,  took  over 
the  Pekin  Mission,  and  in  1788,  three  years  after- 
wards, Bourgeois  was  able  to  say  to  Father  Beaure- 
gard  who  had  contrived  to  remain  in  Paris  in  spite  of 
the  Revolution:  "Our  missionary  successors  are 
men  of  merit,  remarkable  for  virtue,  talent  and  refine- 
ment. We  live  together  like  brothers,  and  thus  the 
Lord  consoles  us  for  the  loss  of  our  good  mother,  the 
Society,  whom  we  can  never  forget.  Nothing  can 
tear  that  love  out  of  our  hearts,  and  hence  every 
moment  we  have  to  make  acts  of  resignation  in  the 


634  The  Jesuits 

calamity  that  has  fallen  upon  us.  Meanwhile  it  is 
hard  to  say  in  our  house  whether  the  Lazarists  live  as 
Jesuits  or  the  Jesuits  like  Lazarists/1 

The  old  and  infirm  Jesuits  who  were  homeless  and 
could  find  no  ecclesiastical  employment  had  much  to 
suffer.  They  became  pitiable  objects  of  charity. 
Zalenski  in  "  Les  J&uites  da  la  Russie  Blanche " 
(I,  77)  gives  an  instance  of  it,  in  an  appeal  made  to 
the  King  of  Poland  by  one  hundred  and  five  of  these 
outcasts,  many  of  whom  had  been  distinguished  pro- 
fessors in  the  splendid  colleges  of  the  country.  They 
had  been  granted  a  miserable  pittance  out  of  their  own 
property  in  the  way  of  a  pension,  but  even  that  was 
often  not  forthcoming.  After  reminding  His  Majesty 
that  this  pension  had  been  guaranteed  them  by  the 
Church,  by  their  country,  and  by  the  Sovereign  Pon- 
tiff, and  that  the  allowance  was  from  their  own  property; 
and  was  due  to  them  from  the  natural  law;  and  also  that 
the  amount  needed  was  every  day  decreasing,  because 
of  the  great  number  among  them  who  were  dying,  they 
asked  him  imploringly:  "  Will  Poland,  so  long  known 
for  its  humanity,  be  cruel  only  to  us;  will  you  permit  us 
the  Lord's  anointed,  the  old  teachers  of  the  youth  of 
Poland,  to  go  begging  our  bread  on  the  streets,  with 
our  garments  in  rags,  and  exposed  to  insults;  will  you 
permit  that  our  tears  and  our  cries  which  are  forced 
from  us  by  the  grief  and  abandonment  to  which  we  are 
reduoed  should  add  to  the  affliction  of  our  country; 
will  you  permit  that  our  country  should  be  accused  of 
inhumanity  and  insulted  because  it  withholds  our 
pension?  It  is  sad  enough  for  us  to  have  lost  the 
Society,  the  dearest  and  nearest  thing  to  our  heart  in 
this  life,  without  adding  this  new  suffering.  Should 
you  not  have  pity  on  our  lot  and  grant  us  a  pension? 
Do  not  bring  us  down  to  the  grave  with  this  new 
sorrow/'  Whether  their  prayers  were  answered  or  not 


The  Sequel  to  the  Suppression    635 

we  do  not  know.  However,  as  Cardinal  Pallavicini 
denounces  the  king  as  "  impious  and  inert,"  it  is 
very  likely  that  the  poor  old  men  were  left  to  starve. 
Quite  unexpectedly  the  Protestant  Frederick  the 
Great  of  Prussia  and  the  schismatical  Catherine  II  of 
Russia  insisted  on  having  what  Jesuits  they  could 
get  for  educational  work  in  their  respective  domains. 
As  neither  sovereign  would  permit  the  Papal  Brief 
to  be  read  in  the  countries  which  they  governed,  a 
number  of  the  exiles  in  various  parts  of  Europe  flocked 
thither.  Efforts  were  made  to  have  the  Brief  promul- 
gated in  both  countries,  but  without  success;  for 
Catherine  as  well  as  Frederick  denied  any  right  of 
the  Pope  in  their  regard;  nor  would  either  of  them 
listen  to  any  request  of  the  Jesuits  to  have  it  pub- 
lished. They  were  told  to  hold  their  peace.  Of 
course,  they  were  condemned  by  their  enemies  for 
accepting  this  heterodox  protection;  but  it  has  been 
blamed  for  almost  everything,  so  they  went  on  with 
their  work,  thanking  God  for  the  unexpected  shelter, 
and  knowing  perfectly  well  that  Clement  XIV  was 
not  averse  to  the  preservation  of  some  of  the  victims. 


CHAPTER  XXI 

THE   RUSSIAN   CONTINGENT 

Frederick  the  Great  and  the  "  Philosophers  " —  Protection  of  the 
Jesuits—  Death  of  Voltaire  —  Catherine  of  Russia  — The  Four  Col- 
leges —  The  Empress  at  Polotsk  —  Joseph  II  at  Mohilew  —  Archetti 
—  Baron  Grimm  —  Czerniewicz  and  the  Novitiate  —  Assent  of  Pius 
VI  —  Potemkin  —  Siestrzencewicz  —  General  Congregation  —  Benis- 
lawski — "Approbo;  Approbo  " — Accession  of  former  Jesuits.  Gruber 
and  the  Emperor  Paul  —  Alexander  I  —  Missions  in  Russia. 

EVEN  before  the  general  suppression  of  the  Society, 
Frederick  II  of  Prussia  had  given  a  shock  to  the 
politicians  of  Europe  and  to  his  friends  the  philosophes 
of  France,  by  welcoming  the  exiled  Jesuits  into  his 
dominions  and  employing  them  as  teachers.  Hence 
d'Alembert  wrote  to  remonstrate;  though  at  first 
glance  he  appears  to  approve  of  the  king's  action, 
his  insulting  tone  when  speaking  of  the  Pope  reveals 
the  animus  of  this  enemy  of  God.  It  ran  as  follows: 
"  They  say  that  the  Cordelier,  Ganganelli,  does  not 
promise  ripe  pears  to  the  Society  of  Jesus  and  that 
St.  Francis  will  very  likely  kill  St.  Ignatius.  It 
appears  to  me  that  the  Holy  Father,  Cordelier  though 
he  be,  would  be  very  foolish  to  disband  his  regiment 
of  guards  to  please  the  Catholic  princes.  Such  a 
treaty  would  be  very  like  that  of  the  sheep  and 
the  wolves;  the  first  article  of  which  was  tha£  the 
sheep  should  deliver  their  dogs  to  the  wolves.  But  in 
any  case,  Sire,  it  will  be  a  curious  condition  of  affairs, 
if  while  the  Most  Christian,  the  Most  Catholic,  the 
Most  Apostolic,  and  the  Most  Faithful  kings  are 
destroying  the  grenadiers  of  the  Holy  See,  your  Most 
Heretical  Majesty  should -be  the  only  one  to  protect 
them."  A  little  later  he  writes:  "  I  am  assured  that 

636 


The  Russian  Contingent         637 

the  Cordelier  Pope  needs  a  good  deal  of  plucking  at 
his  sleeves  to  get  him  to  abolish  the  Jesuits.  I  am  not 
surprised.  To  propose  to  the  Pope  to  destroy  this 
brave  troop  is  like  asking  Your  Majesty  to  disband 
your  body  guards." 

D'Alembert  was  playing  double.  He  was  as  anxious 
as  any  one  to  bring  about  the  Suppression,  and  on 
April  3,  1770,  Frederick  wrote  him  that,  "The  Phil- 
osophy which  has  had  such  vogue  in  this  century  is 
bragged  about  more  brazenly  than  ever.'  But  what 
progress  has  it  made?  'It  has  expelled  the  Jesuits,' 
you  tell  me.  Granted,  but  I  will  prove,  if  you  want 
me  to  do  so,  that  the  whole  business  started  in  vanity, 
spite,  underhand  dealing  and  selfishness." 

On  July  7,  1770,  Frederick  wrote  to  Voltaire  and 
said:  "The  good  Cordelier  of  the  Vatican  lets  me 
keep  my  dear  Jesuits  whom  they  persecute  everywhere. 
I  will  guard  the  precious  seed  so  that  softie  day  I  may 
supply  it  to  those  who  may  want  to  cultivate  this  rare 
plant  in  their  respective  countries. "  Frederick  had 
annexed  Silesia  which  was  entirely  Catholic,  while  the 
part  of  Poland  which  was  allotted  to  him  at  the  time 
of  the  division  had  remained  only  half  faithful.  To 
gratify  them  and  keep  them  at  peace,  he  thought  he 
could  do  no  better  than  to  ask  the  Jesuits  to  take  care 
of  the  education  of  the  youth  of  those  countries, 
"  let  the  philosopkes  cry  out  against  it  as  they  may." 
Hence,  on  December  4,  1772,  he  wrote  to  d'Alembert: 
"  I  received  an  ambassador  from  the  General  of  the 
Ignatians,  asking  me  to  declare  myself  openly  as  the 
protector  of  the  Order;  but  I  answered  that  when  Louis 
XV  thought  proper  to  suppress  the  regiment  of  Pitz- 
james  (the  Jansenists),  I  did  not  think  I  could  inter- 
cede for  that  corps;  and  moreover,  the  Pope  is  well 
able  to  bring  about  such  a  reformation  without  having 
heretics  take  a  hand  in  it." 


638  The  Jesuits 

A  Jesuit  named  Pinto  had,  indeed,  presented  himself 
to  Frederick  to  ask  for  his  protection,  but  he  had  no 
warrant  to  do  so.  Someone  in  Rome  had  suggested 
it,  and  he  was  encouraged  in  his  enterprise  by  Maria 
Theresa.  When  apprised  of  it,  the  General  sent  a  very 
severe  reprimand  to  the  volunteer  ambassador,  and  that 
disposed  of  Father  Pinto.  No  more  was  heard  of  him, 

Frederick  showed  himself  a  very  vigorous  protector 
of  the  Society.  When  the  Brief  was  published  he 
issued  the  following  decree:  "We,  Frederick  by  the 
Grace  of  God,  King  of  Prussia,  to  all  and  every  of 
our  subjects,  greeting: 

"As  you  have  already  been  advised  that  you  are 
not  permitted  to  circulate  any  Bulls  or  Briefs  of  the 
Pope,  without  our  approbation  of  the  same,  we  have 
no  doubt  that  you  will  conform  to  this  general  order, 
in  case  the  Brief  of  the  Pope  suppressing  the  Society 
of  Jesus  arrives  at  any  department  within  your  juris- 
diction. Nevertheless,  we  have  deemed  it  necessary 
to  recall  this  to  your  memory,  and  as,  under  the  date 
of  Berlin,  the  sixth  of  this  month,  we  have  resolved,  for 
reasons  prompting  us  thereto,  that  this  annihilation 
of  the  Society  which  has  recently  taken'  place  shall 
not  be  published  in  our  states,  we  graciously  enjoin 
upon  you  to  take  all  necessary  measures  in  your 
district  to  suppress  the  aforesaid  Bull  of  the  Pope; 
for  which  end  you  will,  in  our  name,  as  soon  as  you 
receive  this  communication,  issue  an  explicit  order, 
under  penalty  of  rigorous  chastisement,  to  all  ecclesi- 
astics of  the  Roman  Catholic  religion  domiciled  in  your 
territory  not  to  publish  the  aforesaid  Bull  annulling 
the  Society  of  Jesus.  You  are  commanded  to  see 
carefully  to  the  execution  of  this  order,  and  to  inform 
us  immediately  in  case  any  high  foreign  ecclesiastics 
endeavor  to  introduce  any  Bulls  of  this  kind  into  our 
kingdom  surreptitiously/1 


The  Russian  Contingent        639 

This  mandate  had  the  effect  of  protecting  the 
Jesuits  who  were  in  his  dominions;  for  as  canon  law 
made  the  promulgation  of  the  Brief  an  indispensable 
condition  of  the  suppression,  it  followed  that  the 
Jesuits  in  Prussia  could  conscientiously  continue  to 
live  there  as  Jesuits.  Indeed,  the  king  had  previously 
notified  the  Pope  that  such  would  be  his  course  of 
action,  and  an  autograph  dispatch  to  the  Prussian 
representative  at  Rome,  dated  Potsdam,  September 
*3»  I773>  reads  as  follows:  "Abbe  Columbini:  You 
will  say  to  whomsoever  it  may  concern,  but  without 
any  ostentation  or  affectation,  and  indeed  you  will 
endeavor  to  find  an  opportunity  to  say  naturally, 
both  to  the  Pope  and  his  prime  minister,  that  with 
regard  to  the  affair  of  the  Jesuits,  my  resolution  is 
taken  to  keep  them  in  my  States  as  they  hitherto 
have  been.  I  guaranteed  in  the  treaty  of  Breslau 
the  statu  quo  of  the  Catholic  religion,  and  I  have 
found  no  better  priests  than  they  under  every  aspect. 
You  will  add  that  as  "  I  am  a  heretic,  the  Pope 
cannot  dispense  me  from  the  obligation  of  keeping 
my  word  nor  from  minifying  my  obligation  as  an 
honest  man." 

The  last  phrase,  of  course,  is  very  insulting,  but 
there  was  no  help  for  it.  It  was  the  king's.  When 
d'Alembert  heard  of  the  letter,  he  revealed  his  true 
colors,  and  warned  Frederick  that  he  would  regret 
it,  reminding  him  that  in  the  Silesian  War,  the  Jesuits 
had  been  opposed  to  him;  that  is  to  say,  the  Silesian 
Jesuits  were  faithful  to  Silesia.  Frederick  replied,  on 
Jan.  7,  1774:  "You  need  not  be  alarmed  for  my 
safety.  I  have  nothing  to  fear  from  the  Jesuits;  they 
can  teach  the  youth  of  the  country,  and  they  are 
better  able  to  do  that  than  any  one  else.  It  is  true 
that  they  were  on  the  other  side,  during  the  war, 
but,  as  a  philosopher,  you  ought  not  to  reproach  me 


640  The  Jesuits 

for  being  kind  and  humane  to  every  one  of  the  human 
species,  no  matter  what  religion  or  society  he  belongs 
to.  Try  to  be  more  of  a  philosopher  and  less  of  a 
metaphysician.  Good  acts  are  more  profitable  to  the 
public  than  the  most  subtle  systems  and  the  most 
extravagant  discoveries,  in  which,  generally  speaking, 
the  mind  wanders  wildly  without  ever  finding  the 
truth.  In  any  case,  I  am  not  the  only  one  who  has 
protected  the  Jesuits.  The  English  and  the  Empress 
of  Russia  have  done  as  much."  This  correspondence 
with  d'Alembert  continued  for  a  year  or  so;  and  in 
1777,  when  Voltaire  was  dying,  the  king  wrote  to 
advise  him  to  think  of  his  old  school  days  at  Louis- 
le-Grand.  "  Remember  Father  Tournemine,  who  was 
your  nurse  and  made  you  suck  the  sweet  milk  of  the 
Muses,  Reconcile  yourself  with  the  Order  which  in 
the  last  century  gave  to  France  its  greatest  men.*'  To 
all  appearances  Voltaire  did  not  take  the  advice  of 
his  royal  friend. 

The  politicans  of  Spain  were  particularly  irritated 
at  this  action  of  Frederick,  but  he  paid  no  attention 
to  their  anger.  It  is  even  said  that  the  Pope  ordered 
his  nuncio  at  Warsaw  to  suspend  all  the  Jesuits  in 
Prussia  from  their  ecclesiastical  and  pedagogical 
function  and  that  a  request  was  made  to  the  King  to 
have  it  done  pro  forma,  with  a  promise  to  lift  the 
ban  immediately  afterwards,  a  proposition  which  seems 
too  silly  to  have  ever  been  seriously  made.  But  when 
Clement  XIV  died,  Pius  VI,  after  a  few  perfunctory 
protests,  so  as  not  to  exasperate  the  other  powers, 
let  it  be  known  that  he  was  not  dissatisfied  with  the 
status  of  the  Jesuits  in  Prussia,  and  he  not  only  wrote 
in  that  sense  to  Frederick,  but  encouraged  him  to 
continue  his  protection  of  the  outcasts.  Whereupon 
Frederick  dispatched  the  following  letter  to  the 
superior  of  Breslau.  It  is  dated  September  27,  1775: 


The  Russian  Contingent         641 

"  Venerable,  dear  and  faithful  Father:  The  new 
Pontiff  having  declared  that  he  left  to  me  the  choice 
of  the  most  suitable  means  to  be  employed  for  the 
conservation  of  the  Jesuits  in  my  kingdom,  and  that 
he  would  put  no  obstacle  in  my  way  by  any  declaration 
of  irregularity,  I  have  in  consequence  enjoined  on  my 
bishops  to  leave  your  Institute  in  statu  quo,  and  not 
to  trouble  any  of  your  members  or  to  refuse  ordination 
to  any  of  your  candidates  to  the  priesthood.  You  will 
therefore  conform  to  this  arrangement  and  advise 
your  confreres  to  do  likewise.11 

Until  the  death  of  Bishop  Bayer  of  Culm,  who  was 
the  staunch  friend  of  the  Fathers,  there  was  no  cloud 
on  the  horizon;  but  he  was  succeeded  by  Bishop 
Hohenzotten,  who  belonged  to  the  House  of  Branden- 
burg. He  had  been  extremely  friendly  before  his 
installation  as  bishop,  but  immediately  afterwards  he 
advised  the  king  to  secularize  the  Jesuits  and  to  forbid 
the  establishment  of  a  novitiate.  The  king,  however, 
would  not  yield  any  further  than  to  permit  of  their 
dressing  as  secular  priests,  and  until  his  death  in  1786 
they  continued  to  live  in  community  under  the  name 
of  the  "  Priests  of  the  Royal  Institute."  His  successor 
was  not  so  benignant,  for  he  seized  all  the  revenues  of 
the  houses  and  thus  put  an  end  to  their  existence  in 
Prussia,  and  they,  like  their  brethren  elsewhere,  took 
the  road  of  exile.  Some  joined  the  secular  clergy  and 
others  made  their  way  to  Russia. 

More  surprising  still  was  the  protection  accorded  to 
them  by  the  terrible  Empress  Catherine  II  of  Russia. 
Indeed,  it  was  she  who  made  it  possible  to  preserve 
unbroken  the  link  between  the  old  and  the  new  Society. 
On  the  other  hand,  not  a  few  Pharisees  have  reproached 
the  Society  for  having  accepted  the  protection  of  this 
imperial  tigress.  For  the  same  reason,  they  might 
have  found  fault  with  Daniel  in  the  lion's  den.  He 
41 


642  The  Jesuits 

could  not  get  out  of  it;  and,  the  animals  were  kinder 
than  the  humans  above  ground. 

Catherine  of  Russia  was  not  a  Russian  but  a  Prussian. 
Her  name  was  Sophia  Augusta  of  Anhalt-Zerbst. 
She  and  her  unfortunate  husband  had  been  adopted 
by  the  czarina,  Elizabeth,  as  her  successors  on  the 
imperial  throne  of  Russia,  on  condition  that  they 
would  change  their  name  and  religion.  There  was 
no  difficulty  about  either,  especially  the  latter.  Accord- 
ing to  Oliphant,  Kohl,  Dollinger  and  others  who  have 
described  the  state  of  the  empire  as  it  was  about 
forty  years  later,  sixteen  millions  or  about  one  fourth 
of  the  entire  population  of  Russia  did  not  profess  the 
Greek  faith.  The  educated  classes  neither  cared  nor 
affected  to  care  for  the  state  religion.  Prom  the  mer- 
cantile classes  and  most  of  their  employees  and  the 
landed  aristocracy  all  faith  had  departed.  The  peasants 
were  divided  into  about  fifty  sects,  and  hatred  and 
contempt  for  one  another  and  the  enmity  of  all  of 
them  for  the  Orthodox  Church  were  extreme.  No 
two  Russian  bishops  had  any  spiritual  dependence  or 
connection  with  any  other.  They  were  simply 
paid  officials  of  a  common  master  who  appointed, 
degraded  or  discarded  them  at  pleasure,  De  Maistre 
who  lived  in  Russia  about  that  time  says.  "  The  words : 
"  Oriental  Church "  or  "  Greek  Church "  have  no 
meaning  whatever/'  "  I  recognize,"  said  Peter  the 
Great,  "  no  other  legitimate  Patriarch  than  the  Pope 
of  Rome.  Since  you  will  not  obey  him  you  shall  obey 
me  only.  Behold  your  Pope/'  On  that  basis  the 
Russian  Church  was  built. 

Strictly  speaking  the  Jesuits  were  not  entering 
Russia  but  merely  staying  in  their  old  establishments 
which  were  still  Polish,  though  geographically  labelled 
Russia.  Nevertheless,  with  Russia  proper  they  had 
already  a  considerable  acquaintance.  Thus,  as  early 


The  Russian  Contingent         643 

as  1612,  Father  Szgoda  had  allowed  himself  to  be 
taken  by  the  Tatars  to  the  Crimea,  so  as  to  evangelize 
the  Cossacks.  Later,  Father  Schmidt  had  appeared 
at  the  court  of  Peter  the  Great  as  chaplain  of  the 
Austrian  embassy.  In  1685,  Father  Debois  brought 
a  letter  to  the  czar  from  the  Pope  Innocent  III,  and 
in  1687  Father  Vota,  encouraged  by  several  Russian 
theologians  of  note,  was  bold  enough  to  propose  to 
Peter  the  Great  a  union  with  Rome.  Peter's  sister 
Sophia  was  favorable  to  the  project  and  the  moment 
seemed  propitious,  but  a  brace  of  fanatical  monks 
backed  by  the  patriarch,  fiercely  denounced  the  scheme 
and  it  was  dropped.  A  school,  however,  was  established 
at  Moscow,  but  when  Sophia  died,  Peter  drove  out 
the  Fathers.  In  1691,  however,  he  returned  to  a  better 
state  of  mind  and  permitted  the  Catholics  of  Moscow 
to  build  a  church  and  to  invite  the  Jesuits  to  take  charge 
of  it.  But  in  1719  he  again  expelled  them,  for  he  had 
conceived  the  idea  of  a  Church  of  his  own;  not  only 
independent  of  Rome  but  of  Constantinople,  and 
absolutely  under  his  own  control  —  a  view  it  is  said 
that  was  suggested  to  him  by  the  French  Jansenists 
whom  he  met  in  Paris  on  a  visit  there  in  1717. 

That  ended  all  hopes  of  Catholicity  in  Russia,  but 
in  1772  when  Poland  was  dismembered,  a  large  number 
of  Catholics  were  added  to  the  population  of  Russia 
and  Catherine  II,  who  had  murdered  her  husband  in 
order  to  be  supreme  in  the  State,  addressed  herself  to 
the  task  of  constituting  these  Russianized  Poles  into 
an  independent  Catholic  Church.  She  found  an 
ambitious  Polish  bishop,  named  Siestrzencewicz  who 
entered  into  her  views,  and  on  May  23,  1774,  by  an 
imperial  ukase  she  established  the  Diocese  of  White 
Russia.  Zalenski,  S,  J.,  the  author  of  "  Les  Jesuites 
et  la  Russie  Blanche  "  is  strong  in  his  denunciation 
of  Siestrzencewicz,  as  are  Pierling  and  Markowitch, 


644  The  Jesuits 

but  GodlewsM  is  more  benignant  and  tries  to  excuse 
the  bishop  as  a  man  who  did  indeed  resort  to  question- 
able methods,  but  was  striving  to  stave  off  an  open 
persecution  of  the  Catholics.  Zalenski  has  the  more 
likely  view. 

This  name  of  "  White  "  Russia  is  a  puzzle  to  most 
people,  as  are  the  opposite  descriptions  of  "  Black  " 
and  "  Red  "  Russia.  Indeed  Okolski,  who  wrote  in 
1646,  has  a  book  entitled  "  Russia  Florida,"  a  name 
not  in  accordance  with  the  popular  notions  about  that 
country.  There  is  also  a  "  Greater  "  and  a  "  Little  " 
and  a  "  West  "  Russia.  The  geographical  limits  of 
White  Russia  may  be  found  in  any  encyclopedia. 
It  is  the  region  in  which  are  Polotsk,  Vitebsk,  Orsha, 
Mohilew,  Motislave  and  Gomel,  and  is  bounded  by 
the  rivers  Duna,  Dneiper,  Peripet  and  Bug.  It  was 
Russia's  share  in  the  first  spoliation  of  Poland,  and  had 
a  population  of  1,600,000.  Moscow  is  not  far  to  the 
east  but  St.  Petersburg  (Petrograd)  is  at  a  great  distance 
to  the  north. 

In  1772  Catherine  made  known  her  intention  regard- 
ing the  Jesuits  whom  she  found  teaching  in  the  section 
of  Poland  which  had  passed  under  her  sceptre.  They 
were  even  to  retain  their  four  colleges  of  Polotsk, 
Vitebsk,  Orsha  and  Dunaberg  besides  their  two  resi- 
dences and  fourteen  missions.  She  needed  them  as 
teachers  and  as  they  were  the  first  to  declare  their 
acceptance  of  the  new  conditions,  and  had  thus  set  an 
example  to  their  countrymen,  she  revoked  the  ancient 
proscription  of  Peter  the  Great  against  the  Society  in 
Russia  proper,  and  also  apprised  the  other  provinces 
of  Europe  that  she  would  be  their  guardian  in  the 
future. 

When  the  Brief  of  Suppression  was  announced,  the 
Fathers  felt  perfectly  sure  that,  like  Frederick  II, 
she  would  not  permit  it  to  be  promulgated,  both 


The  Russian  Contingent         645 

because  the  Russian  Church  refused  allegiance  to 
Rome,  and  also  because  she  had  already  bound  her- 
self by  a  promise  to  protect  them.  Nevertheless, 
through  their  superior,  they  addressed  to  her  "  Sacred 
Imperial  Majesty  "  the  following  letter: 

"It  is  to  Your  Majesty  that  we  owe  the  privilege 
of  professing  publicly  the  Roman  Catholic  Religion 
in  your  glorious  states,  and  of  depending  in  spiritual 
matters  on  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  who  is  the  visible 
head  of  our  Church.  That  is  the  reason  why  we  Jesuits, 
all  of  whom  belong  to  the  Roman  Rite,  but  who  are 
most  faithful  subjects  of  Your  Majesty,  now  prostrate 
before  your  -august  imperial  throne,  implore  Your 
Majesty  by  all  that  is  most  sacred  to  permit  us  to 
render  prompt  and  public  obedience  to  the  authority 
which  resides  in  the  person  of  the  Sovereign  Roman 
Pontiff  and  to  execute  the  edict  he  has  sent  us  abolish- 
ing our  Society.  By  condescending  to  have  a  public 
proclamation  made  of  this  Brief  of  Suppression, 
Your  Majesty  will  thus  exercise  your  royal  authority, 
and  we  by  'promptly  -obeying  will  show  ourselves 
obedient  both  to  Your  Majesty  and  to  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff  who  has  ordered  this  proclamation.  Such 
are  the  sentiments  and  the  prayers  of  all  and  each  of 
the  Jesuits,  which  are  now  expressed  by  me  to  Your 
Majesty,  of  whom  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  the 
most  profound  veneration  and  the  most  respectful 
submission,  the  most  humble,  the  most  devoted  and 
the  most  faithful  subject, 

"  Stanislas  Czerniewicz." 

11  Her  Sacred  Majesty  "  absolutely  refused  to  accede 
to  the  request.  On  the  contrary  she  insisted  that  the 
Brief  should  not  be  proclaimed  in  her  dominions.  She 
showed  them  the  greatest  consideration  and  insisted 
that  her  nobles  should  imitate  her  example,  so  that  it 


646  The  Jesuits 

became  the  fashion  for  the  dignitaries  of  the  empire 
to  visit  the  various  Jesuit  establishments;  on  their 
part,  the  Jesuits  never  failed  to  show  their  apprecia- 
tion of  such  an  honor  in  as  splendid  a  fashion  as  pos- 
sible. The  most  memorable  of  all  such  visits  was  one 
in  which  the  "  Semiramis  of  the  North "  was  the 
central  figure.  Catherine  left  St.  Petersburg,  on  May 
20,  1780,  and  reached  Polotsk  ten  days  later.  In  her 
suite  were  Potemkin,  Tchernichef,  de  Cobentzel, 
the  Prince  Marshal  Borjantynski,  and  Prince  Dol- 
kowiouki.  On  her  arrival,  while  surrounded  by  all 
the  notables  who  had  hastened  to  meet  her,  the  Jesuits 
were  pointed  out  to  her  and  she  graciously  saluted  them. 
In  the  evening,  the  college  was  splendidly  illuminated 
in  her  honor,  and  on  the  following  morning  she  came 
to  the  church,  for  she  was  burning  with  a  desire  to 
witness  a  Catholic  ceremonial.  After  Mass  she  went 
through  the  house,  and  both  at  her  arrival  and  depart- 
ure the  rector  celebrated  her  glory  in  an  epic  poem. 

From  thence  she  set  out  for  Mohilew  where  Joseph  II 
of  Austria  awaited  her.  He  had  already  visited  the 
college  at  this  place,  and  was  received  with  proper 
honor  by  the  rector  and  provincial.  He  made  all 
sorts  of  inquiries  about  the  reason  why  the  suppressed 
Jesuits  were  permitted  to  exist  in  Russia,  and  the 
bishop  told  him  laconically:  "  The  people  need  them; 
the  empress  ordered  it  and  Rome  has  said  nothing." 
"  You  did  well,"  replied  the  emperor,  "  you  should  not, 
and  could  not  have  done  otherwise."  With  the 
emperor  on  this  occasion  appears  the  unexpected 
figure  of  one  of  the  suppressed  Jesuits:  Father 
Francis  Xavier  Kalatai.  He  was  his  majesty's 
travelling  companion,  and  has  left  a  letter  telling  us 
what  happened  on  this  occasion. 

"  At  Mohilew,"  he  writes,  "  at  the  farthest  extremity 
of  the  recently  dismembered  provinces  of  Poland,  the 


The  Russian  Contingent        647 

Jesuits  still  remain  on  their  former  footing.  They  are 
protected  by  the  empress,  because  of  their  ability  in 
training  the  youth  of  the  country  in  science  and 
piety.  I  asked  to  be  presented  to  the  superior  when 
we  visited  the  college  and  found  him  to  be  a  very 
venerable  old  man.  I  questioned  him  and  other 
members  of  the  community  on  what  they  based  their 
non-submission  to  the  Brief  of  Suppression,  and  they 
replied  in  the  same  formula  as  the  bishop:  "  Clemen- 
tissima  imperatrice  nostra  protegente,  populo  derelicto 
exigente,  Roma  sciente  et  non  contradicente ;' '  (i.e.  on  the 
protection  of  our  most  clement  empress,  the  needs  of  the 
the  abandoned  people,  and  the  knowledge  and  tacit 
consent  of  Rome).  They  then  showed  me  a  letter 
from  the  Pope  expressing  his  affection  for  them,  and 
exhorting  them  to  remain  as  they  were  until  new 
arrangements  could  be  made.  He  insisted  upon  their 
receiving  novices  and  admitting  Jesuits  from  other 
provinces,  who  desired  to  resume  with  them  the 
sweet  yoke  of  Christ  from  which  they  had  been  so 
violently  torn.  The  provincial  added  that  all  the 
Jesuits  of  Russia  were  willing  to  relinquish  everything 
they  had,  at  the  first  authentic  sign  of  the  will  of  the 
Pope,  and  that  they  waited  only  a  canonical  announce- 
ment to  that  effect.  Thus,  I  found  that  the  true 
spirit  of  the  Society  had  kept  its  first  fervor  among  these 
scattered  remnants  of  it  in  Russia/' 

The  empress  arrived,  after  making  fifty  leagues  a  day 
on  the  trip  from  Polotsk;  killing  ten  horses  on  the 
journey.  The  meeting  of  the  two  sovereigns  was 
unusually  splendid;  ten  thousand  soldiers  stood  on 
guard  in  the  city,  and  besides  state  receptions,  there 
were  theatrical  performances,  public  sports,  banquets 
and  the  rest.  The  Jesuits  of  other  establishments 
paid  their  respects,  and  were  presented  to  the  empress 
by  the  governor.  On  the  i2th  of  June,  "  Semiramis  " 


648  The  Jesuits 

left  for  St.  Petersburg.  Such  a  favor,  of  course, 
made  the  Jesuits  still  more  popular  and,  at  the  same 
time,  checked  the  papal  nuncio,  Archetti,  who  had  not 
yet  recovered  from  his  failure  to  have  the  suppression 
made  effective.  Nevertheless,  he  still  persisted  in  his 
efforts,  in  spite  of  the  threats  of  the  empress.  But 
she  never  yielded. 

Father  Brucker  writing  in  the  "  Etudes  "  (torn.  132, 
1912,  558-59)  gives  a  characteristic  letter  of  the 
empress  to  Baron  Grimm  who  was  a  friend  and  asso- 
ciate of  Rousseau,  Diderot,  d'Alembert,  Holbach  and 
the  rest.  At  that  time,  Grimm  was  the  envoy  of 
the  Duke  of  Saxe-Gotha,  at  the  court  of  France,  and 
later  on,  Catherine's,  own  plenipotentiary  to  Lower 
Saxony. 

The  letter  is  dated  May  7,  1779  and  runs  as  follows: 
"Neither  I  nor  my  coquins  en  litre  (my  honorable 
rogues)  les  Jfcuites  de  la  R.  BL  (the  Jesuits  of  White 
Russia)  are  going  to  cause  the  Pope  any  worry.  They 
are  very  submissive  to  him  and  want  to  do  only  what 
he  wishes.  I  suppose  it  is  you  who  wrote  the  article 
in  the  *  Gazette  de  Cologne '  about  the  hot  house 
(the  Jesuit  novitiate).  You  say  that  I  am  amusing 
myself  by  being  kind  to  them.  Assuredly,  you  credit 
me  with  a  pretty  motive,  whereas  I  have  no  other  than 
that  of  keeping  my  word  and  seeking  the  public  good. 
As  for  your  grocers  (the  Bourbon  kings)  I  make  a 
present  of  them  to  you;  but  I  know  one  thing,  namely, 
they  are  not  going  to  visit  me  and  sing  the  song: 
*  Bonhomme!  you  are  not  master  of  your  house  while 
we  are  in  it.1" 

As  early  as  1776,  that  is  only  three  years  after  the 
Suppression,  the  Jesuits  of  White  Russia  already 
numbered  145  members,  and  had  twelve  establish- 
ments: colleges,  residences,  missions,  etc.  In  1777 
the  question  was  discussed  about  opening  a  novitiate 


The  Russian  Contingent         649 

and  the  Fathers  had  sufficient  evidence  that  Pius  VI 
would  be  glad  of  it  and  that  even  Clement  XIV  had 
not  been  averse.  Moreover,  the  letter  sent  to  Bishop 
Siestrzencewicz  had  been  found  on  examination  not 
to  be  the  "  formidable  decree/'  as  friends  in  Rome  had 
described  it,  for  it  left  to  him  the  right  of  creating  and 
renewing  only  "what  he  might  find  necessary.*' 
Finally,  as  it  was  not  couched  in  the  usual  form  of 
Apostolic  documents,  the  superior,  Father  Czer- 
niewicz,  set  aside  his  doubts  and  wrote  both  to  the 
bishop  and  to  the  firm  friend  of  the  Society,  Governor 
General  Tchernichef ,  that  he  had  determined  to  open 
that  establishment. 

Tchernichef 's  support  must  have  been  very  strong,' 
for  when  Father  Czerniewicz  arrived  at  Mohilew  to 
arrange  matters  with  the  bishop,  he  received  from  the 
prelate  a  decree  dated  June  29,  1779,  authorizing  him 
to  carry  out  his  purpose.  This  decree  began  with 
the  words:  "Pope  Clement  XIV,  of  celebrated 
memory,  condescending  to  the  desire  of  the  Most 
August  Empress  of  the  Russias,  our  Most  Clement 
Sovereign,  had  permitted  the  non-promulgation  in 
her  dominions  of  the  Bull  'Dominus  ac  Redemptor;' 
and  Our  Holy  Father  Pope  Pius  VI,  now  happily 
reigning,  shows  the  same  deference  to  the  desires  of  Her 
Imperial  Majesty,  by  refraining  from  all  opposition  to 
the  retention  of  their  habit,  name  and  profession  by 
the  Regular  Clerks  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  in  the  estates 
of  her  Majesty,  notwithstanding  the  Bull  *  Dominus  ac 
Redemptor. '  Moreover  as  the  Most  August  Empress  to 
whom  both  we  and  the  numerous  Catholic  churches  in 
her  vast  domains  are  under  such  grave  obligations  has 
recommended  to  us  both  verbally  and  by  writing 
to  do  all  in  our  power  to  see  that  the  aforesaid  Regular 
Clerks  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  may  provide  for  the 
conservation  of  their  Institute,  we  hasten  to  fulfil 


650  The  Jesuits 

that  duty  which  is  so  agreeable  to  us  and  for  which 
we  should  reproach  ourselves  did  we  stint  our  efforts 
in  carrying  it  out.  Hitherto,  they  have  not  had  any 
novitiate  in  this  country,  and,  as  their  numbers  are 
gradually  diminishing,  it  is  evident  that  they  cannot 
exercise  their  useful  ministry  unless  a  novitiate  is 
accorded  them." 

In  virtue  of  this  permission,  a  novitiate  was  estab- 
lished at  Polotsk  on  February  2,  1780,  and  ten  novices 
entered  and  began  community  life  under  the  direction 
of  Father  Lubowicki,  On  that  occasion,  according  to 
de  Murr,  a  formidable  Latin  poem  of  169  hexameters 
was  composed  by  Father  Michael  Korycki  in  honor  of 
Bishop  Siestrzencewicz.  Thus  was  the  house  estab- 
lished; and  in  spite  of  the  importunities  of  the  Bourbon 
ambassadors  at  Rome,  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  Pius  VI, 
never  gave  utterance,  either  personally  or  through  his 
nuncio  in  Poland,  to  any  public  protest  against  it. 
All  the  denunciations  of  the  alleged  "  refractory- 
Jesuits  "  were  either  letters  of  private  individuals  or 
secret  official  correspondence,  written  doubtless  in 
the  name  of  the  Pope,  but  indirectly,  that  is  through 
the  channel  of  the  secretaryship  of  State  and  the 
nunciature;  and  never  going  outside  the  narrow  dip- 
lomatic circle.  Nor  is  there  the  slightest  positive  proof 
that  the  Pope  regarded  the  Jesuits  of  White  Russia 
except  as  religious. 

"  On  the  contrary,"  says  Zalenski  (I,  330),  "  Pius 
VI  knew  very  well,  as  did  everyone  else  in  Rome,  that 
Clement  XIV  had  published  the  Brief  of  Suppression 
in  spite  of  himself,  and  only  after  four  years  of  hesitation 
and  conflict  with  the  diplomats.  Moreover,  Cardinals 
Antonelli  and  Calini,  eye-witnesses  of  what  had 
happened,  represented  to  Pius  VI  in  personal  memorials 
that  the  suppression  was  invalid.  Pius  himself  had 
belonged  to  that  section  of  cardinals  which  disapproved 


The  Russian  Contingent         651 

of  the  destruction,  and,  as  has  been  already  said, 
when  he  was  Pope,  he  set  free  the  prisoners  of  the 
Castle  Sant'  Angelo,  rehabilitated  their  memory,  and 
ordered  Father  Ricci  to  be  buried  with  the  honors  due 
to  the  general  of  an  Order.  In  brief,  Pius  VI,  as  both 
Frederick  II  and  Tchernichef  insisted,  was  really 
glad  that  the  Society  had  been  preserved,  and  his 
silence  was  an  approbation  of  it.  Indeed,  he  could 
not,  as  the  Father  of  Christendom,  exclude  the  Jesuits 
from  the  protection  of  the  general  law  of  the  Church 
and  regard  them  as  suppressed  and  freed  from  their 
vows,  before  the  Brief  of  Clement  XIV  had  been 
properly  made  known  to  them  by  the  ordinary  of  the 
diocese.  Of  course,  their  enemies  systematically 
rejected  this  axiom  although  accepted  both  by  common 
and  canon  law.  They  denounced  it  as  "  a  vain  sub- 
terfuge," and  even  the  Apostolic  nuncio,  in  one  of  his 
dispatches  declared  it  to  be  such;  but  the  Holy  Father 
could  not,  in  conscience,  accept  that  view. 

In  February,  1782,  Tchernichef,  the  great  friend  of 
the  Society,  f ell  from  power,  but  his  successor  PotemMn 
showed  himself  even  a  more  devoted  defender. 
Fortunately,  Father  Benislawski,  a  former  Jesuit,  but 
now  a  canon,  was  very  intimate  with  him  and  induced 
him  to  give  his  aid  to  the  Society.  As  Bishop  Siestr- 
zencewicz  had  meantime  become  Archbishop  of 
Mohilew,  the  fear  was  again  revived  that  he  would 
claim  to  be  the  religious  superior  of  the  Jesuits.  Indeed, 
by  sundry  appointments  to  parishes,  he  began  to 
reveal  that  such  was  his  intention,  and  Archetti,  the  nun- 
cio at  Warsaw,  urged  him  to  persist  in  his  attacks.  To 
head  off  the  danger,  the  Fathers  had  determined  to 
proceed  to  the  election  of  a  Vicar  General,  and  they 
obtained  permission  from  the  empress  to  that  effect. 
She  issued  a  ukase,  on  June  23,  1782,  in  which  she 
said  that  the  Jesuits  were  to  be  subject  to  the  arch- 


652  The  Jesuits 

bishop,  in  things  that  pertained  to  his  rights  and 
duties,  but  that  he  should  be  very  careful  not  to  inter- 
fere with  any  of  the  rules  of  the  Order  which  were  to 
remain  intact  "  in  as  far  as  they  agree  with  our  civil 
constitutions. "  Siestrzencewicz  was  quite  upset  by 
this  order,  and  not  knowing  that  it  had  been  obtained 
through  the  intervention  of  Potemkin,  he  asked  the 
Prince  Wiaziemski,  who  was  then  president  of  the 
Senate,  to'  obtain  a  decree  from  that  body  subjecting 
the  Jesuits  to  his  jurisdiction.  •  The  Senate  so  ruled 
by  a  rescript  dated  September  12,  1781,  but  it  was  a 
very  ill-advised  proceeding  on  their  part,  for  it  set 
them  in  opposition  both  to  the  empress  and  the  power- 
ful Potemkin,  besides  making  a  rebel  of  the  archbishop 
and  a  meddler  of  the  nuncio. 

While  a  spirited  correspondence  was  going  on  between 
those  two  distinguished  ecclesiastics  about  the  matter, 
the  Fathers  met  at  Polotsk,  on  October  10,  1782, 
which  happened  to  be  the  feast  of  St.  Francis  Borgia, 
to  hold  the  twentieth  congregation  of  the  Society. 
Everything  was  done  according  to  the  rule  which 
governs  such  assemblies,  and  Father  Stanislaus  Cerznie- 
wicz,  the  vice-provincial,  was  chosen  Vicar  General 
of  the  Society.  In  the  following  session,  it  was  decreed 
that  for  those  who  re-entered  the  Society,  the  years 
spent  involuntarily  and  by  compulsion,  in  the  world, 
would  count  as  so  many  years  in  religion.  With  this 
the  congregation  ended,  because  orders  had  come  to 
Polofsk,  for  the  Vicar  General  to  report  immediately 
to  the  Empress  at  St.  Petersburg.  Accordingly,  after 
naming  Father  Francis  Kareu,  vice-provincial,  he  set 
out  for  the  capital  and  was  welcomed  by  Catherine, 
with  the  words:  "  I  defended  you  thus  far,  and  will 
do  so  till  the  end." 

The  question  now  arose  how  would  the  archbishop 
receive  the  delegates  of  the  congregation  which  had 


The  Russian  Contingent         653 

ignored  his  claim  to  control  the  internal  affairs  of  the 
Society.  The  all-powerful  Potemkin  had  attended  to 
that.  He  had  called  the  prelate  to  task  for  daring  to 
oppose  the  explicit  command  of  the  empress,  and 
warned  him  of  the  danger  of  such  a  course  of  action. 
As  Siestrzencewicz  was  primarily  a  politician,  he  had 
no  difficulty  in  modifying  his  views.  Moreover, 
Canon  Benislawski,  who  had  studied  him  at  close 
range  and  knew  his  peculiarities,  had  taken  care  to 
prepare  him  for  the  visit  of  the  delegates.  When  they 
arrived,  he  received  them  with  the  greatest  courtesy 
and  sent  a  letter  of  congratulation  to  the  newly- 
elected  vicar.  The  future  of  the  Society  was  thus 
assured.  A  successor  to  Father  Ricci  had  been  elected; 
a  general  congregation  had  convened  and  its  proceeding 
had  been  conducted  in  strict  conformity  with  the 
Constitution.  Besides,  a  novitiate  had  been  established, 
members  of  the  dispersed  provinces  had  been  officially 
recognized  as  belonging  to  the  Society;  and  all  this  had 
been  done  with  the  tacit  consent  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff. 
Father  Czerniewicz  remained  in  St.  Petersburg 
more  than  three  months,  during  which  time  he  was 
frequently  summoned  to  discuss  with  the  empress 
and  Potemkin  matters  pertaining  to  education,  but 
chiefly  to  make  arrangements  for  negotiations  in 
Rome,  in  order  to  obtain  the  Pope's  express  approval 
of  the  election.  The  matter  called  for  considerable 
diplomatic  skill,  for  in  the  Acts  of  the  congregation, 
some  very  bold  expressions  had  been  employed  which 
might  cause  the  failure  of  the  whole  venture.  Thus, 
it  had  declared  that  "the  Brief  of  Clement  XIV 
destroyed  the  Society  outside  of  Russia ;"  and  again, 
that  "  the  Vicar  was  elected  by  the  authority  of  the 
Holy  See."  The  second  especially  was  a  dangerous 
assertion,  since  the  papal  nuncio,  Archetti,  regarded 
the  election  as  illegal,  and  even  a  few  of  the  Jesuits 


654  The  Jesuits 

themselves  were  doubtful  as  to  the  correctness  of  the 
claim.  There  was  fear,  also,  about  the  personal 
disposition  of  the  Pope  on  that  point. 

To  dispose  of  all  these  difficulties  Catherine  sent 
Benislawski  as  her  ambassador  to  Rome,  with  very 
positive  instructions  not  to  modify  them  in  any  way 
whatever.  He  was  not  to  stop  at  Warsaw,  but  might 
call  on  the  nuncio,  Garampi,  at  Vienna,  and  also  on 
Gallitzin,  the  Russian  ambassador.  He  was  to  go  by 
the  shortest  route  to  Rome,  to  visit  no  cardinals  there, 
but  to  present  himself  immediately  to  the  Pope.  In 
his  audience,  he  was  to  make  three  requests.  They 
were:  first,  the  preconization  of  Siestrzencewicz  as 
archbishop;  second,  the  appointment  of  Benislawski 
himself  as  coadjutor;  and  third,  the  approbation  of 
the  Jesuits  in  White  Russia,  and  especially  the  recogni- 
tion of  the  Acts  of  the  congregation.  The  refusal 
of  anyone  of  them  was  to  entail  a  rupture  of  negotia- 
tions with  Russia. 

On  February  21,  1783,  Benislawski  arrived  in  Rome, 
and  saw  the  Pope  on  the  same  day.  He  was  received 
most  graciously;  his  own  nomination  as  bishop  was 
confirmed;  but,  said  the  Pope:  "  Siestrzencewicz  had 
no  right  to  open  the  novitiate. "  "  That  was  done," 
replied  Benislawski,  "by  order  of  the  empress. " 
"  Since  that  is  the  case/'  said  the  Pope,  "  I  shall 
forget  the  injury  done  to  me  by  the  bishop. "  He  then 
asked  about  the  Jesuits  and  their  General,  and  whether 
the  election  had  been  formally  ordered  by  the  empress." 
When  assured  upon  the  latter  point,  he  answered, 
"  I  do  not  object."  After  an  interview  of  two  hours 
Benislawski  withdrew. 

At  the  second  audience  the  attitude  of  the  Pope  was 
cold  and  indifferent,  for  the  Bourbon  ambassadors 
had  influenced  him  meantime.  Noticing  the  change, 
Benislawski  fell  upon  his  kn,ees  and  asked  the  Pope's 


The  Russian  Contingent         655 

benediction.  "  What  does  this  mean?"  he  was  asked. 
"  My  orders  are  to  withdraw  immediately,  if  my 
requests  are  not  granted."  That  startled  the  Pope, 
and  he  immediately  changed  his  tone;  he  spoke  kindly 
to  Benislawski  and  told  him  to  put  his  requests  in 
writing.  All  night  long  the  faithful  ambassador 
labored  at  his  desk  formulating  each  request  and 
answering  every  argument  that  might  be  alleged 
against  it.  Zalenski  gives  the  entire  document  (I, 
386),  which  substantially  amounted  to  this:  "The 
failure  of  the  bishop  to  abolish  the  Society  in  Russia; 
the  establishment  of  the  novitiate,  and  the  election 
of  the  General  were  all  due  to  the  explicit  and  positive 
orders  of  Catherine.  As  she  had  threatened  to  persecute 
the  Catholics  of  Russia  and  to  compel  the  Poles  to 
enter  the  Orthodox  Church,  it  was  clear  that  there 
was  no  choice  but  to  submit  to  her  demands. 

"  With  regard  to  the  objection  that  the  Bourbon 
Princes  would  be  angry  at  Catherine's  support  of  the 
Jesuits,  Benislawski  made  answer,  that,  '  as  the 
empress  had  offered  no  objections  to  the  suppression 
of  the  Order  in  the  dominions  of  those  rulers,  she 
failed  to  see  why  they  had  any  right  to  question  her 
action  in  preserving  it.  She  owed  those  kings  no 
allegiance/  Secondly,  the  approval  of  the  Society 
would  not  be  a  reflection  on  the  present  Pope,  who 
had  as  much  right  to  reverse  the  judgment  of  Clement 
XIV,  as  Clement  XIV  had  to  reverse  the  judgment  of 
thirty  of  his  predecessors.  If  none  of  the  kings  and 
diplomats  had  blamed  Clement  for  acting  as  he  did, 
why  should  they  blame  Pius  VI  for  using  his  own  right 
in  the  premises?  Moreover,  the  Brief  was  never 
published  in  Russia,  and  there  was  not  the  slightest 
prospect  that  it  ever  would  be.  Finally,  the  empress 
had  made  a  solemn  promise  not  to  harm  her  Catholic 
subjects;  but  she  was  convinced  that  she  could  not 


656  The  Jesuits 

inflict  a  greater  injury  on  them  than  to  deprive  their 
churches  of  priests  and  their  schools  of  teachers  who 
in  her  opinion  were  invaluable."  As  to  the  charge 
that  the  whole  course  of  the  empress  was  due  to  the 
suggestion  of  the  Jesuits,  Benislawski  replied  that 
"  everyone  knew  they  had  petitioned  her  to  have  the 
Brief  promulgated,  and  that  she  had  told  them  they 
were  asking  what  was  not  agreeable  to  her." 

The  next  day  the  Pope  read  the  statement,  smiled 
and  said,  "  You  want  to  arrange  this  matter  by  a 
debate  with  me.  But  there  can  be  no  answer  to  your 
contention.  Your  arguments  are  irrefutable. "  Very 
opportunely,  a  letter  arrived  from  the  empress  who 
expressed  her  willingness  to  receive  a  papal  legate  to 
settle  the  case  of  the  XIniate  Archbishop  of  Polotsk, 
and  asking  to  have  Benislawski  consecrated  in  St. 
Petersburg.  The  letter  was  read  to  the  Pope,  in  the 
presence  of  a  number  of  Cardinals,  to  whom  Benislawski 
was  presented.  The  Holy  Father  then  gave  his  assent 
to  the  preconization  of  the  archbishop,  and  the  conse- 
cration of  Benislawski,  "As  to  the  third/'  he  said, 
raising  his  voice:  "Approbo  Societatem  Jesu  in  Alba 
Russia  degentem;  approbo,  approbo"  (that  is  I 
approve  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  now  in  Russia;  I 
approve,  I  approve).  As  the  verbal  utterances  of 
Popes  in  public  matters  of  the  Church,  have  the  same 
force  as  when  they  are  in  writing,  and  are  designated 
by  canonists  and  theologians  as  viva  vocis  oracula, 
Benislawski  contented  himself  with  this  approval. 
Besides,  fearing  the  machinations  of  the  Bourbon 
politicians,  he  could  not  ask  for  more.  He  had  won 
his  case,  and  had  received  the  Pope's  assurance  that 
the  Society  in  Russia  was  not  and  never  had  been 
suppressed.  No  more  was  needed, 

Against  the  immense  majority  of  historians  of  every 
shade  of  opinion,  Theiner  in  his  "  Pontificate  of  Clement 


The  Russian  Contingent         657 

XIV  "  denounces  this  account  of  the  embassy  as  "  a 
fabrication  of  the  Jesuit  Benislawski,"  though  Benis- 
lawski  was  not  then  a  Jesuit,  nor  did  he  ever  re-enter 
the  Society.  Besides,  although  Theiner  characterizes 
the  distinguished  canonist  whom  the  Pope  had  just 
made  a  bishop  as  "  a  liar  "  and  "  an  intriguer,"  he 
admits  at  the  same  time  that  he  was  "  a  virtuous 
man  "  and  "  a  pious  priest."  If  the  account  of  the 
audience  had  been  untrue,  the  Pope  would  certainly 
haye  been  compelled  to  denounce  it ;  for  it  was  published 
immediately  in  the  Florence  Gazette;  and  the  falsifier 
would  assuredly  never  have  received  his  mitre.  Never- 
theless, to  settle  the  matter  definitely  and  to  allay  all 
doubts  and  suspicions,  Benislawski,  after  he  was 
installed  as  Bishop  of  Gadara,  was  invited  to  the 
second  congregation  of  the  Jesuits,  It  met  at  Polotsk, 
on  July  25,  1785,  and  he  there  made  the  following 
declaration  under  oath: 

"  Having  been  sent  to  Rome  by  the  Most  Illustrious 
Empress  of  all  the  Russias  to  interview  the  Pope 
with  a  view  of  settling  the  difficulty  about  the  Arch- 
bishopric of  Mohilew  and  of  the  Co-adjutorship  of 
that  see,  as  well  as  to  obtain  from  the  Pope  the  approval 
of  the  Society  of  Jesus  in  White  Russia,  I  represented 
to  His  Holiness  the  state  of  the  Jesuits  living  there  in 
conformity  with  the  laws  of  their  Institute,  and  I 
acquainted  him  with  the  fact  that  they  had  elected  a 
General  in  obedience  to  the  command  of  the  Most 
Illustrious  Empress.  After  having  heard  me,  His 
Holiness  kindly  approved  of  the  manner  of  life  which 
the  Jesuits  were  leading  in  White  Russia,  and  ratified  the 
election  of  the  General,  repeating  three  times,  'approbo, 
approbo,  approbo*  I  affirm  under  a  most  solemn 
oath,  the  truth  of  this  verbal  approbation;  in 
confirmation  of  which  I  hereunto  affix  my  seal  and 
signature." 
42 


658  The  Jesuits 

Theiner  adduces  three  Briefs  of  Pius  VI  to  offset 
this  affidavit  of  Benislawski,  but  two  of  them  antedate 
the  episode  at  Rome;  the  third  was  issued  a  month 
later,  and  has  nothing  in  common  with  the  question 
at  issue.  Besides  this,  a  few  years  subsequent  to 
this  approval,  when  Father  Joseph  Pignatelfi,  who 
may  one  day  be  among  the  canonized  saints  of  the 
Church,  asked  permission  of  the  Pope  to  go  to  White 
Russia  "  if  the  Society  existed  there/'  His  Holiness 
answered:  "  Yes,  it  exists  there;  and  if  it  were  possible 
I  would  have  it  extended  everywhere  throughout  the 
world.  Go  to  Russia.  I  authorise  you  to  wear  the 
habit  of  the  Jesuits.  I  regard  the  Jesuits  there,  as 
true  Jesuits  and  the  Society  existing  in  Russia  as 
lawfully  existing. "  (Bonfier,  Vie  de  Pignatelli,  196.) 

As  their  status  was  now  settled,  the  Fathers  addressed 
themselves  to  the  educational  reform  which  the  empress 
wanted  to  introduce  into  the  schools  of  Russia.  It 
consisted  mainly  in  giving  prominence  to  the  physical 
sciences.  They  had  no  difficulty  in  complying  with 
her  wishes,  ,and  Father  Gruber,  who  was  a*i  eminent 
physicist,  immediately  established  a  training-school 
for  the  preparation  of  future  professors,  and  in  March 
1785,  a  number  of  Jesuit  scientists  were  summoned  by 
Potemkin  to  St.  Petersburg. 

On  June  20,  of  that  year,  the  Vicar  General  Czernie- 
wicz  died.  He  was  born  in  1728,  and  had  entered  the 
Society  at  sixteen;  af  er  teaching  at  Warsaw,  he  was 
called  to  Rome  as  secretary  to  Father  Ricci;  later  he 
was  substitute  assistant  of  Poland.  He  was  then  sent 
to  be  rector  of  Polotsk,  and  was  at  that  post  when 
Clement  XIV  issued  the  decree  of  Suppression.  At 
the  congregation  which  was  called  on  October  i, 
Father  Lenkiewicz  was  elected  to  succeed  him. 

By  this  time,  many  of  the  old  Jesuits  were  sending 
in  their  requests  for  admission.  Among  them  were 


The  Russian  Contingent         659 

such  distinguished  personages  as  the  astronomer  Hell; 
two  of  Father  Ricci's  assistants,  Romberg  and  Korycki 
and  others.  All  could  not  be  received  in  Russia  itself, 
but  wherever  they  were,  in  America,  Europe,  China, 
the  East  and  West  Indies,  etc.,  they  were  all  gladly 
welcomed  back  and  their  names  were  inscribed  in  the 
catalogue.  It  is  of  especial  interest  for  Americans  to 
find  those  of  Adam  Britt  of  Maryland  and  of  several 
who  were  sent  from  White  Russia  to  the  United  States 
when  Carroll  was  empowered  to  re-establish  the  Society 
in  1805.  They  are  Anthony  Kohlmann,  Malevy,  Brown, 
Epinette  and  others.  Those  who,  for  one  reason  or 
another,  were  unable  to  go  to  Russia  in  person,  were 
informed  that  they  were  duly  recognized  as  Jesuits 
and  were  given  permission  to  renew  their  vows.  This 
arrangement  was  made  especially  for  the  ex-members 
who  had  been  appointed  to  bishoprics,  or  were  employed 
in  some  important  function,  such  as  royal  confessors, 
court  preachers,  scientists,  etc.,  or  again,  who  were 
prevented  by  age  and  infirmity  from  making  the  long 
and  difficult  journey. 

In  the  "  Catalogus  mortuorum,"  or  list  of  deceased 
members,  which  covers  the  period  between  1773  and 
1814,  Zalenski  counts  268  who  are  extra  provinciam; 
all  nations  under  the  sun  are  represented.  From 
everywhere  gifts  were  sent  by  former  Jesuits.  Thus, 
Father  Raczynski  who  had  become  Primate  of  Poland 
gathered  together  at  various  auctions  as  many  as 
8000  Jesuit  books  and  sent  them  to  the  College  of 
Polotsk.  Others  followed  his  example,  and  in  1815 
the  college  library  had  35,000  volumes  on  its  shelves. 
Other  contributions  came  in  the  form  of  money.  As 
early  as  1787,  Polotsk  had  a  printing-press,  and 
produced  its  own  text-books,  besides  publishing  a 
number  of  works  which  were  out  of  print.  Fr.  Gruber 
kept  at  work  forming  a  corps  of  able  scientists,  and 


660  The  Jesuits 

he* even  made  many  coadjutor  brothers  architects, 
painters  and  skilled  artificers  in  various  crafts.  The 
institution  soon  became  famous  for  its  physical  and 
chemical  laboratories,  its  splendid  theatre,  its  paintings, 
sculpture,  etc.  The  minor  colleges  soon  followed  its 
example,  and  the  Jesuit  churches  resumed  their  custom- 
ary magnificence.  Sodalities  were  established,  distant 
missions  were  undertaken,  and  a*mong  the  neighboring 
Letts,  Jesuit  missionaries  created  a  veritable  Paraguay, 
Catherine  reigned  for  thirty-five  years,  and  until 
her  death,  as  she  had  promised,  she  had  never  failed 
to  protect  the  Society.  Her  word  alone  counted  in 
Russia.  She  was  alone  on  the  throne  for  she  had 
murdered  the  czar,  her  husband,  because  of  his  repudia- 
tion of  her  son  Paul,  and  also  because  of  her 
natural  intolerance  of  an  equal.  It  is  true  that  Father 
Carroll,  in  far-away  America,  was  lamenting  that  his 
brethren  had  such  a  protectress,  but  that  was  beyond 
their  control.  It  can  at  least  be  claimed  that  they 
had  never  yielded  an  iota  in  their  duties  as  Catholic 
priests.  During  the  .whole  of  her  reign  she  kept  her 
unfortunate  heir  almost  in  complete  seclusion.  He 
was  confided  to  the  care  chiefly  of  Father  Gruber, 
who  besides  being  a  saint  was  a  man  of  wonderful 
ability.  He  was  a  musician,  a  painter,  an  architect,  a 
physicist  and  a  mathematician.  One  of  his  -oil  paintings 
adorns  the  refectory  of  Georgetown  today;  brought 
over,  no  doubt,  by  some  of  the  Polish  Fathers.  It  is 
very  far  from  being  the  work  of  an  amateur.  Naturally, 
therefore,  Paul  took  to  him  kindly,  and  the  affection 
continued  till  the  end.  When  on  the  throne,  he 
multiplied  the  colleges  of  the  Society,  enlarged  the 
novitiate,  installed  the  Fathers  in  the  University  of 
Vilna,  and  even  persuaded  the  Grand  Turk  to  restore 
to  the  Jesuits  their  ancient  missions  on  the 
Archipelago. 


The  Russian  Contingent         661 

The  intimacy  was  so  great  that  Gruber  was  supposed 
to  be  able  to  procure  any  favor  from  Paul  and  hence 
his  life  was  made  miserable  by  the  swarm  of  suitors 
who  beset  him;  but  he  was  not  foolish  enough  to  forfeit 
the  favor  of  the  prince  by  being  made  a  tool  to  further 
the  selfish  aims  of  the  petitioners.  He  did,  however, 
request  the  czar  to  ask  the  newly-elected  Pope  Pius 
VII  for  an  official  recognition  of  the  Society  in  Russia. 
The  Pope  was  only  too  willing  to  grant  it,  but  the 
lingering  hostility  to  the  Jesuits,  even  in  Rome  itself, 
made  it  somewhat  difficult.  Indeed,  a  certain  number 
of  the  cardinals  pronounced  very  decidedly  against  it, 
and  only  yielded,  when  the  Pope  made  them  take  all 
the  responsibility  of  a  refusal.  He  appointed  a  com- 
mittee of  the  most  hostile  among  them  to  report  on 
the  imperial  request,  thus  bringing  them  face  to  face 
with  the  consequences  of  opposing  the  ruler  of  a  great 
empire  and  converting  him  from  a  friend  into  a  perse- 
cutor of  the  Church.  Looking  at  it  from  that  point 
of  view,  they  quickly  came  to  a  favorable  conclusion, 
and  on  March  7,  1801,  the  Bull  "  Catholicae  Fidei " 
was  issued,  explicitly  re-establishing  the  Society  of  Jesus 
in  Russia.  It  was  the  first  great  step  to  the  general 
restoration  throughout  the  world  thirteen  years  later. 
The  approbation  arrived  very  opportunely,  for  sixteen 
days  after  its  reception  Paul  I  was  assassinated. 

At  his  accession,  Alexander,  though  less  demon- 
strative than  Paul,  showed  his  esteem  for  the  Society 
to  such  an  extent  that  when  the  General,  Father 
Kareu,  was  at  the  point  of  death,  the  czar  went  in 
person  to  Polotsk  to  offer  his  condolence.  This  con- 
descension was  so  marked  that  Father  Gruber  availed 
himself  of  the  opportunity  to  solicit  the  publication  of 
the  Papal  Bull  which  the  turmoil  consequent  upon 
Paul's  assassination  had  prevented  from  being  officially 
proclaimed.  The  emperor  made  no  difficulty  about 


662  The  Jesuits 

it,  and  issued  a  ukase  to  that  effect.  He  even  went 
further  in  his  approval,  for  when  Gruber  was  elected 
General  in  place  of  Father  Kareu,  he  was  summoned  to 
St.  Petersburg  to  occupy  a  splendidly  equipped  College 
of  Nobles  which  Paul  had  established  in  the  city  itself. 
It  was  there  that  Gruber  met  the  famous  Count  Joseph 
deMaistre  who  was  at  that  time  Ambassador  of  Sardinia 
at  the  imperial  court.  A  deep  and  sincere  affection 
sprung  up  between  the  two  great  men,  and  in  the 
storm  that,  later  on,  broke  out  against  the  Society, 
de  Maistre  showed  himself  its  fearless  and  devoted 
defender. 

Catherine  II  had,  in  her  time,  attempted  the  colon- 
ization of  the  vast  steppes  of  her  empire,  and  Paul  I  had 
been  energetic  in  carrying  out  her  plans.  Alexander 
I,  also,  was  anxious  to  further  the  project  which 
called  for  not  a  little  heroism  on  the  part  of  those 
who  undertook  it.  Incidentally,  it  would  relieve  the 
government  of  considerable  anxiety  and  worry;  for 
as  the  new  settlers  came  from  every  part  of  Germany, 
and  professed  all  kinds  of  religious  beliefs,  it  was 
considered  to  be  of  primary  importance  politically, 
to  establish  some  sort  of  unity  among  them  and  to 
accustom  them  to  Russian  legislation  and  ways  of 
life.  The  Jesuits  were  selected  for  the  task,  and  in 
spite  of  the  hardships  and  the  isolation  to  which  they 
were  subjected,  and  in  face,  also,  of  the  hatred  and 
opposition  of  their  enemies  as  well  as  the  usually 
surly  mood  of  the  brutalized  immigrants  who  had 
been  driven  out  of  their  own  country  by  starvation 
and  oppression,  order  was  restored  within  a  year, 
and  the  government  reported  that  these  few  priests 
had  achieved  what  a  whole  army  of  soldiers  could 
never  have  accomplished.  The  missions  of  Astrakhan 
were  said  to  be  similarly  successful.  But  it  appears 


The  Russian  Contingent        663 

in  the  light  of  subsequent  events,  that  no  solid  or 
permanent  results  had  been  effected. 

A  glance  at  the  map  will  show  us  that  these  two 
fields  of  endeavor  were  at  the  extreme  eastern  and 
western  ends  of  Russia's  vast  empire.  The  Riga  district 
is  on  the  Baltic  or,  more  properly,  on  the  Gulf  of  Riga. 
Below  it,  are  the  now  famous  cities  of  Koningsberg  and 
Dantzic.  Astrakhan  is  on  the  Caspian  Sea  into  which 
the  great  River  Volga  empties.  On  both  sides  of  this 
river,  as  in  the  city  itself,  the  Jesuits  had  established 
their  mission  posts.  But  from  both  the  Baltic  and  the 
Caspian  they  had  to  withdraw,  when  driven  out  of 
Russia  by  Alexander  in  1820. 

The  present  condition  of  these  two  sections  of  the 
now  dismembered  empire  is  most  deplorable.  Indeed, 
as  early  as  1864  Marshall  (Christian  Missions,  I,  74) 
says  of  them:  "  Let  us  begin  with  the  Provinces  of  the 
Baltic.  The  Letts  who  inhabit  Courland  and  the 
southern  half  of  Livonia,  though  long  normally  Chris- 
tians and  surrounded  by  Lutherans  and  Russo-Greeks, 
sacrifice  to  household  spirits  by  setting  out  food  for 
them  in  their  gardens  or  houses  or  under  old  oak 
trees*  Of  the  Esthonians,  Kohl  says :  '  The  old  practices 
of  heathenism  have  been  preserved  among  them 
more  completely  than  among  any  other  Lutheran 
people.  There  are  many  spots  where  the  peasants  yet 
offer  up  sacrifices/  Let  us  n~ow  accompany  Mr. 
Laurence  Oliphant  down  the  Volga  to  the  Caspian 
Sea.  Everywhere  his  experience  is  uniform;  The 
Kalmuks  whom  he  discovered  are  still  Buddhists. 
Near  the  mouth  of  the  Volga  he  visits  a  large  and 
populous  village  in  a  state  of  utter  heathenism  and 
apparently  destined  to  remain  so.  At  Sarepta  near 
Astrakhan,  the  Moravians  had  attempted  to  convert 
the  neighboring  heathen  but  the  Greek  clergy  prevented 


664  The  Jesuits 

them.  One  tribe  is  made  up  of  followers  of  the  Grand 
Lama;  another  of  pagans;  a  third  of  Mahometans. 
In  the  city  of  Kazan,  once  the  capital  of  a  powerful 
nation,  there  are  20,000  Mahometans,  and  the  immense 
Tatar  population  of  the  entire  region  reaching  as  far 
as  Astrakhan  has  adopted  a  combination  of  Christianity, 
Islamism  and  Shamanism,  or  are  as  out  and  out  pagans 
as  they  were  before  being  annexed  to  the  Russian 
Empire.'* 

Among  these  degraded  peoples  the  Jesuits  were  at 
work  while  they  were  directing  their  colleges  at  Polotsk, 
St.  Petersburg  and  elsewhere  until  1814. 


CHAPTER  XXII 

THE  RALLYING 

Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart  —  Fathers  of  the  Faith  —  Fusion  — 
Paccanari  —  The  Rupture —  Exodus  to  Russia  —  Varin  in  Paris  — 
Clorivifre  —  Carroll's  doubts  —  Pignatelli  —  Poirot  in  China  — 
Grassi's  Odyssey. 

WHILE  the  Society  was  maintaining  its  corporate 
life  in  Russia  several  contributory  sources  began  to 
flow  towards  it  from  various  parts  of  Europe.  The 
most  notable  was  the  association  that  was  formed 
under  the  eyes  and  with  the  approval  of  the  wise  and 
virtuous  Jacques-Andr6  Emery,  the  superior  of  the 
Seminary  of  Paris,  who  himself  had  been  trained  in 
the  Jesuit  college  of  Macon.  Under  his  guidance  and 
very  much  attached  to  him,  was  a  little  group  of 
seminarians  consisting  of  Charles  and  Maurice  de 
Broglie,  sons  of  the  celebrated  Marshal  of  that  name, 
both  of  whom  bore  the  title  of  Prince;  Prangois 
El£onore  de  Tournely,  who  was  the  animating  spirit 
of  the  little  association,  and,  omitting  others,  Joseph 
Varin  who  succeeded  de  Tourn61y  as  the  guide  of  the 
growing  community. 

When  the  Revolution  broke  out,  Varin  yielding  to 
his  martial  instincts,  left  the  seminary  and  became  a 
soldier  in  the  royalist  army;  but  Charles  de  Broglie 
kept  the  group  together  and  under  the  direction  of 
Pey,  a  distinguished  canon  of  Paris,  they  plunged  into 
the  study  of  the  spiritual  life  and  continued  to  dream 
of  an  association  which  might  in  one  way  or  another 
take  up  the  work  of  the  suppressed  Society  of  Jesus. 
In  1791  they  were  compelled  to  seek  a  refuge  in  Luxem- 
bourg. Two  years  later,  they  fled  to  Antwerp,  and 

66s 


666  The  Jesuits 

finally  found  themselves  in  the  old  Jesuit  villa  of 
Louvain,  which  is  still  standing  near  the  cMteau  of 
the  Due  d'Arenberg.  There  they  were  joined  by  de 
Broglie's  brother,  Xavier,  and  by  Pierre  Leblanc, 
both  of  whom  had  served  for  two  years  in  the  army 
of  the  Prince  de  Cond&  Varin  joined  them  in  that 
year.  He  had  been  a  soldier  ever  since  the  seminary 
had  closed,  and  had  given  up  all  idea  of  ever  resuming 
the  soutane.  But  it  happened  that  he  was  absent 
from  his  regiment  when  a  battle  occurred,  and  in 
disgust  he  had  gone  to  Belgium  to  ask  to  be  transferred 
to  another  corps.  While  there,  he  fell  into  the  hands 
of  his  old  seminary  friends;  in  a  few  days  his  former 
fervor  returned  and  he  was  accepted  as  the  sixth 
member  of  what  de  TournSy  had  determined  to  call 
"  The  Society  of  the  Sacred  Heart." 

On  the  very  day  of  Varin's  entrance,  he  and  five 
associates  started  off  on  foot,  with  their  bags  on"  their 
backs,  to  beg  their  way  to  Bavaria.  It  took  them  five 
days  to  get  as  far  as  Augsburg,  and  there  they  remained, 
though  their  intention  was  to  establish  themselves  at 
Munich.  But  the  Bishop  of  Augsburg  told  them  that 
if  they  wanted  to  learn  what  the  Society  of  Jesus  was, 
no  .better  place  could  be  found  than  the  city  in  which 
they  then  found  themselves,  for  the  memory  of  many 
illustrious  Jesuits  was  still  fresh  in  the  hearts  of  the 
people.  The  bishop  who  gave  them  this  welcome 
hospitality  was  Clemens  Wenzeslaus,  who  besides 
being  a  prelate  was  a  prince  of  Saxony  and  Poland. 
Yielding  to  his  advice,  they  took  up  their  abode  in 
Augsburg  where  they  were  soon  joined  by  two  dis- 
tinguished men  who  were  afterwards  to  be  conspicuous 
in  the  reconstructed  Society,  Grivel,  who  was  to  be 
sent  to  Georgetown  in  America  as  master  of  novices, 
and  the  famous  Rozaven,  who  was  to  .save  the  Society 
from  wreck  in  the  first  general  congregation  held  after 


The  Rallying  667 

the  Restoration,  .and  who  was  subsequently  to  be  the 
assistant  General  both  of  Fortis  and  Roothaan. 

As  they  were  all  Frenchmen,  they  were  necessarily  de- 
barred from  apostolic  work  among  the  people  whose  lan- 
guage they  could  not  speak.  But  that  was  providential, 
for  they  had  thus  a  better  opportunity  to  devote  them- 
selves to  the  study  of  the  spiritual  life.  On  March  12, 
1796,  Varin  and  some  others  were  promoted  to  the 
priesthood,  and  about  the  middle  of  December,  they 
were  installed  first  at  Neudorf  and  then  at  Hagenbrunn, 
near  Vienna,  as  the  invading  armies  of  Moreau  and 
Jourdan  made  Augsburg  an  unsafe  place  to  live  in. 
They  were  now  sixteen  in  number  and  their  close 
imitation  of  the  Jesuit  mode  of  Kf e  caused  a  sensation 
there,  as  Austria  had  only  a  short  time  before  suppressed 
the  Society. 

De  Tourn&y  died  on  July  9,  1797,  and  Varin  was 
elected  in  his  place  on  the  first  ballot.  The  organization 
however,  had  not  yet  received  the  authorization  of  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff,  for  as  Napoleon  held  him  a  prisoner 
now  in  one  place  now  in  another,  it  was  impossible  to 
make  any  personal  application  for  his  approval  of  the 
new  organization.  Hence,  a  petition  was  drawn  up, 
signed  by  twenty-five  or  thirty  bishops  asking  the 
Holy  Father's  approbation.  The  answer  came  in 
the  month  of  September  1798,  assuring  them  that  their 
project  afforded  him  the  greatest  consolation,  and 
with  all  his  heart  he  gave  them  his  blessing. 

The  establishment  of  this  Society  was  not  as  has 
been  said  "the  underhand  work  of  the  Jesuits,1'  for 
Varin  and.  his  associates  had  as  yet  never  met  any 
member  of  the  old  Society,  nor  were  they  aware  of  the 
existence  of  any  similar  organization  in  Italy.  Indeed, 
when  a  letter  came  from  Rome,  signed  Nicolas  Pac- 
canari,  announcing  that  he  was  their  superior,  and 
was  such,  "  in  virtue  of  an  express  wish  of  the  Pope 


668  The  Jesuits 

to  have  the  two  communities  united,"  the  associates 
regarded  it  as  the  abolition  of  their  Society  of  the 
41  Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart/'  especially  as  this 
unknown  individual  announced  that  he  was  then  on 
his  way  to  Hagenbrunn  to  carry  the  plan  into  effect* 

Nicolas  Paccanari  was  a  very  curious  personage. 
He  had  no  education  whatever,  and  in  his  early  life 
had  been  engaged  in  various  occupations  which 
scarcely  seemed  to  fit  him  to  be  the  founder  of  a 
religious  order.  He  was  born  near  Trent,  and  had  been 
for  some  time  a  soldier,  then  a  merchant  on  a  small 
scale,  and  when  swindled  by  an  associate,  he  took  to 
tramping  from  town  to  town,  vending,  as  Guidee 
says,  "  objects  of  curiosity,"  that  is,  he  was  an  itinerant 
peddler.  He  was  a  pious  man,  and  as  he  belonged  to 
one  of  the  guilds  in  the  Caravita  at  Rome,  he  was 
prompted  by  the  spirit  that  prevailed  in  that  famous 
Oratory  to  do  something  more  than  usual  for  the  glory 
of  God.  He  first  thought  of  being  a  Carmelite,  and 
then  the  fancy  seized  him  that  he  was  destined  to 
resuscitate  the  Society  of  Jesus.  Strangely  enough, 
although  he  was  not  even  a  priest,  he  was  joined  by 
a  doctor  of  the  Sapienza  and  two  French  ecclesiastics, 
Halnat  and  Epinette,  the  latter  of  whom  entered  the 
Society  and  later  taught  philosophy  at  Georgetown 
D.  C.  He  was  undoubtedly  clever,  and  so  plausible  in 
his  speech  that  he  won  the  confidence  of  the  most 
distinguished  personages  in  Europe:  cardinals  and 
noblemen  and  heads  of  religious  orders,  with  the  result 
that  he  and  his  two  friends  made  their  vows  on  the 
eve  of  the  Assumption  1797,  in  the  chapel  of  the 
Caravita,  and  Paccanari  was  elected  superior.  He 
succeeded  even  in  seeing  the  Pope,  who  was  then  a 
prisoner  at  Spoleto,  and  obtained  his  approval  and 
blessing.  He  called  his  organization  "  The  Society  of 
the  Fathers  of  the  Faith  of  Jesus,"  which  was  shortened 


The  Rallying  669 

later  into  "  The  Fathers  of  the  Faith."  In  Bohmer- 
Monod  we  find  them  styled  "The  Brothers  of  the 
Faith." 

Paccanari  failed  to  arrive  at  Hagenbrunn  for  a 
considerable  time,  for  he  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of 
the  police  and  was  kept  a  prisoner  in  Sant'  Angelo. 
His  restless  activity  and  constant  change  of  abode  had 
attracted  the  notice  of  the  authorities,  and  he  was 
suspected  of  being  concerned  in  some  political  plot' 
against  the  Roman  Republic,  which  the  French  had 
just  then  set  up  in  the  Papal  dominions.  His  associates 
were  arrested  at  the  same  time,  and  were  not  released 
for  four  months.  It  was  during  this  time  of  incarcera- 
tion that  Paccanari  sent  a  second  letter  to  Varin 
more  startling  than  the  first.  It  announced  that  the 
Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart  had  been  received  into 
the  Paccanari  association,  and  that  Father  Varin  was 
appointed  superior  of  the  society  in  Germany.  Such 
a  communication  from  a  man  whom  they  had  not 
even  seen,  made  them  conclude  that  they  had  to  do 
with  a  lunatic.  Finally,  in  the  month  of  February  1799, 
a  third  letter  arrived,  clearing  up  what  had  been  said 
in  the  second.  The  explanation  offered  was  that  not 
knowing  if  he  would  ever  be  let  out  of  jail,  and  not 
wishing  that  the  privileges  he  had  received  from  the 
Holy  See  should  lapse,  he  had  as  a  precaution  admitted 
Varin  and  his  associates  into  the  Society  of  the  Fathers 
of  the  Faith. 

When  at  last  he  was  released,  he  started  for  Vienna, 
and  on  his  way,  made  it  his  business  to  see  some  of 
the  dispersed  Jesuits  who  were  in  Parma  and  Venice. 
They  were  very  kind  to  him,  procured  him  financial 
assistance,  but  did  not  welcome  him  with  the  enthusi- 
asm he  expected.  They  had  remarked  that  he  never 
spoke  of  uniting  his  associates  with  the  Jesuits  of 
Russia.  Paccanari  was  keen  enough  to  divine  their 


670  The  Jesuits 

reason,  and  he  was  therefore  only  the  more  eager  to 
affiliate  with  the  people  at  Hagenbrunn,  for  he  had 
only  twenty  members  of  his  own,  not  more  than  three 
of  whom  were  priests.  He  reached  Vienna  on  April  3, 
and  was  naturally  received  with  some  reserve,  but 
when  Cardinal  Migazzi  and  the  nuncio  made  known 
the  desire  of  the  Pope,  all  opposition  ceased  and  the 
discussion  of  the  mode  of  union  began.  The  sessions 
lasted  ten  days  and  ended  by  the  election  of  Paccanari 
as  general.  The  Society  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  thus  passed  out  of  existence  on  April  18,  1799. 
f  The  house  at  Hagenbrunn  at  once  took  on  a  different 
aspect.  There  was  less  study,  fewer  exercises  of  piety, 
the  recreations  were  immoderately  prolonged,  and 
the  Fathers  were  actually  compelled  to  take  up  a 
series  of  athletic  exercises  that  made  them  think  they 
were  back  in  their  college  days.  Of  course  this  soon 
became  intolerable,  but  little  else  could  have  been 
expected  from  a  man  like  Paccanari,  who  was  absolutely 
ignorant  of  the  first  elements  of  community  life. 
What  is  still  more  curious  is  that  he  was  not  even 
yet  tonsured;  but  he  was,  nevertheless,  so  wonderfully 
insinuating  in  his  manner  that  he  succeeded  in  per- 
suading everyone  outside  of  his  own  household  that  he 
was  the  man  of  the  hour.  The  public  praised  him,  but 
his  subjects  were  exasperated  at  his  opinionativeness, 
his  despotism,  his  repeated  absences  from  home,  and 
above  all  by  his  avoidance  of  all  association  with  the 
dispersed  Jesuits.  All  that  quickly  convinced  the 
Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart  that  a  serious  mistake 
had  been  made.  It  is  true  that  on  August  n,  1799, 
Paccanari  made  a  formal  announcement  that  his  sole 
purpose  was  to  amalgamate  with  the  Jesuits  of  Russia, 
but  it  was  tolerably  clear  that  if  he  ever  had  any  such 
intention  it  was  rapidly  vanishing  from  his  mind.  He 
began  by  founding  several  establishments  in  various 


The  Rallying  671 

parts  of  Europe,  even  Moravia  being  favored  in  this 
respect.  In  this  distribution,  de  Broglie  and  Rosaven 
were  dispatched  to  England,  and  Halnat,  Roger  and 
Varin  to  France. 

After  the  example  of  the  old  Jesuits,  the  first  work 
that  Varin  and  his  companions  undertook  when  they 
arrived  in  Paris  was  the  care  of  the  hospitals  of  La 
Salpetriere  and  BicStre,  the  first  of  which  had  6,000 
patients  and  had  not  seen  a  priest  in  its  wards  for  ten 
years.  The  government  now  admitted  the  folly  of  its 
previous  methods  of  procedure,  and  sought  the  help 
of  the  ministers  of  religion.  A  tremendous  trans- 
formation was  immediately  effected.  Nor  could  it 
have  been  otherwise,  for  the  zealous  priests  spent 
thirteen  and  fourteen  hours  a  day  there,  going  from 
bed  to  bed  to  comfort  the  patients. 

It  was  Halnat  who  first  discovered  the  existence  of 
the  venerable  Father  de  Cloriviere,  a  Jesuit  of  the  old 
Society,  who  was  to  be  the  first  provincial  of  France 
after  the  restoration.  The  pious  Mile,  de  Cice,  a 
niece  of  the  Archbishop  of  Bordeaux,  also  comes  into 
view  at  this  period.  She  had  been  the  directress  of 
an  association  of  ladies  estabEshed  by  Father  de 
Cloriviere  to  supply  as  far  as  possible  the  place  of  the 
expelled  nuns,  in  looking  after  the  young  girls  of  Paris. 
Varin  became  her  spiritual  guide  and  also  directed 
Mile,  de  Jugon,  a  remarkable  woman,  who  subsequently 
married  *a  wealthy  nobleman;  but  at  his  death  she 
resumed  with  great  ardor  the  charitable  works  which 
had  previously  reflected  such  glory  upon  her  piety 
and  zeal. 

Just  at  this  time,  an  attempt  was  made  to  assassinate 
Napoleon.  An  "  infernal  machine,"  as  it  was  called, 
was  exploded  under  his  carriage,  and  Mile,  de  Cic6 
was  suspected  of  knowing  something  about  it,  chiefly 
because  of  her  association  with  the  mysterious  person- 


672  The  Jesuits 

ages  who  had  recently  arrived  in  France — Varin  and 
his  companions.  Indeed,  although  the  good  woman's 
holiness  of  life  was  vouched  for  by  a  great  number 
of  witnesses,  chiefly,  the  beneficiaries  of  her  charity, 
she  might  have  been  condemned  to  death,  had  not 
Father  Varin  appeared  in  court,  where  he  made  a 
candid  explanation  of  the  character  of  his  society, 
as  having  for  its  only  purpose  religion  and  charity, 
without  any  political  affiliations  whatever.  His  good 
temper  at  the  trial  was  a  happy  offset  to  Father  Halnat's 
outburst  of  anger  which  almost  provoked  an  un- 
favorable verdict.  Later  Halnat  applied  for  admission 
to  the  Society  of  Jesus,  but  it  was  thought  unsafe  to 
admit  him.  

At  this  juncture,  there  appears  the  figure  of 
Madeleine-Sophie  Barat,  the  foundress  of  the  Ladies 
of  the  Sacred  Heart,  a  title  chosen  at  that  time  not 
to  indicate  any  social  distinction;  indeed  Madame 
Barat  was  from  people  in  very  ordinary  circumstances, 
but  the  name  "  religious  "  was  in  disfavor  at  that 
turbulent  period,  and  it  was  thought  advisable  not  to 
obtrude  unnecessarily  the  fact  that  she  and  her  asso- 
ciates formed  a  community  of  nuns.  They  were 
merely  de$  dames  fieuses,  who  lived  together  for 
charitable  and  educational  work.  The  name  "  dames  " 
is  an  old  title  for  nuns  in  England. 

She  was  the  sister  of  Father  Louis  Barat,  who  was 
one  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Faith,  and  when  Varin  was 
looking  around  for  some  capable  woman  to  give  the 
girls  of  Paris  and  elsewhere  a  Christian  education, 
Barat  suggested  her  as  a  possibility.  He  had  taught 
her  Latin,  Greek,  Spanish,  Italian,  and  natural 
philosophy,  besides  subjecting  her  to  a  very  rigid  and 
somewhat  harsh  training  in  asceticism.  She  was  then 
twenty  years  of  age,  and  with  her  usual  habit  of  sub- 
mission, she  and  her  three  companions  addressed 


The  Rallying  673 

themselves  to  the  task.  This  was  in  1801.  Before 
1857,  she  had  succeeded  in  establishing  more  than 
eighty  foundations  in  various  parts  of  the  world  and 
she  is  now  ranked  among  the  Beatified. 

To  Varin  must  also  be  accorded  the  credit  of  form- 
ing in  the  religious  life  another  woman  who  is  among 
the  Blessed;  the  Foundress  of  the  Sisters  of  Notre- 
Dame  de  Namur,  Julie  Billiart.  Perhaps  his  prayers 
had  something  to  do  with  the  restoration  to  health 
of  this  remarkable  woman,  who  had  been  a  paralytic 
and  almost  speechless  for  thirty-one  years.  She 
recovered  her  youthful  vigor  in  1804,  at  the  end  of 
a  novena  to  the  Sacred  Heart,  which  had  been  suggested 
by  her  confessor.  She  was  then  at  Amiens,  and 
Varin  united  her  and  her  companions  into  a  teaching 
community,  and  drew  up  the  rules  and  constitutions 
which  they  have  undeviatingly  adhered  to  ever  since. 
Indeed  it  was  this  very  fidelity  that  gave  them  the 
name  of  Notre  Dame  de  Namur.  For  in  the  absence 
of  Varin  a  prominent  ecclesiastic  attempted  to  modify 
their  rule,  whereupon  the  indignant  women  left  Amiens 
and  emigrated  in  a  body  to  Namur.  That  city  has 
ever  since  been  regarded  as  their  spiritual  birthplace. 
In  the  space  of  twelve  years,  namely  between  1804 
and  1812,  this  quondam  paralytic  founded  fifteen 
convents,  and  made  as  many  as  one  hundred  and 
twenty  journeys,  some  of  them  very  long  and  toilsome, 
in  the  prosecution  of  her  great  work  for  the  Church. 
Like  the  Ladies  of  the  Sacred  Heart,  the  Sisters  of 
Notre  Dame  de  Namur  have  establishments  all  over 
the  world.  * 

Meantime,  a  very  marked  difference  had  displayed 
itself  in  the  tone  of  the  various  members  of  the  Fathers 
of  the  Faith.  Those  who  had  been  followers  of 
Paccanari  had  no  idea  whatever  of  the  real  nature  of 
religious  life,  whereas  the  disciples  of  Varin  for  the 


674  The  Jesuits 

most  part  were  spiritual  men  and  eager  in  the  work  of 
perfection.  How  noticeable  this  was,  is  revealed  in 
a  letter  from  Bishop  Carroll  in  America.  He  had 
asked  for  help  from  the  new  organization,  and  four 
priests  had  been  promised  him,  but  only  one  arrived  — 
an  Italian  named  Zucchi.  Whether  he  lost  his  way  or 
not,  or  fancied  he  could  follow  his  own  guidance,  he 
went  first  to  Quebec,  but  was  promptly  informed  by  the 
government  officials  there  that1  his  presence  was 
undesirable.  He  finally  reached  Maryland,  and  Carroll 
describes  him  in  a  letter  to  Father  Plowden  in  England 
as  follows:  "  There  is  a  priest  here  named  Zucchi, 
a  Romano  di  nascitd,,  a  man  of  narrow  understanding, 
who  does  nothing  but  pine  for  the  arrival  of  his  com- 
panions. Meantime  he  will  undertake  no  work. 
Prom  this  sample  of  the  new  order,  I  am  led  to  believe 
that  they  are  very  little  instructed  in  the  maxims  of 
the  Institute  of  our  venerable  mother,  the  Society. 
-  Though  they  profess  to  have  no  other  rule  than  ours, 
Zucchi  seems  to  know  nothing  of  the  structure  of  our 
Society,  nor  even  to  have  read  the  Regula  Communes 
which  our  very  novices  know  almost  by  heart," 

The  bishop  had  also  heard  of  the  establishment  of 
one  of  the  communities  of  women  by  Father  Varin, 
and  that  made  him  still  more  suspicious  about  the 
genuineness  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Faith.  "  In  one 
point,"  he  writes  to  Plowden,  "  they  seem  to  have 
departed  from  St.  Ignatius,  by  engrafting  on  their 
Institution  a  new  order  of  nuns,  which  is  to  be  under 
their  government." 

The  rupture  in  the  ranks  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Faith  took  place  in  1803.  In  the  preceding  year, 
Rcxsaven  and  Varin  had  gone  to  Rome  and  were  there 
confirmed  in  their  suspicions  that  Paccanari  was  not 
sincere  in  his  protestations  about  his  desire  to  join 
the  Jesuits  in  Russia.  They  were  also  shocked  at  the 


The  Rallying  675 

lack  of  religious  spirit  in  the  Paccanarist  house  in 
Rome.  In  the  following  year,  Rozaven  again  returned 
to  Rome,  and  besides  being  confirmed  in  his  con- 
viction that  Paccanari  was  working  for  the  development 
of  an  independent  society,  he  was  informed  of  certain 
charges  against  the  personal  character  of  the  man. 
Paccanari's  explanation  of  the  accusations,  far  from 
convincing  Rozaven,  only  confirmed  him  in  his  opinion. 
The  result  was  that  he  obtained  a  private  audience 
with  the  Pope,  and  was  authorized  to  sever  his  con- 
nection with  the  Fathers  of  the  Faith. 

To  his  amazement,  he  found  on  his  return  to  London, 
that  his  associates  had  already  taken  the  matter  in 
hand  for  themselves  and  had  applied  to  Father  Gruber 
in  Russia,  for  admission  to  the  Society.  The  petition 
was  granted,  not,  however  to  enter  corporately  but 
individually,  namely  after  each  one's  vocation  had 
been  carefully  examined.  The  application  was  to  be 
made  to  Father  Strickland  in  England,  who  had  been 
a  member  of  the  old  Society.  With  other  candidates 
from  Holland  and  Germany,  twenty-five  new  members 
passed  over  to  Russia. 

It  is  very  distressing  to  note  that  Father  Charles 
de  Broglie,  who  with  de  Tourn61y  had  initiated  the 
whole  movement,  was  not  in  this  group.  He  and 
three  others  remained  in  London  as  secular  priests, 
and  unfortunately,  his  relations  with  a  certain  number 
of  refractory  Frenchmen  led  him  into  the  schism 
known  as  La  Petite  Eglise.  He  persisted  in  his  rebellion 
as  late  as  1842,  when  he  at  last  made  his  submission 
to  the  Church. 

Rozaven  wrote  from  Polotsk  to  Varin,  giving  him 
an  account  of  what  had  happened  to  him  in  Rome, 
insisting  on  the  justifiableness  of  the  act,  and  reminding 
him  that  they  had  joined  the  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
Heart,  and  subsequently  the  Fathers  of  the  Faith,  solely 


676  The  Jesuits 

for  the  sake  of  uniting  with  the  Jesuits  in  Russia. 
As  Paccanari  had  not  only  no  intention  of  carrying 
out  that  purpose,  but  was  doing  everything  in  his 
power  to  prevent  it,  the  duty  of  allegiance  ceased, 
and  so  the  Pope  had  decided.  Forthwith,  Varin,  with 
the  approval  of  all  his  subjects  in  Prance,  notified 
Paccanari  that  they  had  severed  all  connection  with  his 
Society.  Meantime  however,  they  retained  the  name 
of  Fathers  of  the  Faith. 

But  this  independence  was  not  satisfactory  to  Varin. 
What  was  he  to  do?  Should  he  disband  his  com- 
munities which  were  performing  very  effective  work  in 
France  or  wait  for  developments?  The  Apostolic 
nuncio  at  Paris,  della  Genga,  decided  that  he  should 
continue  as  he  was  till  more  favorable  circumstances 
presented  themselves-.  They  had  not  long,  to  wait. 
The  emperor's  uncle,  Cardinal  Pesch,  had  thus  far 
protected  them,  but  in  1807  Napoleon  publicly  and 
angrily  reproached  him  for  this  patronage,  and  on 
November  ist  ordered  all  the  Fathers  to  report  to  their 
respective  dioceses  within  fifteen  days,  under  penalty 
of  being  sent  to  the  deadly  convict  colony  of  Guiana. 
Fouch6  offered  several  positions  of  honor  to  Varin 
and  on  his  refusal  to  accept  them,  drove  him  out  of 
Paris.  By  this  time,  however,  Varin  was  a  Jesuit  and 
was  following  the  directions  of  the  venerable  Father 
Clorivifere  who  had  been  empowered  to  receive  him. 

The  secession  of  the  Fathers  of  France  and  England 
was  quickly  imitated  by  the  communities  in  other  parts 
of  Europe.  Meanwhile  Paccanari's  conduct  became 
a  public  scandal.  A  canonical  process  was  instituted 
against  him  in  1808,  and  he  was  condemned  to  ten 
years"  imprisonment.  But  when  the  French  took 
possession  of  the  city  in  1809  and  opened  the  prison 
doors,  Paccanari  disappeared  from  view,  and  no  one 
ever  knew  what  became  of  him. 


The  Rallying  677 

While  the  work  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Faith  was  pro- 
gressing in  France  and  elsewhere,  the  saintly  Pignatelli, 
who  had  been  Angel  Guardian  of  the  Spanish  Jesuits 
when  they  were  expelled  from  their  native  land,  was 
accomplishing  much  for  the  general  establishment  of 
the  Society.  After  landing  in  Italy  where  the  Jesuits 
were  as  yet  unmolested,  he  had  betaken  himself,  with 
the  advice  of  the  provincial  to  Ferrara,  and  there 
housed  the  exiles  as  best  he  could.  He  also  established 
a  novitiate  in  connection  with  the  college  which  had 
been  handed  over  to  him;  but  all  this  was  swept  away 
when  the  Brief  of  Clement  XIV  suppressed  the  entire 
Society  in  1773.  Of  course,  the  first  thought  of 
Pignatelli  after  this  disaster  was  to  join  his  brethren 
in  Russia,  and  with  that  in  view  he  wrote  to  Pope 
Pius  VI,-  who  had  succeeded  Clement  XIV,  asking 
him  if  the  Jesuits  whom  Catherine  II  had  sheltered, 
really  belonged  to  the  Society.  The  reply  delighted 
him  beyond  measure,  for  it  told  him  that  he  might  go 
to  Russia  with  a  safe  conscience  and  put  on  the  habit 
of  the  Society.  The  Jesuits  there  really  belonged  to 
the  Society  for  the  Brief  of  Suppression  had  never 
reached  that  country.  The  Pontiff  also  added  that  he 
would  restore  the  Society  as  soon  as  possible;  and  if 
he  were  not  able  to  do  so  he  would  recommend  it  to 
his  successor. 

Pignatelli's  joy  knew  no  bounds,  and  he  immediately 
prepared  for  his  journey  to  the  North,  but  the 
Providence  of  God  kept  him  in  Italy,  for  the  Duke 
of  Parma,  though  a  son  of  Charles  III  of  Spain,  had 
resolved  to  recall  the  Jesuits  to  his  Duchy,  and  for  that 
purpose  had  written  to  Catherine  II  of  Russia  to  ask 
for  three  members  of  the  Society  to  organize  the  houses. 
The  empress  was  only  too  glad  to  accede  to  his  wish; 
on  February,  1794,  three  Jesuits  arrived  in  Parma 
and  began  their  work  at  Calorno,  just  when  Pius  VI 


678  The  Jesuits 

was  passing  through  that  city  on  his  way  to  the  prisons 
of  France.  The  opportunity  was  taken  advantage  of 
to  ask  the  august  captive  for  authorization  to  open 
a  novitiate  and  he  most  willingly  granted  the  request. 
Panizzoni,  who  was  then  provincial  of  Italy,  appointed 
Pignatelli  as  superior  and  master  of  novices.  Unfortu- 
nately the  Duke  of  Parma  died,  and  the  Duchy  was 
taken  over  by  Prance;  however,  the  Jesuits  were  not 
molested  for  a  year  and  a  half,  and  during  this  time 
Pignatelli,  who  was  exercising  the  office  of  provincial, 
succeeded  in  having  the  Society  restored  in  Naples 
and  Sicily.  This  was  in  1804.  But  when  Napoleon 
laid  his  hands  on  the  whole  of  the  peninsula  an  order 
was  formulated  for  the  expulsion  of  the  Jesuits. 
Fortunately  its  execution  was  not  rigorously  enforced 
and  colleges  were  established  in  Rome,  Tivoli,  Sardinia 
and  Orvieto. 

Meantime  matters  were  progressing  favorably  in 
Russia,  so  much  so  that  in  1803  Father  Angiolini  was 
sent  as  imperial  ambassador  to  the  Pope  to  solicit  alms 
for  the  missions.  When  he  appeared  in  Rome  dressed 
as  a  Jesuit,  he  found  himself  the  sensation  of  the  hour. 
The  Sovereign  Pontiff  received  him  with  effusive 
affection  and  granted  all  that  he  asked.  He  remained 
there  as  procurator  of  the  Society,  and  in  the  following 
year,  was  able  to  communicate  to  Father  Gruber  the 
pleasing  news  that,  at  the  request  of  King  Ferdinand, 
the  Society  had  been  re-established  in  the  Two  Sicilies. 
Father  Pignatelli  was  made  provincial,  and  as  many 
as  170  of  those  who  had  survived  after  Tanucci  had 
driven  them  out  thirty-seven  years  previously  came 
from  the  various  places  that  had  sheltered  them  during 
the  Suppression  to  resume  their  former  way  of  life. 
Several  of  them  who  had  been  made  bishops  asked 
the  Pope  for  permission  to  return  but  all  were  refused 
except  two,  Avogado  of  Verona  and  Bencassa  of  Carpi. 


The  Rallying  679 

The  whole  kingdom  welcomed  back  the  exiles  with 
enthusiasm.  The  King  came  in  person  to  open  the 
Church  which  he  had  persistently  refused  to  enter 
ever  since  the  expulsion;  at  the  first  Mass  he  and  the 
entire  royal  family  received  Holy  Communion.  He 
also  gave  the  Fathers  their  former  college,  and  endowed 
it  with  an  annual  income  of  forty  thousand  ducats. 
This  example  encouraged  others;  colleges  were  founded 
everywhere,  and  the  number  of  applicants  was  so 
great  that  the  conditions  for  admission  to  the  Society 
had  to  be  made  as  rigorous  as  possible.  Unfortunately 
this  happy  condition  of  affairs  did  not  last  long,  for  in 
March  1806,  Joseph  Bonaparte  replaced  Ferdinand  IV 
on  the  throne  of  Naples,  and  the  Jesuits  again  took 
the  road  of  exile.  The  Pope  offered  them  a  refuge 
in  Rome,  and  when  they  protested  that  such  a  course 
would  draw  on  him  the  wrath  of  Napoleon,  he  replied 
that  they  were  suffering  for  the  Church,  and  that  he 
must  receive  them  just  as  Clement  XIII  had  done 
when  they  were  exiled  from  Naples. 

While  these  events  were  occurring  in  Italy  and  France, 
an  opportunity  was  presented  to  the  Jesuits  of  Russia 
to  revive  their  old  missions  in  China.  Unfortunately 
it  was  frustrated.  The  story  as  told  in  the  "  Wood- 
stock Letters  "  (IV,  113)  is  a  veritable  Odyssey,  and 
is  particularly  interesting  to  Americans,  for  the  reason 
that  the  principal  personage  concerned  in  what  proved 
to  be  a  very  heroic  enterprise  became  subsequently  the 
President  of  Georgetown  College:  John  Anthony  Grassi. 

Grassi  was  a  native  of  Bergamo,  and  in  1799  entered 
the  novitiate  established  by  Father  Pignatelli  at 
Calorno.  He  thus  received  a  genuine  Jesuit  training 
and  escaped  the  influence  of  the  establishments  which 
Paccanari  was  inaugurating  in  Italy  just  as  that  time. 
From  Calorno  he  was  sent  to  Russia,  and  was  made 
Rector  of  the  College  of  Nobles  which  was  dependent 


680  The  Jesuits 

upon  the  establishment  at  Polotsk.  Meanwhile,  he 
was  preparing  himself  for  the  missions  of  Astrakhan, 
and  was  already  deep  in  the  study  of  Armenian  when  the 
Chinese  matter  was  brought  to  the  attention  of  Father 
Gruber  by  a  letter  from  a  member  of  the  old  Society, 
who  had  contrived  to  remain  in  China  ever  since  the 
Suppression.  He  was  Louis  Poirot.  It  appears  that 
his  ability  as  a  musician  had  charmed  the  emperor, 
and  thus  enabled  him  to  continue  his  evangelical 
work  in  the  Celestial  Empire. 

Hearing  of  the  establishment  in  Russia,  he  bethought 
himself  of  having  the  Jesuits  resume  their  old  place  in 
China,  evidently  unaware  that  the  Brief  of  1801 
expressly  declared  that  the  Society  had  been  established 
"  only  within  the  limits  of  the  Russian  Empire." 
But  not  knowing  this  he  availed  himself  of  the  return 
of  a  Lazarist  missionary  and  wrote  two  letters;  one  to 
the  Pope  and  another  to  the  Father  General  in  which 
he  said:  "  I  am  eighty  years  of  age  and  there  is  only 
one  thing  I  care  to  live  for.  It  is  to  see  the  Jesuits 
return  to  China/'  His  letter  to  the  General  ends  with 
a  request  to  be  permitted  to  renew  his  vows,  "  so  as 
to  die  a  true  son  of  the  Society  of  Jesus."  Between 
the  time  he  wrote  this  letter  and  its  arrival  in  Europe, 
the  limitation  of  the  approval  of  the  Society  to  Russia 
had  been  withdrawn,  and  Father  Gruber  immediately 
set  about  granting  the  venerable  and  faithful  old 
man's  request.  Happily  a  solemn  legation  was  just 
then  to  leave  St.  Petersburg  for  China,  and  the  ambas- 
sador, Golowkin,  was  urged  to  take  some  Jesuits  in 
his  suite.  The  offer  was  gladly  accepted,  but  it  was 
decided  that  it  should  be  better  for  the  priests  to  go 
by  the  usual  sea  route  than  to  accompany  the  embassy 
overland. 

Father  Grassi  was  considered  to  be  the  most  avail- 
able man  in  the  circumstances,  and  he  was  told  merely 


The  Rallying  681 

that  lie  was  to  go  to  a  distant  post,  and  that  his  com- 
panions were  to  be  Father  Korsack,  a  native  of  Russia 
and  a  German  lay-brother  named  Surmer,  who  hap- 
pened to  be  a  sculptor.  On  January  14,  1805,  they 
left  Polotsk,  and  travelling  day  and  night,  arrived  at 
St.  Petersburg  on  January  .19.  Only  then  were  they 
informed  that  their  destination  was  Pekin.  On  Feb- 
ruary 2  they  started^on  sleds  for  Sweden.  At  the 
end  of  three  days,  they  were  all  sick  and  exhausted, 
but  kept  bravely  on  till  they  reached  the  frontier  where 
they  found  shelter  in  a  little  inn.  Fortunately  a 
physician  happened  to  be  there  and  he  helped  them 
over  their  ailments,  so  that  in  ten  days  they  were 
able  to  resume  their  journey.  They  then  started  for 
Abo,  the  capital  of  Finland  and  from  there  crossed 
the  frozen  sea  at  top  speed,  till  they  reached  the 
Island  of  Aland.  On  March  20  they  traversed  the 
Gulf  of  Bothnia  in  a  mail  packet,  and  landed  safely 
on  the  shore  of  Sweden.  On  March  22  they  were  in 
Stockholm,  but  the  Abbe  Morrette,  the  superior  of 
the  Swedish  mission  to  whom  they  were  to  present  them- 
selves was  dead.  An  Italian  gentleman,  happily 
named  Fortuna,  who  was  Russian  Consul  at  that 
place,  took  care  of  them  and  presented  them  to  Alopeus, 
the  Russian  minister. 

Alopeus  dissuaded  them  from  going  to  England  as 
they  had  been  directed,  and  suggested  Copenhagen 
as  the  proper  place  to  embark.  Arrived  there,  they 
were  informed  that  there  was  a  ship  out  in  the  harbor, 
waiting  to  sail  for  Canton,  but  that  the  captain  refused 
to  take  any  passengers;  whereupon  they  determined 
to  follow  their  original  instructions,  and  after  a  stormy 
voyage  arrived  at  Gravesend  on  May  22.  From  there 
they  went  to  London  where  they  met  Father  Zohlmann. 

The  same  misfortune  attended  them  at  London  for 
although  Lord  Macartney,  who  had  known  the  Jesuits 


682  The  Jesuits 

in  Pekin,  did  everything  to  secure  them  a  passage  to 
China,  he  failed  utterly.  Then  acting  under  new 
instructions  they  set  sail  for  Lisbon  on  July  29,  but 
were  driven  by  contrary  winds  to  Cork  in  Ireland, 
where  of  course  they  met  with  the  heartiest  welcome 
from  everyone  especially  from  the  bishop.  They 
finally  landed  at  Lisbon  on 'September  28;  passing  as 
they  entered  the  harbor,  the  gloomy  fortress  of  St. 
Julian  where  so  many  of  their  brethren  had  been 
imprisoned  by  Pombal.  They  were  befriended  there 
by  an  Irish  merchant  named  Stack,  and  also  by  the 
rector  of  the  Irish  College;  but  were  finally  lodged 
in  an  old  dismantled  monastery  where  they  slept 
on  the  floor.  Then,  in  the  dress  of  secular  priests, 
they  presented  themselves  to  the  Apostolic  nuncio 
who  was  very  friendly  to  the  Society,  and  who  would 
have  been  a  Jesuit  himself  had  it  not  been  for  the 
opposition  of  his  family.  He  warned  them  to  be 
very  cautious  in  what  they  did  and  said,  and  informed 
them  that  there  were  very  few  ships  clearing  for  Macao. 
While  at  Lisbon,  they  devoted  themselves  to  the 
study  of  mathematics  and  astronomy,  and  after  two 
months  their  friend,  the  Irish  merchant,  came  to  tell 
them  that  there  was  a  ship  about  to  sail.  They 
hastened  to  advise  the  nuncio  of  it,  but  were  then 
told  that  they  could  not  go  to  China,  without  the 
Pope's  permission,  for  the  reason  that  the  Society 
had  been  suppressed  in  that  country.  They  also 
learned  from  a  missionary  priest  of  the  Propaganda, 
that  Rome  was  very  much  excited  about  their  proposed 
journey;  Father  Angiolini  who  was  then  in  Rome,  wrote 
to  the  same  effect.  It  was  then  March  1806.  Not 
knowing  what  to  do,  they  began  a  course  of  astronomy 
at  the  observatory  of  Coimbra,  but  unfortunately,  the 
founder  of  the  observatory,  an  ex- Jesuit,  Jos6  Monteiro 
da  Rocha,  was  very  hostile  to  the  Society;  and  even 


The  Rallying  683 

went  so  far  in  his  opposition  that  in  a  pubEc  oration 
before  the  university  he  had  praised  Pombal  extrava- 
gantly for  having  abolished  the  Order. 

The  wanderers  remained  at  Coimbra  for  two  months, 
and  then  rettirned  to  Lisbon.  On  their  -way  to  the 
capital  they  saw  the  unburied  coffin  of  Pombal.  On 
June  4  a  letter  came  from  England  which  revived  their 
hopes,  especially  as  it  was  followed  by  pecuniary 
help  from  the  czar;  but  soon  after  that,  they  received 
news  of  the  Russian  embassy's  failure  to  reach  China, 
and  they  also  heard  that  the  country  of  their  dreams 
was  in  the  wildest  excitement  because  a  missionary 
there  had  sent  a  map  of  the  empire  to  Europe.  The 
imprudent  Cartographer  was  imprisoned  and  an  imperial 
edict  announced  that  vengeance  was  to  be  taken  on  all 
Christians  in  the  empire.  Who  the  poor  man  was  we 
do  not  know.  It  could  not  have  been  old  Father 
Poirot.  He  was  merely  a  musician  and  not  a  maker 
of  maps.  On  December  2,  1806,  the  nuncio  at  Lisbon 
was  informed  that  the  Pope  quite  approved  of  the 
project  of  the  Fathers  and  had  urged  his  officials  to 
assist  them  to  carry  it  out.  The  reason  of  this  change 
of  mind  on  the  part  of  the  Holy  Father  is  explained  by 
the  fact  that  he  was  anxious  to  propitiate  Russia. 
Nevertheless,  the  nuncio  advised  them  to  wait  for 
further  developments. 

Another  year  went  by,  during  which  they  continued 
their  studies  and  made  some  conversions.  They  had 
also  the  gratification  of  being  introduced  to  the  Mar- 
chioness of  Tavora,  the  sole  survivor  of  the  illustrious 
house  which  Pombal  had  so  ruthlessly  persecuted. 
Finally  they  were  recalled  to  England,  which  they 
reached  on  November  16  1807,  after  a  month  of 
great  hardship  at  sea.  They  were  welcomed  at 
Liverpool  by  the  American  Jesuit,  Father  Sewall,  who 
was  at  that  time  sheltering  four  other  members  of  the 


684  The  Jesuits 

Society  in  his  house.  When  the  little  community  met 
at  table,  they  represented  seven  different  nationalities 
—  American,  English,  French,  German,  Italian,  Polish 
and  Belgian,  Father  Grassi  remained  in  England, 
chiefly  at  Stonyhurst  until  1810,  and  on  August  27 
of  that  year  set  sail  from  Liverpool  for  Baltimore, 
where  he  arrived  on  October  20.  He  had  thus  passed 
three  years  in  England  where  community  life  had  been 
carried  on  almost  without  interruption  from  the  time 
of  the  old  Society.  For  although  the  Brief  of  Sup- 
pression had  explicitly  forbidden  it,  nevertheless 
Clement's  successor  had  authorized  it  as  early  as 
1778,  and  had  permitted  the  pronouncement  of  the 
religious  vows  in  1803, —  a  privilege  that  was  extended 
to  the  Kingdom  of  Naples  in  1804.  Arriving  in  the 
United  States,  Father  Grassi  found  that  there  had  been 
virtually  no  interruption  of  the  Society's  traditions  in 
this  part  of  the  .world.  The  Fathers  had  been  in 
close  communication  'with  Russia  as  early  as  1805  and 
were  being  continually  reinforced  by  members  of 
the  Society  in  Europe.  When  the  Bull  of  Re-establish- 
ment was  issued  there  were  nineteen  Jesuits  in  the 
United  States. 


CHAPTER  XXIII 

THE  RESTORATION 

Tragic  death  of  Father  Gruber  —  Pall  of  Napoleon  —  Release  of  the 
Pope  —  The  Society  Re-established  —  Opening  of  Colleges  —  Clori- 
vi&re —  Welcome  of  the  Society  in  Spain  —  Repulsed  in  Portugal  — 
Opposed  by  Catholics  in  England  —  Announced  in  America  —  Carroll 
—  Penwick  —  Neale. 

IN  1805  the  Society  met  with  a  disaster  which  in 
the  circumstances  seemed  almost  irreparable.  During 
the  night  of  March  25-26  its  distinguished  General, 
Father  Gruber,  was  burned  to  death  in  his  residence 
at  St.  Petersburg.  His  friend,  the  Count  de  Maistre, 
who  was  still  ambassador  at  the  Russian  Court,  hurried 
to  the  scene  in  time  to  receive  his  dying  blessing  and 
farewell.  Gruber's  influence  was  so  great  in  Russia 
that  it  was  feared  no  one  could  replace  him.  His 
successor  was  Thaddeus  Brzozowski,  who  was  elected 
on  the  second  of  September,  Splendid  plans,  especially 
in  the  field  of  education  had  been  made  by  Gruber 
and  had  been  warmly  approved  of  by  the  emperor, 
but  they  had  to  be  set  aside  for  more  pressing  needs. 
Napoleon  was  just  then  devastating  Europe,  and  the 
very  existence  of  Russia  as  well  as  of  other  nations  was 
at  stake.  It  is  true  that  the  empire  was  at  peace  with 
France,  but  at  the  rupture  of  the  treaty  of  Amiens, 
Napoleon  complained  of  the  political  measures  of 
the  cabinet  of  St.  Petersburg,  and  the  ambassadors 
of  both  countries  received  their  papers  of  dismissal. 
The  result  was  that  a  coalition  of  Russia,  England, 
Austria  and  Sweden  was  formed  to  thwart  the  ambitions 
of  Napoleon  who  was  at  that  time  laying  claim  to  the 
whole  Italian  Peninsula.  War  was  declared  in  1805. 

'     [685] 


686  The  Jesuits 

Austerlitz  compelled  the  empire  to  accept  Napoleon's 
terms,  but  Prussia  and  Russia  continued  the  fight 
until  the  disasters  at  Jena,  Eylau  and  Friedland. 
Then  the  Emperor  of  Russia  and  the  King  of  Prussia 
met  Napoleon  on  a  raft  anchored  out  in  the  Niemen, 
where  on  the  eighth  and  ninth  of  July  peace  was 
agreed  to. 

At  Erfurt,  in  1808  Napoleon  and  Alexander  drew 
up  what  was  known  as  the  "  Continental  System,"  in 
accordance  with  which,  all  English  merchandise  was 
to  be  excluded  from  every  continental  nation.  This 
was  followed  by  a  defensive  alliance  of  Austria  and 
England,  and  as  Austria  was  Russia's  ally,  Alexander 
again  entered  the  fight  against  Napoleon,  but  the 
victory  of  Wagram  and  the  marriage  of  Napoleon 
with  the  Austrian  archduchess,  Maria  Louisa,  changed 
the  aspect  of  affairs  and  the  "  Continental  System  " 
was  restored,  but  in  so  modified  a  form  that  war 
broke  out  again,  and  in  1812  Napoleon  began  his 
Russian  Campaign.  The  battle  of  Smolensk  opened 
the  way  for  him  to  Moscow,  but  when  the  conqueror 
arrived  he  found  the  city  in  flames.  He  mistook  it 
for  an  act  of  surrender  and  Alexander  purposely 
detained  him,  discussing  the  terms  of  peace  until 
the  winter  set  in.  Then  the  conqueror  decided  to 
return,  but  it  was  too  late.  On  February  22,  1813, 
Alexander  sent  out  a  call  to  all  the  kings  of  Europe  to 
unite  against  Napoleon  and  they  eagerly  responded. 
He  beat  them  at  Lutzen  and  Bautzen,  and  in  Silesia, 
but  in  spite  of  his  success  he  had  to  continue  his  retreat. 
He  won  again  at  Dresden  and  Leipzig,  but  they  pursued 
him  relentlessly,  until  at  last  the  Rhine  was  reached. 
Peace  was  offered  in  December  1813,  but  when  its 
acceptance  was  delayed,  the  Allies  entered  France,  and 
on  March  3,  1814,  laid  siege  to  Paris.  The  city 
surrendered  on  the  following  dav. 


The  Restoration  687 

Meantime  Napoleon  had  released  Pius  VII  from 
captivity,  not  voluntarily,  but  as  a  political  measure, 
to  propitiate  the  anger  of  the  Catholics  of  the  world, 
who  were  beginning  to  open  their  eyes  to  the  extent 
of  the  outrage.  Eighteen  months  previously  he  had 
dragged  the  venerable  Pontiff  from  Rome  and  hurried 
him  night  and  day  over  the  Alps,  absolutely  heedless 
of  the  age  and  infirmity  of  his  victim,  until  at  last  the 
Pope  entered  Pontainebleau  a  prisoner.  According  to 
Pacca,  it  was  a  jail  more  than  a  palace.  There  by 
dint  of  threats  and  brutal  treatment  Napoleon  so 
wore  out  the  strength  of  the  aged  man  that  a  Concordat 
was  signed  which  sacrificed  some  of  the  most  sacred 
rights  of  the  Holy  See.  It  was  cancelled,  indeed, 
subsequently,  but  it  almost  drove  the  Pope  insane 
when  he  realized  the  full  import  of  what  he  had  been 
driven  to  concede.  "  I  shall  die  like  Clement  XIV," 
he  exclaimed.  But  his  jailer  was  heartless  and  it 
was  only  after  a  year  and  a  half  of  imprisonment,  and 
when  the  Allies  were  actually  entering  France  as 
conquerors,  that  he  made  up  his  mind  to  send  the 
Pontiff  back  to  Rome.  Had  he  done  it  with  less 
brutality  he  might  even  then,  have  succeeded  in  his 
calculations,  but  only  one  attendant  was  sent  to 
accompany  the  prisoner.  The  cardinals  were  purposely 
dismissed  some  days  later  in  batches,  and  ordered  to 
go  by  different  routes  so  as  to  prevent  any  popular 
demonstration  on  the  way. 

Pacca  overtook  the  Pope  at  Sinigaglia  on  May  12, 
and  on  May  24,  after  a  brief  stay  at  Ancona,  Loreto, 
Macerata,  Tolentino,  Poligno,  %  Spoleto,  Terni  and 
Nepi,  entered  Rome.  What  happened  at  these  places 
deserves  to  be  recorded,  as  it  shows  that  the  Faith 
was  not  only  not  dead  but  had  grown  more  intense 
because  of  the  outrages  of  which  the  Vicar  of  Christ 
had  been  the  object.  At  Ancona,  for  instance,  Artaud 


688  The  Jesuits 

tell  us,  "he  was  received  with  transports  of  delight. 
The  sailors  in  the  harbor  flocked  around  his  carriage, 
unhitched  the  horses  and  with  silken  ropes  of  yellow 
and  red  drew  it  triumphantly  through  the  city,  while 
the  cannon  thundered  from  the  ramparts,  and  the  bells 
of  every  tower  proclaimed  the  joy  of  the  people.  Prom 
the  top  of  a  triumphal  arch  the  Pope  gave  his  bene- 
diction to  the  kneeling  multitudes,  and  then  blessed 
the  wide  Adriatic.  Prom  there  he  went  to  the  palace 
of  the  Picis  for  a  brief  rest.  The  next  day  he  crowned 
the  statue  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  Queen  of  All  Saints, 
and  then  set  out  for  Osimo  escorted  as  far  as,  Loreto 
by  a  scarlet-robed  guard  of  honor.  Entering  Rome 
by  the  Porto  del  Popolo,  his  carriage  was  drawn  by 
young  noblemen,  and  he  was  met  by  a  procession  of 
little  orphan  children  chosen  from  the  Protectory  of 
Providence,  They  were  all  clothed  in  white  robes 
and  in  their  hands  they  held  golden  palm  branches 
which  they  waved  above  their  heads,  while  their  young 
voices  fitted  the  air  with  jubilant  songs.  When  the 
crowd  became  too  dense,  the  little  ones  knelt  before 
him  to  present  their  emblems  of  peace,  which  he 
affectionately  received,  while  tears  rolled  down  his 
cheeks.  At  last,  the  city  gates  were  reached  and 
he  proceeded  along  the  streets  lined  on  either  side  by 
kneeling  multitudes  who  were  overcome  with  joy 
at  his  return." 

Almost  the  first  official  act  of  the  Pope  was  to 
re-establish  the  Society.  How  that  came  about  may 
be  best  told  in  the  words  of  his  faithful  servant,  Cardinal 
Pacca. 

"While  we  were  in  prison  together,"  says  the 
illustrious  cardinal,  "I  had  never  tired  of  adroi+ly 
leading  the  conversation  up  to  this  important  matter, 
so  as  to  furnish  His  Holiness  with  useful  information 
if  ever  it  happened  that  he  would  again  ascend  the 


The  Restoration  689 

Chair  of  St.  Peter.  In  those  interviews  he  never 
failed  to  manifest  the  greatest  esteem  and  affection 
for  the  Society.  The  situation  in  which  we  found 
ourselves  was  remarkable,  and  it  shows  the  admirable 
Providence  of  God  with  regard  to  this  celebrated 
Society. 

"  When  Baxnabo  Chiaramonte  was  a  young  Bene- 
dictine, he  had  teachers  and  professors  in  theology 
whose  sentiments  were  anti- Jesuit,  and  they  filled  his 
mind  with  theological  views  that  were  most  opposed 
to  those  maintained  by  the  Society.  Everyone  knows 
what  profound  impressions  early  teaching  leaves  in  the 
mind;  and,  as  for  myself,  I  also  had  been  inspired 
from  my  youth  with  sentiments  of  aversion,  hatred 
and,  I  might  say,  a  sort  of  fanaticism  against  the 
illustrious  Society.  It  will  suffice  to  add  that  my 
teachers  put  in  my  hands  and  ordered  me  to  make 
extracts  from  the  famous  '  Lettres  Provinciates/  first 
in  French  and  then  in  Latin,  with  the  notes  of  Wendrok 
(Nicole)  which  were  still  more  abominable  than  the 
text.  I  read  also  in  perfect  good  faith,  c  La  morale 
pratique  des  Jesuites,'  and  other  works  of  that  kind 
and  accepted  them  as  true. 

"  Who  then  would  have  believed  that  the  first  act 
of  the  Benedictine  Chiaramonte  who  had  become 
Pope,  immediately  after  emerging  from  the  frightful 
tempest  of  the  Revolution,  and  in  the  face  of  so  many 
sects,  then  raging  against  the  Jesuits,  should  be  the 
re-establishment  of  the  Society  throughout  the  Catholic 
world;  or  that  I  should  have  prepared  the  way  for  this 
new  triumph;  or,  finally,  that  I  should  have  been 
appointed  by  the  Pope  to  carry  out  those  orders 
which  were  so  acceptable  to  me  and  conferred  on  me 
so  much  honor?  For  both  the  Pope  and  myself, 
this  act  was  a  source  of  supreme  satisfaction.  I  was 
present  in  Rome  on  the  two  memorable  occasions  of 

44 


690  The  Jesuits 

the  Suppression  and  the  Re-establishment  of  the 
Society,  and  I  can  testify  to  the  different  impressions 
they  produced.  Thus,  on  August  17,  1773,  ^e  day 
of  the  publication  of  the  Brief  '  Dominus  ac  Re- 
demptor,1  one  saw  surprise  and  sorrow  painted  on 
every  face;  whereas  on  August  7,  1814,  the  day  of  the 
resurrection  of  the  Society,  Rome  rang  with  accla- 
mations of  satisfaction  and  approval.  The  people 
followed  the  Pope  from  the  Quirinal  to  the  Ges&,  where 
the  Bull  was  to  be  read,  and  made  the  return  of  the 
Pope  to  his  palace  a  triumphal  procession. 

"  I  have  deemed  it  proper  to  enter  into  these  details, 
in  order  to  profit  by  the  occasion  of  these  *  Memoirs  ' 
to  make  a  solemn  retraction  of  the  imprudent  utterances 
that  I  may  have  made  in  my  youth  against  a  Society 
which  has  merited  so  well  from  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ." 

Some  of  the  cardinals  were  opposed  to  the  Restor- 
ation, out  of  fear  of  the  commotion  it  was  sure  to  excite. 
Even  Consalvi  would  have  preferred  to  see  it  deferred 
for  a  few  months,  but  it  is  a  calumny  to  say  that  he 
was  antagonistic  to  the  Society.  'As  early  as  February 
I3>  *799>  he  wrote  as  follows  to  Albani,  the  legate  at 
Vienna:  "You  do  me  a  great,  a  very  great  wrong, 
if  you  ever  doubted  that  I  was  not  convinced  that  the 
Jesuits  should  be  brought  back  again.  I  call  God 
to  witness  that  I  always  thought  so,  although  I  was 
educated  in  colleges  which  were  not  favorable  to  them, 
but  I  did  not  on  that  account  think  ill  of  them.  In 
those  days,  however,  I  did  say  one  thing  of  them,  viz., 
that  although  I  was  fully  persuaded  of  their  impor- 
tance, I  declared  it  to  be  fanatical  to  pretend  that  the 
Church  could  not  stand  without  them,  since  it  had 
existed  for  centuries  before  they  existed,  but  when 
I  saw  the  French  Revolution  and  when  I  got  to  really 
understand  Jansenism,  I  then  thought  and  think  now 


The  Restoration  691 

that  without  the  Jesuits  the  Church  is  in  very  bad 
straits.  If  it  depended  on  me,  I  would  restore  the 
Society  to-morrow.  I  have  frequently  told  that  to 
the  Pope,  who  has  always  desired  their  restoration, 
but  fear  of  the  governments  that  were  opposed  to 
it  made  him  put  it  off,  though  he  always  cherished 
the  hope  that  he  could  bring  it  about.  He  would  do 
it  if  he  lived;  and  if  he  were  unable  he  would  advise 
his  successor  to  do  it  as  quickly  as  possible.  The 
rulers  of  the  nations  will  find  out  that  the  Jesuits  will 
make  their  thrones  secure  by  bringing  back  religion/' 

Of  course,  the  thought  of  restoring  the  Society  did 
not  originate  with  Pius  VII  and  Pacca.  Pius  VI  had 
repeatedly  declared  that  he  would  have  brought  it 
about  had  it  been  at  all  feasible.  Even  after  the 
return  of  Pius  VII  to  Rome,  some  of  the  most  devoted 
friends  of  the  Jesuits,  as  we  have  seen,  thought  that 
the  difficulties  were  insuperable;  but  the  Pope  judged 
otherwise,  and  hence  the  affection  with  which  the 
Society  will  ever  regard  him.  Indeed,  he  had  already 
gone  far  in  preparing  the  way  for  it.  He  had  approved 
of  the  Society  in  Russia,  England,  America  and  Italy. 
He  had  permitted  Father  Fonteyne  to  establish  com- 
munities in  the  Netherlands;  Father  Clorivi£re  was 
doing  the  same  thing  in  France  with  his  approval  so 
that  everyone  was  expecting  the  complete  restoration 
to  take  place  at  any  moment.  The  Father  provincial 
of  Italy  had  announced  that  the  Bull  would  be  issued 
before  Easter  Sunday  1814,  although  some  of  his 
brethren  laughed  at  him  and  thought  he  was  losing 
his  mind.  This  did  not  disturb  him,  however,  and  in 
June,  1814  he  knelt  before  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  and 
in  the  name  of  Father  General  Brzozowski  presented 
the  following  petition: 

"  We,  the  Father  General  and  the  Fathers  who,  by 
the  benignity  of  the  Holy  See,  reside  in  Russia  and 


592  The  Jesuits 

in  Sicily,  desiring  to  meet  the  wishes  of  certain  princes 
who  ask  our  assistance  in  the  education  of  the  youth  of 
their  realms,  humbly  implore  Your  Highness  to  remove 
the  difficulty  created  by  the  Brief  of  Clement  XIV  and 
to  restore  the  Society  to  its  former  state  in  accordance 
with  the  last  confirmation  of  it  by  Clement  XIII,  so 
that  in  whatever  country  we  may  be  asked  for  we  may 
give  to  the  princes  above  referred  to  whatever  help 
the  needs  of  their  several  countries  may  demand.*1 

On  June  17,  Pius  VII  let  it  be  known  that  he  was 
more  than  eager  to  satisfy  the  wish  of  the  petitioners; 
and  a  few  days  afterwards,  when  Cardinal  Pacca  said 
to  him,  "  Holy  Father,  do  you  not  think  we  ought  to 
do  what  we  so  often  spoke  of? "  he  replied,  "  Yes; 
we  can  re-establish  the  Society  of  Jesus  on  the  next 
feast  of  Saint  Ignatius."  Even  Pacca  was  taken 
aback  by  the  early  date  that  was  fixed  upon,  for  there 
was  not  a  month  and  a  half  to  prepare  for  it.  The 
outside  world  was  even  still  more  surprised,  and  the 
enemies  of  the  Society  strove  to  belittle  the  Pontifical 
act  by  starting  the  report  that  it  was  not  the  old  Society 
that  was  going  to  be  brought  back  to  life;  only  a  new 
congregation  was  to  be  approved.  That  idea  took 
possession  of  the  public  mind  to  such  an  extent  that 
Father  de  Zliniga,  the  provincial  of  Sicily,  brought  it 
to  the  attention  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff.  "  On  the 
contrary,"  said  Pius,  "  it  is  the  same  Society  which 
existed  for  two  hundred  years,  although  now  circum- 
scribed by  some  restrictions,  because  there  will  be  no 
mention  of  privileges  in  the  Bull,  and  there  are  other 
things  which  will  have  to  be  inserted,  on  account  of 
circumstances  in  France  and  Spain  and  the  needs  of 
certain  bishops." 

The  chief  difficulty  was  in  draughting  the  document. 
The  time  was  very  short  and  some  of  the  cardinals 
were  of  opinion  that  the  courts  of  Europe  should  be 


me  Kestoration 


consulted  about  it.  But  Pacca  and  the  Pope  both 
swept  aside  that  suggestion.  They  had  had  a  sad 
experience  -with  the  courts  of  Europe.  Hence  Cardinal 
Litta,  who  when  ablegate  at  St.  Petersburg  had  asked 
for  the  confirmation  of  the  Society  in  Russia,  was 
chosen  to  draw  up  the  Bull.  He  addressed  himself 
to  the  task  with  delight  and  presented  to  the  Pope  a 
splendid  defense  of  the  Society  which  he  declared 
"  had  been  guilty  of  no  fault  ;  "  but  when  he  added  that 
"  the  suppression  had  been  granted  by  Clement  XIV 
unwillingly/'  and  that  "it  was  to  be  ascribed  to  the 
wicked  devices,  the  atrocious  calumnies,  and  the  impious 
principles  of  false  political  science  and  philosophy 
which,  by  the  destruction  of  the  Order,  foolishly 
imagined  that  the  Church  could  be  destroyed,"  the 
language  was  found  to  be  too  strong  and  even  Cardinal 
di  Pietro,  who  was  a  staunch  friend  of  the  Society, 
protested  vehemently  against  it.  Indeed,  di  Pietro 
went  so  far  as  to  say  that  certain  changes  should  be 
,1118x16  in  the  Institute  before  the  Bull  was  issued. 
Other  members  of  the  Sacred  College  were  of  the  same 
opinion,  but  did  not  express  themselves  so  openly. 
They  were  afraid  to  do  so,  because  the  popular  joy  was 
so  pronounced  at  the  news  of  the  proposed  restoration 
that  anyone  opposing  it  would  run  the  risk  of  being 
classed  as  an  enemy. 

As  a  compromise,  the  Pope  set  aside  the  Bull  drawn 
up  by  Litta  and  also  the  corrections  by  di  Pietro,  and 
entrusted  the  work  to  Pacca.  It  was  his  draught  that 
was  finally  published.  It  makes  no  mention  of  any 
change  or  mutilation  of  the  Institute;  neither  does  it 
name  nor  abrogate  any  privilege;  it  is  not  addressed 
to  any  particular  State,  as  some  wished,  but  to  the 
whole  world;  it  does  not  reprehend  anyone,  nor  does  it 
subject  to  the  Propaganda  the  foreign  missions  which 
the  Society  might  undertake.  Some  of  the  "black 


694  The  Jesuits 

cardinals "  such  as  Brancadoro,  Gabrielli,  Litta, 
Mattel  an(d  even  di  Pietro,  asked  for  greater  praise 
in  it  for  the  Society,  while  others  wanted  it  just  as 
Pacca  had  written  it;  Mattei  objected  to  the  expression 
"  primitive  rule  of  St.  Ignatius/1  because  the  words 
would  seem  to  imply  that  the  Society  had  adopted 
another  at  some  time  in  its  history  and  he  also  wanted 
the  reason  of  the  restoration  to  be  explicitly  stated, 
namely:  "  the  Pope's  deep  conviction  of  the  Society's 
usefulness  to  the  Church/'  His  reason  was  that  many 
had  asked  for  it;  but  only  some  of  his  suggestions 
were  accepted. 

These  details  prevented  the  publication  of  the  Bull 
on  July  31,  hence  August  7,  the  octave  of  the  feast  was 
chosen. 

A  few  extracts  from  it  will  suffice.  Its  title  is  "  The 
Constitution  by  which  the  Society  of  Jesus  is  restored 
in  its  pristine  state  throughout  the  Catholic  World." 
The  preamble  first  refers  to  the  Brief  "  Catholicse 
fidei "  which  confirmed  the  Society  in  Russia  and  also 
to  the  "Per  alias"  which  restored  it  in  the  Two 
Sicilies.  It  then  says:  "The  Catholic  world  unani- 
mously demands  the  re-establishment  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus.  Every  day  we  are  receiving  most  urgent 
petitions  from  our  venerable  brothers,  the  archbishops 
and  bishops  of  the  Church,  and  from  other  most  dis- 
tinguished personages  to  that  effect.  The  dispersion 
of  the  very  stones  of  the  sanctuary  in  the  calamitous 
days  which  we  shudder  even  to  recall,  namely  the 
destruction  of  a  religious  order  which  was  the  glory  and 
the  support  of  the  Catholic  Church,  now  makes  it 
imperative  that  we  should  respond  to  the  general  and 
just  desire  for  its  restoration.  In  truth,  we  should 
consider  ourselves  culpable  of  a  grievous  sin  in  the 
sight  of  God,  if,  in  the  great  dangers  to  which  the 
Christian  commonwealth  is  exposed,  we  should  fail  to 


The  Restoration  695 

avail  ourselves  of  the  help  which  the  special  Providence 
of  God  now  puts  at  our  disposal;  if,  seated  as  we  are 
in  the  Barque  of  Peter,  we  should  refuse  the  aid  of  the 
tried  and  vigorous  mariners  who  offer  themselves  to 
face  the  surges  of  the  sea  which  threaten  us  with 
shipwreck  and  death.  Therefore,  we  have  resolved 
to  do  to-day  what  we  have  longed  from  the  first  days 
of  our  Pontificate  to  be  able  to  accomplish,  and,  hence, 
after  having  in  fervent  prayer  implored  the  Divine 
assistance,  and  having  sought  the  advice  and  counsel  of 
a  great  number  of  our  venerable  brothers,  the  cardinals 
of  the  Holy  Roman  Church,  we  have  decreed,  with 
certain  knowledge,  and  in  virtue  of  the  plenitude  of 
our  Apostolic  power,  that  all  the  concessions  and  facul- 
ties accorded  by  us  to  the  Russian  empire  and  the 
Two  Sicilies,  in  particular,  shall  henceforward  be 
extended  in  perpetuity  to  all  other  countries  of  the 
world. 

"Wherefore,  we  concede  and  accord  to  our  well- 
beloved  son  Thaddeus  BrzozowsM,  at  present  the 
General  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  to  the  other 
members  of  the  Society  delegated  by  him,  all  proper 
and  necessary  powers  to  receive  and  welcome  freely 
and  lawfully  all  those  who  desire  to  be  admitted  into 
the  Regular  Order  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  that, 
under  the  authority  of  the  General  at  the  time  such 
persons  may  be  received  into  and  assigned  to  one  or 
many  houses,  or  colleges  or  provinces,  as  needs  be, 
wherein  they  shall  follow  the  rule  prescribed  by  St. 
Ignatius  Loyola,  which  was  confirmed  by  the  Consti- 
tutions of  Paul  III.  Over  and  above  this,  we  declare 
them  to  possess  and  we  hereby  concede  to  them  the 
power  of  devoting  themselves  freely  and  lawfully 
to  educate  youth  in  the  principles  of  the  Catholic 
religion;'  to  train  them  in  morality;  to  direct  colleges 
and  seminaries;  to  preach  and  to  administer  the  sacra- 


696  The  Jesuits 

ments  in  their  place  of  residence,  with  the  consent  and 
approbation  of  the  ordinary.  We  take  under  our 
protection  and  tinder  our  immediate  obedience  as 
well  as  that  of  the  Apostolic  See,  all  the  colleges,  all 
the  houses,  all  the  provinces,  all  the  members  of  the 
Order,  and  all  those  who  are  gathered  in  their  estab- 
lishments, reserving  nevertheless  to  Ourself,  and  to 
the  Roman  Pontiffs,  our  successors,  to  decree  and  pre- 
scribe whatever  we  consider  it  our  duty  to  decree  and 
prescribe  as  necessary  to  consolidate  more  and  more 
the  same  Society,  in  order  to  render  it  stronger  and  to 
purge  it  from  abuse,  if  ever  (which  may  God  avert) 
any  may  be  found  therein.  And  we  exhort  with  our 
whole  heart,  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  all  superiors, 
rectors  and  provincials,  as  well  as  all  the  members 
and  pupils  of  this  re-established  Order  to  show  them- 
selves in  all  places,  faithful  imitators  of  their  Father. 
Let  them  observe  with  exactness  the  rule  prescribed 
for  them  by  their  great  founder,  and  let  them  follow 
with  ever  increasing  zeal  the  useful  admonitions  and 
counsels  which  he  has  left  for  the  guidance  of  his  sons. 

"  Finally  we  earnestly  recommend  in  the  Lord  this 
Society  and  its  members  to  the  illustrious  kings  and 
princes  and  temporal  lords  of  the  various  nations,  as 
well  as  to  our  venerable  brothers,  the  archbishops  and 
bishops  and  whosoever  may  occupy  positions  of  honor 
and  authority.  We  exhort  them,  nay  we  conjure  them, 
not  only  not  to  suffer  that  these  religious  should  be 
molested,  in  any  manner,  but  to  see  that  they  should 
be  treated  with  the  benevolence  and  the  charity 
which  they  deserve." 

A  difficulty  now  arose  as  to  the  person  into  whose 
hands  the  Bull  was  to  be  delivered.  It  was  impossible 
for  the  General  to  be  present,  for  he  was  unable  to 
obtain  permission  of  the  emperor  to  take  part  in 
what  concerned  him  more  than  any  other  member  of 


The  Restoration  697 

the  Society  —  a  condition  of  things  which  made  it 
evident  that  the  residence  of  the  next  General  had  to 
be  in  some  other  place  than  Russia.  That,  of  course, 
the  czar  would  never  permit  and  the  expulsion  of  the 
Society  from  Russia  was  from  that  moment  a  fore- 
gone conclusion.  Angiolini,  who  was  rather  conspicu- 
ous in  Rome  at  that  time,  possibly  because  he  had 
some  years  before  arrived  in  the  city  as  an  envoy 
from  the  Russian  court,  was  first  thought  of.  In 
fact  the  Pope  had  already  named  him,  but  Albers 
in  his  "  Liber  saecularis  "  does  not  hesitate  to  say  that 
Angiolini  sought  the  honor,  and  had  succeeded  in 
enlisting  the  interest  of  Cardinal  Litta  in  his  behalf. 
But  he  was  known  to  be  a  man  of  impetuous  character, 
eager  to  be  concerned  in  every  matter  of  importance 
and  decidedly  headstrong.  The  provincial  was  chosen, 
therefore,  to  represent  the  General,  and  Angiolini  was 
consoled  by  being  made  consultor  of  the  Congregation 
of  Rites.  The  difficulty  seems  almost  childish,  for 
whatever  prominence  Angiolini  possessed,  it  was 
purely  personal  whereas  that  of  Father  Panizzoni  was 
official  It  may  be,  however,  that  Angiolini's  friend- 
ship for  Rezzi,  who  attempted  to  wreck  the  Society 
at  the  first  congregation,  had  laid  him  open  to  suspicion. 
At  last  the  great  day  arrived*  It  was  Sunday;  and 
all  Rome  was  seen  flocking  to  the  Gesft.  As  early 
as  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning,  as  many  as  one  hun- 
dred Jesuits  along  with  the  College  of  Cardinals  were 
waiting  to  receive  the  Pope.  He  arrived  at  last  and 
said  Mass  at  the  high  altar.  He  then  proceeded  to 
the  chapel  of  the  Sodality  which  was  crowded  with 
bishops  and  most  of  the  notables  then  in  the  city. 
Among  them  were  Queen  Marie  Louise  of  Bourbon,  the 
wife  of  Charles  IV  of  Spain,  with  her  niece  and  three 
sons.  It  was  Spain's  reparation  for  the  wrong  it  had 
done  the  Society,  Behind  the  cardinals,  ia  a  double 


698  The  Jesuits 

row  were  the  Spanish,  Italian  and  Portuguese  Jesuits; 
the  youngest  of  whom  was  sixty  years  of  age,  while 
there  were  others  still  who  had  reached  eighty-six. 
It  is  even  asserted  that  there  was  present  one  old 
Jesuit  who  was  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  years  old. 
His  name  was  Albert  Montalto  and  he  had  been  in 
the  Society  for  one  hundred  and  eight  years.  He  was 
born  in  1689,  was  admitted  to  the  novitiate  in  1706 
and  hence  was  sixty-four  years  old  at  the  time  of 
the  Suppression. 

This  beautiful  fairy  story  is  vouched  for  by  Cr6tin- 
eau-Joly  (V,  436),  but  Albers,  in  his  "  Liber  ssecularis," 
tells  us  that  there  is  no  such  name  as  Montalto  or 
Montaud  in  the  Catalogue  of  1773  or  in  Vivier's 
"  Catalogus  Mortuorum  Societatis  Jesu." 

When  the  Pope  had  taken  his  seat  upon  the  throne, 
he  handed  the  Bull  to  Belisario  Cristaldi,  who  in  a 
clear  voice,  amid  the  applause  of  all  in  the  chapel, 
read  the  consoling  words  which  the  Jesuits  listened 
to  with  tears  and  sobs.  Then  one  by  one  some 
hobbling  up  with  the  help  of  their  canes,  others  lean- 
ing on  the  arms  of  the  distinguished  men  present, 
knelt  at  the  feet  of  the  Pontiff,  who  spoke  to  them  all 
with  the  deepest  and  tenderest  affection.  For  them 
it  was  the  happiest  day  of  their  lives  and  the  old  men 
among  them  could  now  sing  their  "  Nunc  dimittis." 

Pacca  then  handed  to  Panizzoni  a  paper  appointing 
him  superior  of  the  Roman  house,  until  the  nomina- 
tion arrived  from  Father  General.  The  professed 
house,  the  novitiate  of  Sant'  Andrea  and  other  properties 
were  also  made  over  to  the  Society  with  a  monthly 
payment  of  five  hundred  scudL 

On  entering  the  Gesft,  the  Fathers  found  the  house 
almost  in  the  same  condition  as  when  Father  Ricci 
and  his  assistants  left  it  in  1773,  to  go  to  the  dungeons 
of  Sant'  Angdo.  It  was  occupied  by  a  community 


The  Restoration  699 

of  priests,  most  of  them  former  Jesuits,  who  had  con- 
tinued to  serve  the  adjoining  church,  which,  though 
despoiled  of  most  of  its  treasures,  still  possessed  the  re- 
mains of  St.  Ignatius.  Two  years  later,  the  novitiate  of 
Sant*  Andrea  was  so  crowded  that  a  second  one  had 
to  be  opened  at  Reggio.  Among  the  novices  at  that 
place  was  Charles  Emanuel,  King  of  Sardinia,  who  had 
resigned  his  crown  to  enter  the  Society.  He  died  there 
in  1819.  In  1815  the  Jesuits  had  colleges  in  Orvieto, 
Viterbo,  Tivoli,  Urbino,  Perentino,  and  Galloro, 
Modena,  Forli,  Genoa,  Turin,  Novarra,  and  a  little 
later,  Nice.  In  Parma  and  Naples,  they  had  been 
at  work  prior  to  1814. 

Just  eight  days  before  these  happenings  in  Rome, 
an  aged  Jesuit  in  Paris  saw  assembled  around  him 
ten  distinguished  men  whom  he  had  admitted  to  the 
Society.  It  was  July  31,  the  feast  of  St.  Ignatius, 
and  the  place  of  the  meeting  was  full  of  tragic  memories. 
It  was  the  chapel  of  the  Abbaye  des  Cannes,  where, 
in  the  general  massacre  of  priests  which  took  place 
there  in  1792,  twelve  Jesuits  had  been  murdered.  In 
the  old  man's  mind  there  were  still  other  memories. 
Fifty-two  years  before,  he  and  his  religious  brethren 
had  been  driven  like  criminals  from  their  native  land. 
Forty  years  had  passed  since  the  whole  Society  had 
been  suppressed.  He  had  witnessed  all  the  horrors 
of  the  French  Revolution,  and  now  as  he  was  nearing 
eternity  —  he  was  then  eighty-five  —  he  saw  at  his 
feet  a  group  of  men  some  of  whom  had  already  gained 
distinction  in  the  world,  but  who  at  that  moment, 
had  only  one  ambition,  that  of  being  admitted  into 
the  Society  of  Jesus,  which  they  hoped  would  be  one 
day  re-established.  They  never  dreamed  that  seven 
days  after  they  had  thus  met  at  the  Abbaye  to  cele- 
brate the  feast  of  St.  Ignatius,  Pius  VII  who  had 
returned  from  his  captivity  in  France  would,-  by  the 


700  The  Jesuits 

Bull  "Sollicitudo  omnium  ecclesiarum/'  solemnly 
re-establish  the  Society  throughout  the  world. 

The  old  priest  was  Pierre- Joseph  Picot  de  Clori- 
vi£re.  He  was  born  at  St.  Malo,  June  29,  1735  and 
had  entered  the  Society  on  August  14,  1756.  He  was 
teaching  a  class  at  Compi£gne  when  Choiseul  drove 
the  Society  out  of  the  country,  but  though  he  was 
only  a  scholastic,  it  had  no  effect  on  his  vocation.  He 
attached  himself  to  the  English  province,  and  after 
finishing  his  course  of  theology  at  Li£ge  in  Belgium,  was 
professed  of  the  four  vows  about  a  month  after  Clement 
XIV  had  issued  his  Brief  of  Suppression.  The  decree 
had  not  yet  been  promulgated  in  the  Netherlands, 
Instead  of  going  to  England  as  one  would  expect,  he 
returned  to  his  native  country  as  a  secular  priest,  and 
we  find  him  in  charge  of  a  parish  at  Param6  from  1775 
to  1779.  He  was  also  the  director  of  the  diocesan 
College  of  Dinan,  where  he  remained  up  to  the  time 
of  the  Revolution.  Meantime,  he  was  writing  pious 
books  and  founding  two  religious  congregations,  one 
for  priests,  the  other  for  pious  women  in  the  world. 
The  former  went  out  of  existence  in  1825.  The  latter 
still  flourishes. 

Having  refused  to  take  the  constitutional  oath,  he 
was  debarred  from  all  ecclesiastical  functions,  and 
began  to  think  of  offering  himself  to  his  old  friend  and 
classmate  at  Li£ge,  Bishop  Carroll,  to  work  on  the 
Maryland  missions;  but  one  thing  or  another  pre- 
vented him  from  carrying  out  his  purpose,  though 
on  the  other  hand  it  is  surprising  that  he  could  make 
up  his  mind  to  remain  in  France.  His  brother  had 
been  guillotined  in  1793;  his  niece  met  the  same  fate 
later;  his  sister,  a  Visitation  nun,  was  put  in  prison 
and  escaped  death  only  by  Robespierre's  fall  from 
power;  several  of  his  spiritual  followers  had  perished 
in  the  storm,  but  he  contrived  to  escape  until  1801, 


The  Restoration  701 

when,  owing  to  his  relationship  with  Limoellan,  who 
was  implicated  in  the  conspiracy  to  kiH  the  First 
Consul,  he  was  lodged  in  jail.  He  was  then  sixty- 
nine  years  old. 

During  his  seven  years  of  imprisonment,  he  wrote 
voluminous  commentaries  on  the  Bible,  chiefly  the 
Apocalypse.  He  also  devoted  himself  to  the  spiritual 
improvement  of  his  fellow-prisoners,  one  of  whom,  a 
Swiss  Calvinist  named  Christin,  became  a  Catholic. 
As  Christin  had  been  an  attache  of  the  Russian  embassy 
he  posted  off  to  Russia  when  he  was  liberated  in  1805, 
taking  with  him  a  letter  from  Clorivi£re  to  the  General 
of  the  Society,  asking  permission  for  the  writer  to 
renew  his  profession  and  to  enter  the  Russian  province. 
Of  course,  both  requests  were  granted.  "When  he 
was  finally  discharged  from  custody  in  1809,  Clori- 
viere  wrote  again  to  Russia  to  inform  the  General 
that  Bishop  Carroll  wanted  to  have  him  go  out  to 
Maryland  as  master  of  novices.  As  for  himself  though  he 
was  seventy-five  years  of  age,  he  was  quite  ready  to 
accede  to  the  bishop's  request.  The  General's  decision, 
however,  was  that  it  would  be  better  to  remain  in 
France. 

Meantime,  Father  Varin,  the  superior  of  the  Fathers 
of  the  Faith,  had  convoked  the  members  of  his  com- 
munity to  consider  how  they  could  carry  out  the  original 
purpose  of  their  organization,  namely:  to  unite  with 
the  Jesuits  of  Russia,  but  no  progress  had  been  made 
up  to  1814.  In  his  perplexity,  he  consulted  Mgr.  della 
Genga  who  was  afterwards  Leo  XII,  and  also  Father 
Clorivi&re.  But  to  his  dismay,  both  of  them  told  him 
to  leave  the  matter  in  statu  quo.  This  was  all  the 
more  disconcerting,  because  he  had  just  heard  that 
Father  Fonteyne,  who  was  at  Amsterdam,  had  already 
received  several  Fathers  of  the  Faith.  Whereupon 
he  posted  off  to  Holland,  and  was  told  that  both  della 


702  The  Jesuits 

Genga  and  Clorivi&re  were  wrong  in  their  decision. 
To  remove  every  doubt  he  was  advised  to  write 
immediately  to  Russia,  or  better  yet  to  go  there  in 
person.  He  determined  to  do  both.  At  the  beginning 
of  June  1814,  he  returned  to  France  to  tell  his  friends 
the  result  of  his  conference  with  Father  Fonteyne, 
but  during  his  absence  Clorivi£re  had  been  commis- 
sioned by  Father  BrzozowsH  to  do  in  France  what 
Fonteyne  had  been  doing  in  Holland.  That  settled 
everything,  and  on  July  19,  1814,  Fathers  Varin, 
Boissard,  Roger  and  Jennesseaux  were  admitted 
to  the  novitiate;  and  a  few  days  later,  Dumouchel, 
Bequet,  Ronsin,  Coulon,  Loriquet,  with  a  lay  brother 
followed  their  example.  On  the  3ist,  St.  Ignatius' 
Day,  they  all  met  at  the  Abbaye  to  entreat  the  Founder 
of  the  Society  to  bless  tods  inauguration  of  the  province 
of  France. 

In  virtue  of  his  appointment  Father  Clorivi&re 
found  that  he  had  now  to  take  care  of  seventy  novices, 
most  of  whom  were  former  Fathers  of  the  Faith; 
in  this  rapidly  assembled  throng  it  was  impossible 
to  carry  out  the  whole  scheme  of  a  novitiate  training 
in  all  its  details.  Indeed,  the  only  "  experiment " 
given  to  the  newcomers  was  the  thirty-days  retreat, 
and  that,  the  venerable  old  superior  undertook  him- 
self .  Perhaps  it  was  age  that  made  him  talkative, 
perhaps  it  was  over-flowing  joy,  for  he  not  only  carried 
out  the  whole  programme  but  overdid  it,  and  far 
from  explaining  the  points,  he  talked  at  each  medita- 
tion during  what  the  French  call  "  five  quarters  of  an 
hour."  But  grace  supplied  what  was  lost  by  this 
prolixity,  and  the  community  was  on  fire  with  zeal 
when  the  Exercises  were  ended.  How  soon  they 
received  the  news  of  what  happened  on  August  7, 
in  Rome,  we  do  not  know.  But  there  were  no  happier 
men  in  the  world  than  they  when  the  glad  tidings  came; 


The  Restoration  703 

and  they  continued  to  be  so  even  if  Louis  XVIII  did 
not  deign  or  was  afraid  to  pay  any  attention  to  the 
Bull,  and  warned  the  Jesuits  and  their  friends  to  make 
no  demonstration.  The  Society  was  restored  and  that 
made  them  indifferent  to  anything  else. 

In  Spain,  a  formal  decree  dated  May  25,  1825, 
proclaimed  the  re-establishment  of  the  Society,  and 
when  Father  de  Zuniga  arrived  at  Madrid  to  re-organize 
the  Spanish  province,  he  was  met  at  the  gate  of  the 
city  by  a  long  procession  of  Dominicans,  Franciscans, 
and  the  members  of  other  religious  orders  to  welcome 
him.  Subsequently,  as  many  as  one  hundred  and 
fifteen  former  Jesuits  returned  to  their  native  land 
from  the  various  countries  of  Europe  where  they  had 
been  laboring,  and  began  to  reconstruct  their  old 
establishments.  Many  of  these  old  heroes  were  over 
eighty  years  of  age.  Loyola,  Onate  'and  Manresa 
greeted  them  with  delight,  and  forty-six  cities  sent 
petitions  for  colleges.  Meanwhile,  novitiates  were 
established  at  Loyola,  Manresa  and  Seville. 

Portugal  not  only  did  not  admit  them,  but  issued  a 
furious  decree  against  the  Bull.  Not  till  fifteen 
years  later  did  the  Jesuits  enter  that  country,  and  then 
their  first  work  was  to  inter  the  yet  unburied  remains 
of  their  arch-enemy  Pombal  and  to  admit  four  of 
his  great-grandsons  into  one  of  their  colleges.  Brazil, 
Portugal's  dependency,  imitated  the  bitterness  of 
the  mother  country.  The  Emperor  of  Austria  was 
favorable,  but  the  spirit  fostered  among  the  people  by 
his  predecessor,  Joseph,  was  still  rampant  and  pre- 
vented the  introduction  of  the  Society  into  his  domains, 
But,  on  the  whole,  the  act  of  the  Pope  was  acclaimed 
everywhere  throughout  the  wold.  So  Pacca  wrote  to 
Consalvi. 

Of  course  there  was  an  uproar  in  non-Cathofic 
countries.  In  England,  even  some  Catholics  were  in 


704  The  Jesuits 

arms  against  the  Bull,  One  individual,  writing  in 
the  "  Catholic  Directory"  of  1815,  considered  it  to 
be  "  the  downfall  of  the  Catholic  religion. "  A  congress 
in  which  a  number  of  Englishmen  participated  was 
held  a  few  years  later  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  to  protest 
against  the  re-establishment  of  the  Order.  Fortunately 
it  evoked  a  letter  from  the  old  Admiral  Earl  St.  Vincent 
which  runs  as  follows :  "  I  have  heard  with  indignation 
that  Sir  J.  C.  Hippisley,  a  member  of  Parliament,  is 
gone  to  the  Congress.  I  therefore  beseech  you  to 
cause  this  letter  to  be  laid  before  his  Holiness  the 
Pope  as  a  record  of  my  opinion  that  we  are  not  only 
obliged  to  that  Order  for  the  most  useful  discoveries 
of  every  description,  but  that  they  are  now  necessary 
for  the  education  of  Catholic  youth  throughout  the 
civilized  world."  With  the  exception  of  John  Milner, 
all  the  vicars  Apostolic  of  England  were  strongly 
opposed  to  the  restitution  of  the  Society  in  that 
country. 

The  United  States  was  at  war  with  England  just 
then,  and  it  happened  that  seventeen  days  before  the 
Bull  was  issued  Father  Gras^si  and  his  fellow- Jesuits 
were  witnessing  from  the  windows  of  Georgetown 
College  the  bombardment  of  Washington  by  the 
British  fleet.  They  saw  the  city  in  flames,  and  fully 
expected  that  the  college  would  be  taken  by  the 
enemy,  but  to  their  great  delight  they  saw  the  forty 
ships  on  the  following  morning  hoist  their  anchors  and, 
one  by  one,  drop  down  the  Potomac.  They  did  not, 
of  course,  know  what  was  going  on  in  Rome,  but  as 
soon  as  the  news  of  the  re-establishment  arrived  in 
America,  Father  Penwick,  the  future  Bishop  of  Boston, 
who  was  then  working  in  St.  Peter's  Church,  New 
York,  wrote  about  it  to  Father  Grassi,  who  was  Presi- 
dent of  Georgetown.  The  letter  is  dated  December  21, 
1814  and  runs  as  follows: 


The  Restoration  705 

"  Rev.  and  Dear  Father, 

Te  Deum  Laudamus,  Te  Dominum  confitemurl 
The  Society  of  Jesus  is  then  re-established!  That 
long-insulted  Society!  The  Society  which  has  been 
denounced  as  the  corrupter  of  youth,  the  inculcator 
of  unsound,  unchristian  and  lax  morality!  That 
Society  which  has  been  degraded  by  the  Church 
itself,  rejected  by  her  ministers,  outlawed  by  her  kings 
and  insulted  by  her  laity!  Restored  throughout  the 
world  and  restored  by  a  public  Bull  of  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff!  Hitherto  cooped  up  in  a  .small  corner  of 
the  world,  and  not  allowed  to  extend  herself,  lest  the 
nations  of  the  earth,  the  favorites  of  heaven,  should 
inhale  the  poison  of  her  pestiferous  breath,  she  is  now 
called  forth,  as  the  only  plank  left  for  the  salvation  of 
a  shipwrecked  philosophered  world;  the  only  restorer  of 
ecclesiastical  discipline  and  sound  morality;  the  only 
dependence  of  Christianity  for  the  renewal  of  correct 
principles  and  the  diffusion  of  piety!  It  is  then  so. 
What  a  triumph!  How  glorious  to  the  Society!  How 
confounding  to  the  enemies!  Gaudeamus  in  Domino, 
diem  festum  cekbrantesl  If  any  man  will  say  after 
that,  that  God  is  not  a  friend  of  the  Society,  I  shall 
pronounce  him  without  hesitation  a  liar. 

11 1  embrace,  dear  Sir,  the  first  leisure  moments  after 
the  receipt  of  your  letter,  to  forward  you  my  congratu- 
lations on  the  great  and  glorious  tidings  you  have 
recently  received  from  Europe  —  tidings  which  should 
exhilarate  the  heart  of  every  true  friend  of  Christianity 
and  of  the  propagation  of  the  Gospel;  tidings  particu- 
larly grateful  to  this  country,  and  especially  to  the 
College  of  which  you  are  rector,  which  will  hereafter 
be  able  to  proceed  secundum  regulam  et  Institutum." 

A  word  about  this  distinguished  American  Jesuit 
may  not  be  out  of  place  here.    He  was  born  in  the 
45 


706  The  Jesuits 

ancestral  manor  of  the  Fenwicks,  in  old  St.  Mary's 
County,  Maryland,  and  was  a  lineal  descendant  of 
Cuthbert  Fenwick  who  was  distinguished  among  the 
first  Catholic  colonists  by  his  opposition  to  Lewger, 
Calvert's  secretary,  then  assailing  the  rights  of  the 
Church   in    Maryland.    When    Georgetown    College 
opened  its  doors,  Benedict  Penwick  and  his  brother 
Enoch  were  among  its  first  students.    After  finishing 
the  course,  he  took  upon  himself  what  his  old  admirer, 
the  famous  Father  Stonestreet,   calls   "the  painful 
but  self-improving  duties  of  the  class  room,"  and  was 
professor  of  Humanities  for  three  years.    Later  he 
began  a  course  of  theology  at  St.  Mary's  Seminary, 
Baltimore,  but  he  left  in  order  to  become  a  Jesuit. 
The  Fenwicks,  both  in  England  and  America  had 
been  always  closely  identified  with  the  Society,  and 
when  the  news  came  that  it  was  about  to  be  resuscitated, 
Benedict  and  Enoch  were  chosen  with  four  other 
applicants  to  be  the  corner  stones  of  the  first  novitiate 
in  the  United  States  of  North  America.    He  was 
ordained  on  June  n,  1808,  in  Trinity  Church,  George- 
town, D.  C.,  by  the  Jesuit  Bishop  Neale,  coadjutor  of 
Archbishop  Carroll,   and  was  immediately  sent  to 
New  York  with  Father  Kohlmann  to  prepare  that 
diocese  for  the  coming  of  its  first  bishop  Dr.  Concanen. 
Kohlmann  himself  had  been  named  for  the  see,  but  the 
Pontiff  had  yielded  to  the  entreaties  of  Father  Roothaan 
not  to  deprive  the  still  helpless  Society  of  such  a 
valuable   workman;   hence,    Father    Richard    Luke 
Concanen,  a  Dominican,  was  appointed  in  his  stead. 
Kohlmann  and  Fenwick  were  welcomed  with  great 
enthusiasm  in  New  York  which  had  suffered  much 
from  the  various  transients  who  had  from  time  to 
time  officiated  there.    Several  distinguished  converts 
were  won  over  to  the  faith,  and  an  attempt  was  made 
to  influence  the  famous  free-thinker,  Tom  Paine,  but 


The  Restoration  707 

the  unfortunate  wretch  died  blaspheming.  It  was 
Kohlmann  and  Fenwick  who  established  the  New  York 
Literary  Institute  on  the  site  of  the  present  St. 
Patrick's  Cathedral.  It  was  successful  enough  to 
attract  the  sons  of  the  most  distinguished  families 
of  the  city  and  merited  the  commendation  of  such 
men  as  the  famous  governor  of  New  York,  De  Witt 
Clinton,  and  of  Governor  Thompkins  who  was  sub- 
sequently Vice-President  of  the  United  States.  At  the 
same  time,  they  were  building  old  St.  Patrick's,  which 
was  to  become  the  cathedral  of  the  new  bishop.  Bishop 
Concanen  never  reached  New  York,  and  when  his 
successor  Bishop  Connolly  arrived  in  1814,  Father 
Fenwick  was  his  consolation  and  support  in  the  many 
bitter  trials  that  had  to  be  undergone  in  those  turbulent 
days.  He  was  made  vicar  general  and  when  he  was 
sent  to  Georgetown  to  be  president  of  the  college 
in  1817,  it  was  against  the  strong  protest  and  earnest 
entreaties  of  the  bishop,  who,  it  may  be  said  in  passing, 
regretted  exceedingly  the  closing  of  the  Literary 
Institute, — a  feeling  shared  by  every  American  Jesuit. 
The  reason  for  so  doing  is  given  by  Hughes  (History  of 
the  Soc.  of  Jesus  in  North  America,  I,  ii,  945). 

While  Fenwick  was  in  Georgetown,  Charleston, 
South  Carolina,  was  in  an  uproar  ecclesiastically. 
The  people  were  in  open  schism,  and  Archbishop 
Mar6chal  of  Baltimore,  in  spite  of  his  antagonism  to 
the  Society  appealed  to  the  superior  of  the  Jesuits  for 
some  one  to  bring  order  out  of  the  chaos.  Fenwick 
was  sent,  and  such  was  his  tact,  good  judgment  and 
kindness,  that  he  soon  mastered  the  situation  and  the 
diocese  was  at  peace  when  the  new  bishop,  the  dis- 
tinguished John  England,  arrived.  Strange  to  say, 
Bishop  England  had  the  same  prejudice  as  Bishop 
Concanen,  against  the  Society;  a  condition  of  mind 
that  may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  it  had  been 


708  The  Jesuits 

suppressed  by  the  highest  authority  in  the  Church, 
and  that  even  educated  men  were  ignorant  of  the  causes 
that  had  brought  about  the  disaster.  But  Penwick 
soon  disabused  the  bishop.  Indeed,  he  remained  as 
Vicar  General  of  Charleston  until  1822,  and  when 
he  was  recalled  to  Georgetown,  Bishop  England,  at 
first,  absolutely  refused  to  let  him  go. 

In  a  funeral  oration  pronounced  over  Penwick,  later 
by  Father  Stonestreet  he  said  in  referring  to  the 
Charleston,  troubles;  "  Difficulties  had  arisen  between 
the  French  and  Anglo-Irish  portions  of  the  congregation, 
each  insisting  it  should  be  preached  to  in  its  own  tongue; 
each  restive  at  remaining  in  the  sacred  temple  while 
the  word  of  God  was  announced  in  the  language  of  • 
the  other.  The  good  Father,  nothing  daunted  by  the 
scene  of  contrariety  before  him,  ascends  the  pulpit, 
opens  his  discourse  in  both  languages,  rapidly  alter- 
nates the  tongues  of  La  Belle  Prance  and  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon,  and  by  his  ardent  desire  to  unite  the  whole 
community  in  the  bonds  of  charity,  astonishes,  softens, 
wins  and  harmonizes  the  hearts  of  all.  A  lasting 
peace  was  restored  which  still  continues. " 

Bishop  Cheverus,  who  was  then  at  Boston,  was  sub- 
sequently called  to  France  to  be  Archbishop  of  Bordeaux 
and  cardinal.  Father  Penwick,  without  being  con- 
sulted, was  appointed  to  the  vacant  see.  In  fact,  the 
first  news  he  had  of  the  promotion  was  when  the 
Bulls  were  in  his  hands,  so  that  no  means  of  protesting 
was  possible.  He  was  consecrated  on  November  i, 
1825,  and  his  friend  Bishop  England  travelled  all 
the  way  from  Charleston  to  assist  as  one  of  the 
Consecrators.  At  that  time  the  diocese  of  Boston 
was  synonymous  with  New  England,  but  it  had  only 
ten  churches,  two  of  which  were  for  Indians.  Fenwick, 
however,  set  to  work  in  his  usual  heroic  fashion.  He 
was  particularly  fond  of  the  Indians,  and  bravely 


The  Restoration  709 

fought  their  battle  against  the  dishonest  whites. 
As  the  red  men  were  the  descendants  of  the  Abenakis 
to  whom  the  old  Jesuits  had  brought  the  Faith,  there 
was  a  family  feeling  in  his  defense  of  them.  The  same 
sentiment  of  kinship  prompted  him  to  establish  a 
newspaper  which  he  called  "  The  Jesuit."  It  was 
a  defiance  of  the  bigotry  of  New  England,  of  which 
there  were  to  be  many  serious  manifestations.  "  The 
Jesuit "  was  the  pioneer  of  Catholic  journalism  in  the 
United  States. 

Bishop  Fenwick  was  averse  to  the  crowding  of 
Catholics  in  the  large  cities,  and  to  segregate  them 
he  established  the  exclusively  Catholic  colony  of 
Benedicta,  but  this  scheme  of  a  Paraguay  in  the  woods 
of  Maine  had  only  a  limited  success.  Prompted  by 
the  same  motive  of  love  of  the  Society  he  visited 
the  place  which  Father  Rasle  had  sanctified  with  his 
blood  when  the  fanatical  Puritans  of  Massachusetts 
put  him  to  death  in  1724.  Father  Rasle  was  the 
apostle  of  the  Abenakis  and  had  established  himself 
at  what  is  now  Norridgewock  on  the  Kennebec.  Fen- 
wick  went  there  to  pray.  Although  it  was  in  the 
wilderness,  he  determined  to  make  it  a  notable  place 
for  the  future  Catholics  of  America;  and  over  the 
mouldering  remains  of  Rasle  and  his  brave  Indian 
defenders,  he  erected  a  monument,  a  shaft  of  granite, 
on  which  an  inscription  was  cut  to  record  the  tragedy. 
It  was  too  much  for  the  bigotry  that  then  reigned  in 
those  parts,  and  the  monument  was  thrown  down; 
but  Fenwick  put  it  in  its  place  again;  at  a  later  date 
when,  in  the  course  of  time,  it  had  fallen  out  of  per- 
pendicular, Bishop  Walsh  of  Portland  corrected  the 
defect  and  amid  a  great  throng  of  people  solemnly 
reconsecrated  it. 

While  he  was  Bishop  of  Boston,  Fenwick  made  a 
pious  pilgrimage  to  Quebec;  the  city  from  which 


710  The  Jesuits 

the  Jesuits  of  the  old  Society  had  started  on  their 
perilous  journeys  to  evangelize  the  Indians  of  the 
continent.  He  saw  there  an  immense  building  on 
whose  fagade  were  cut  the  letters  I.  H.  S.  "  What 
is  that?"  he  asked.  "  It  is  the  old  Jesuit  College,  now 
a  soldiers7  barracks,"  was  the  reply.  His  soul  was 
filled  with  indignation  and  he  exclaimed  in  anger, 
"  The,  outrage  that  these  men  of  blood  should  occupy 
the  house  sanctified  by  the  martyrs  Jogues,  Brebeuf , 
Lalemant  and  the  others."  The  good  bishop  was 
unaware  that  the  martyrs  had  never  seen  the  building. 
It  was  built  after  they  had  gone  to  claim  their  crowns 
in  heaven. 

During  his  episcopacy  Knownothingism  reigned,  and 
in  one  of  the  outbreaks  the  Ursuline  Convent  in 
Charlestown  was  attacked  .at  midnight.  The  sisters 
were  shot  at,  the  house  was  pillaged,  the  chapel  des- 
ecrated and  the  whole  edifice  given  over  to  the  flames. 
The  blackened  ruins  remained  for  fifty  years  to  remind 
the  Commonwealth  of  its  disgrace,  until  finally  the 
remnants  of  the  building,  which  it  had  cost  so  much  to 
erect,  had  to  be  removed  to  escape  taxation.  It  was 
Fenwick  who  founded  Holy  Cross  College,  in  Worcester, 
Massachusetts,  an  establishment  which  is  the  Alma 
Mater  of  most  of  the  subsequent  bishops  of  New 
England.  It  has  also  the  singular  distinction  of  being 
the  only  Catholic  College  exempted  by  law  from 
receiving  any  but  Catholic  students.  Fenwick  is 
buried  there.  He  died  on  August  n,  1846,  after  an 
episcopacy  of  twenty-one  years. 

Strange  to  say  the  Bull  resurrecting  the  Society 
was  not  sent  to  America  until  October  8,  1814,  and 
on  January  5,  1815,  Bishop  Carroll  wrote  to  Father 
Marmaduke  Stone,  in  England,  as  follows:  "  Your 
precious  and  grateful  favor  accompanied  by  the  Bull 
of  Restoration  was  received  early  in  December  and 


The  Restoration  711 

diffused  the  greatest  sensation  of  joy  and  thanksgiving, 
not  only  among  the  surviving  and  new  members  of  the 
Society,  but  also  all  good  Christians  who  have  any 
remembrances  of  their  services  or  heard  of  their 
unjust  and  cruel  treatment,  and  have  witnessed  the 
consequences  of  their  suppression.  You  may  conceive 
my  sensations  when  I  read  the  account  of  the  cele- 
bration of  Mass  by  His  Holiness  himself  at  the  superb 
altar  of  St.  Ignatius  at  the  Gesfr;  the  assemblage  of  the 
surviving  Jesuits  in  the  chapel  to  hear  the  proclamation 
of  their  resurrection,  etc." 

On  returning  to  America  after  the  suppression  of 
the  Society  in  Belgium,  Father  Carroll  had  gone  to 
live  at  his  mothers  house  in  Rock  Creek,  Maryland, 
for  he  no  longer  considered  himself  entitled  to  support 
from  the  funds  of  the  Jesuits  who  still  maintained 
their  existence  in  the  colonies.  They  had  never  been 
suppressed,  whereas  he  had  belonged  to  a  community 
in  the  Netherlands  which  had  been  canonically  put  out 
of  existence  by  the  Brief.  He  spent  two  years  in  the 
rough  country  missions  of  Maryland  and  then  went 
with  Benjamin  Franklin,  Samuel  Chase  and  his  cousin 
Charles  Carroll  to  Canada  to  induce  the  Frenchmen 
there  to  make  common  cause  with  the  Americans 
against  Great  Britain.  The  Continental  Congress 
had  especially  requested  him  to  form  a  part  of  the 
embassy.  The  mission  was  a  failure  and  the  Colonies 
had  themselves  to  blame  for  it;  because  two  years 
previously  they  had  issued  an  "  Address  to  the  English 
People "  denouncing  the  government  for  not  only 
attempting  to  establish  an  Anglican  episcopacy  in  the 
English  possessions,  but  for  maintaining  a  papistical 
one  on  the  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence.  Clearly  it 
would  have  been  impossible  for  the  French  Catholics 
who  had  been  guaranteed  the  free  exercise  of  their 
religion  to  transfer  their  allegiance  to  a  country  which 


712  The  Jesuits 

considered  that  concession  to  be  one  of  the  reasons 
justifying  a  revolution. 

When  the  war  was  over,  Carroll  and  five  other 
Jesuits  met  at  Whitemarsh  to  devise  means  to  keep 
their  property  intact  in  order  to  carry  on  their 
missionary  work.  They  had  no  other  resources  than 
the  produce  of  their  farms,  for  their  personal  support. 
The  faithful  gave  them  nothing.  At  this  conference 
they  decided  to  ask  Rome  to  empower  some  one  of  their 
number  to  confirm,  grant  faculties  and  dispensations, 
bless  oils,  etc.  They  added  that,  for  the  moment, 
a  bishop  was  unnecessary.  The  petition  was  sent  on 
November  6,  1783,  and  on  June  7,  1784,  Carroll  was 
appointed  superior  of  the  missions  in  the  thirteen  states, 
and  was  given  power  to  confirm.  There  were  at  that 
time  about  nineteen  priests  in  the  country  and  fifteen 
thousand  Catholics,  of  whom  three  thousand  were 
negro  slaves.  In  1786  Carroll  took  up  his  residence 
in  Baltimore  and  was  conspicuously  active  in  municipal 
affairs,  establishing  schools,  libraries  and  charities. 
Possibly  it  was  due  to  him  that  Article  6  was  inserted 
in  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  which  declares 
that  "no  religious  test  shall  ever  be  required  as  a 
qualification  to  any  office  or  public  trust  under  the 
United  States; "  and  probably  also  the  amendment 
that  "  this  Congress  shall  make  no  laws  respecting  the 
establishment  of  religion  or  prohibiting  the  free  exercise 
thereof. "  Its  actual  sponsor  in  the  Convention  was 
C.  C.  Pinckney  of  South  Carolina. 

Carroll  was  made  Bishop  of  Baltimore  by  Pius  VI 
on  November  6,  1789,  twenty-four  out  of  the  twenty- 
five  priests  in  the  country  voting  for  him.  He  was 
consecrated  on  August  15,  1790,  at  Lulworth  Castle, 
England  by  the  senior  vicar  Apostolic  of  England, 
Bishop  Walmesly.  On  the  election  of  Washington  to 
the  presidency,  he  represented  the  clergy  in  a  con- 


The  Restoration  713 

gratulatory  address  to  which  Washington  answered; 
"  I  hope  your  fellow-countrymen  will  not  forget  the 
patriotic  part  in  the  accomplishment  of  the  Revolution 
and  the  establishment  of  the  government  or  the  impor- 
tant assistance  which  they  received  from  a  nation  in 
which  the  Roman  Catholic  Faith  is  professed." 

He  convoked  the  first  Synod  of  Baltimore  in  1791. 
There  were  twenty-two  priests  of  five  nationalities 
in  attendance.  He  called  the  Sulpicians  to  Balti- 
more in  1791 ;  the  first  priest  he  ordained  was  Stephen 
Badin,  the  beloved  pioneer  of  Kentucky,  and  four 
years  later  the  famous  Russian  prince,  Demetrius 
Gallitzin.  He  also  succeeded  in  having  a  missionary 
for  the  Indians  appointed  by  the  government.  He  had 
intended  to  have  as  his  coadjutor  and  successor  in 
the  see,  Father  Lawrence  Grassel,  who  had  been  a 
novice  in  the  old  Society  and  who  at  Carroll's  urgent 
request,  had  come  out  to  America  as  a  missionary. 
Grassel,  however,  died  before  the  arrival  of  the  Bulls. 
Father  Leonard  Neale,  a  Maryland  Jesuit,  was  then 
chosen  and  was  consecrated  in  1800.  A  year  and 
two  months  after  the  re-establishment  of  the  Society, 
namely  on  December  3,  1815,  Carroll  died  It  was 
fitting  that  this  son  of  Saint  Ignatius  should  be  called 
to  heaven  on  the  feast  of  the  great  friend  and  companion 
of  Saint  Ignatius,  Saint  Francis  Xavier. 

Apropos  of  this,  a  note  has  been  quoted  by  Father 
Hughes  (op.  cit.,  Doc.,  I,  424)  which  is  often  cited  as 
revealing  a  change  in  Carroll's  attitude  toward  the 
Society  after  he  became  archbishop.  Fr.  Charles 
Neale  had  written  to  him  as  follows,  "  It  is  equally 
certain  that  I  have  no  authority  to  give  up  any  right 
that  would  put  the  subject  out  of  the  power  of  his 
superior,  who  must  and  ought  to  be  the  best  judge 
of  what  is  most  beneficial  to  the  universal  or  individual 
good  of  the  members,  of  the  Congregation."  On 


714  The  Jesuits 

the  back  of  the  letter  appear  the  words  "Inadmissible 
Pretensions,"  said  by  Bishop  Mar6chal  to  have  been 
written  by  Carroll. 

Archbishop  Carroll's  attitude  to  the  Society  is 
clearly  manifested  in  his  letter  of  December  10,  1814, 
addressed  to  Father  Grassi,  which  says:  "Having 
contributed  to  your  greatest  happiness  on  earth  by 
sending  the  miraculous  bull  of  general  restoration,  even 
before  I  could  nearly  finish  the  reading  of  it,  I  fully 
expect  it  back  this  evening  with  Mr.  Plowden's  letter. " 
It  should  not  be  forgotten  that  Carroll  was  heart- 
broken when  the  Society  was  suppressed  and  that  he 
longed  for  death  because  of  the  grief  it  caused  him. 
The  words  "  Inadmissible  Pretensions "  noted  on 
Neale's  letter  referred  to  a  formal  protest  made  by 
Father  Charles  Neale  against  a  synodial  statute  of 
the  bishops  convened  at  Baltimore.  Neale,  indeed, 
desired  to  exercise  the  special  privileges  of  the  Society 
and  to  govern  as  was  done  in  the  old  Society  or  as  in 
Russia,  a  procedure  which  incurred  the  disapproval 
of  the  General.  Grassi  writing  to  Plowden,  in  England, 
says:  "He  (Archbishop  Carroll)  considers  Mr.  Chas. 
Neale  as  a  wrongheaded  man,  and  persons  who  knew 
him  at  Li£ge  and  Antwerp  are  nearly  of  the  same 
opinion."  In  brief,  Neale's  administration  both  as 
president  of  Georgetown  and  as  superior  of  the  mis- 
sion was  most  disastrous  (cf.  Hughes,  I,  ii,  passim), 

Leonard  Neale,  like  Carroll,  was  an  American. 
He  was  born  near  Port  Tobacco  in  Maryland  in  1746, 
and  with  many  other  young  Marylanders,  was  sent 
to  the  Jesuit  College  of  St.  Omer  in  France.  After 
the  Suppression  he  went  to  England,  where  he  was  en- 
gaged in  parochial  work  for  four  years.  From 
there  he  was  sent  to  Demerara  in  British  Guiana 
and  continued  at  work  in  that  trying  country  from 
1779  to  1783.  His  health  finally  gave  way,  and 


The  Restoration  715 

he  returned  to  Maryland  and  joined  his  Jesuit 
brethren.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  yellow 
fever  epidemic  in  Philadelphia,  and  remained  in  that 
city,  for  six  years  as  the  vicar  of  Bishop  Carroll. 
In  1797  another  epidemic  of  fever  occurred  and  he  was 
stricken  but  recovered.  In  1798  he  was  sent  to 
Georgetown  College  as  president,  and  in  1800  while 
still  president  he  was  consecrated  coadjutor  of  Arch- 
bishop Carroll.  He  continued  his  scholastic  work 
until  1806,  succeeding  to  the  See  of  Baltimore  in  1815. 
He  was  then  seventy  years  old  and  in  feeble  health. 
He  died  at  Georgetown  on  June  18,  1817.  Bishop 
Mar6chal  who  had  been  suggested  to  the  Pope  by 
Bishop  Cheverus  of  Boston,  had  already  been  named 
for  the  See. 

Bishop  Mar6chal  was  a  Sulpician.  He  had  left 
France  at  the  outbreak  of  the  French  Revolution 
and  after  spending  some  years  in  America  as  a  professor 
both  at  Georgetown  and  Baltimore,  returned  to  his  native 
country,  but  was  back  again  in  Maryland  after  a  few 
years.  Neale  wanted  him  to  be  Bishop  of  Philadelphia, 
but  the  offer  was  declined,  and  he  was  made  coadjutor 
of  Baltimore  with  the  right  of  succession.  He  was 
consecrated  on  December  14,  1817,  and  occupied  the 
see  until  1826.  Unfortunately,  the  whole  period 
from  1820  was  marked  by  misunderstandings  with  the 
Society.  In  spite  of  this  controversy,  which  was 
unnecessarily  acrimonious  at  times,  Archbishop  Mar6- 
chal  was  anxious  to  have  the  Jesuit  visitor  Father 
Peter  Kenny  appointed  Bishop  of  Philadelphia.  (cL 
Hughes,  op.  cit.,  Documents,  for  details  of  the  con- 
troversies.) 


CHAPTER  XXIV 

THE  FIRST   CONGREGATION 

Expulsion  from  Russia  —  Petrucci,  Vicar  —  Attempt  to  wreck  the 
Society  —  Saved  by  Consalvi  and  Rozaven. 

THE  superiors-general  who  presided  over  the  Society 
in  Russia  were  Stanislaus  Cernlewicz  (1782-85), 
Gabriel  Lenkiewicz  (1785-98),  Francis  Kareu,  (1799- 
1802),  Gabriel  Gruber,  (1802-05),  and  Thaddeus 
Brzozowski,  (1805-20).  The  first  two  were  only 
vicars,  as  was  Father  Kareu  when  ftfet  elected,  but 
by  the  Brief  "  CathoEcae  Fidei "  he  was  raised  to  the 
rank  of  General  on  March  7,  1801.  His  two  successors 
bore  the  same  title.  Father  Brzozowski  lived  six 
years  after  the  Restoration.  But  those  years  must 
have  been  a  time  of  great  suffering  for  him.  Over 
the  rapidly  expanding  Society,  whose  activities  were 
already  extending  to  the  ends  of  the  earth,  he  had 
been  chosen  to  preside  but  he  was  virtually  a  prisoner 
in  Russia.  It  soon  became  evident  that  such  an 
arrangement  was  intolerable  and  not  only  was  there 
an  exasperating  surveillance  of  every  member  of 
the  Order  by  the  government,  but  even  when  Brzo- 
zowski  himself  asked  permission  to  go  to  Rome  to 
thank  the  Holy  Father  in  person  for  the  favor  he  had 
conferred  on  the  Society  by  the  Bull  of  Re-establish- 
ment, he  was  flatly  refused.  Hence  it  was  resolved 
that  when  he  died,  a  General  had  to  be  elected  who  would 
reside  in  Rome,  no  matter  what  might  be  the  conse- 
quences in  Russia. 

The  difficulty,  however,  solved  itself.  Though 
officially  the  head  of  the  Orthodox  Church,  Alexander 
cared  little  for  its  doctrines,  its  practises  or  its  tradi- 

[716] 


The  First  Congregation         717 

tions,  and  he  set  about  establishing;  a  union  of  all  the 
sects  on  the  basis  of  what  he  considered  to  be  the 
fundamental  truths  of  religion.  He  is  even  credited 
with  the  ambition  of  aiming  at  a  universal  spiritual 
dominion  which  would  eclipse  Napoleon's  dream  of 
world-wide  empire  built  upon  material  power. 
Whether  this  was  the  outcome  of  his  meditations, 
—  for  after  his  fashion,  he  was  a  religious  man, —  or 
was  suggested  to  him  by  the  Baroness  Julia  de  Krudner, 
who  was  creating  a  sensation  at  that  time,  as  a  revivalist, 
cannot  be  ascertained.  There  is  no  doubt,  however, 
that  he  fell  under  her  sway. 

Mme.  de  Krudner  had  given  up  pleasures  and 
wealth  to  bring  back  the  world  to  what  she  called  the 
principles  of  the  primitive  Church.  She  travelled 
through  Germany  and  Switzerland  with  about  forty 
of  her  admirers,  who  kept  incessantly  crying  out: 
"  We  call  only  the  elect  to  follow  us,'1  She  established 
soup-kitchens  wherever  she  went,  and  her  converts 
knelt  before  her,  as  this  slim  diet  which  they  regarded 
as  a  gift  from  heaven  was  doled  out  to  them.  Natu- 
rally this  attraction  worked  first  on  the  poor,  but  the 
baroness  soon  reached  the  upper  grades  of  society. 
Her  opportunity  presented  itself  at  Vienna,  where 
the  allied  sovereigns  were  in  session  to  determine 
the  political  complexion  of  the  world,  after  they  had 
disposed  of  Napoleon.  They  did  her  the  honor  of 
attending  some  of  her  meetings,  and  Alexander  who 
showed  himself  greatly  interested,  became  the  special 
object  of  her  attention.  She  styled  him:  "The 
White  Angel  of  God,"  while  Napoleon  was  set  down  as 
"  The  Dark  Angel  of  Hell/1 

Such  a  serious  writer  as  Cantft  is  of  the  opinion  that 
it  was  the  baroness  who  drew  up  the  scheme  of  the 
Holy  Alliance,  in  which  the  four  monarchs  agreed 
to  love  one  another  as  brothers;  to  govern  their 


718  The  Jesuits 

respective  states  as  different  brandies  of  the  great 
family  of  nations,  and  to  have  Jesus  Christ,  the  Omnip- 
otent Word,  as  their  Sovereign  Lord.  But  immediately 
after  making  this  pious  pact  they  began  to  distribute 
among  themselves  the  spoils  of  war.  Prussia  took 
Saxony;  Russia,  Poland;  Austria,  Northern  Italy; 
and  England,  Malta,  Helioland  and  the  Cape.  Thus 
was  virtue  rewarded. 

At  the  suggestion  of  Galitzin,  his  minister  of  worship, 
Alexander  had  begun  a  devout  course  of  Bible  reading 
as  a  means  of  lifting  himself  out  of  the  gloom  into  which 
he  seemed  to  be  plunged  after  the  war.  It  had  appar- 
ently some  beneficial  effect  on  him,  and  he  became  an 
enthusiastic  advocate  of  the  practise  for  all  classes 
of  people.  The  English  Bible  Society  was  to  help 
the  propaganda  and  the  Catholic  Archbishop  of 
Mohilew  and  his  clergy  strongly  supported  the 
imperial  project.  Necessarily  the  Jesuits  had  to 
antagonize  this  wholesale  diffusion  of  corrupt  versions 
of  the  sacred  text,  and  they  endeavored  to  point  out 
the  folly  of  leaving  its  interpretation  to  ignorant  people. 
The  consequence  was  that  they  provoked  the  anger 
not  only  of  the  Bible  Society  and  of  the  emperor, 
but  also  both  of  the  Russian  and  partly  of  the  Catholic 
clergy.  The  troublesome  Siestrzencewicz,  Archbishop 
of  Mohilew,  not  only  strongly  favored  the  project  but 
suggested  to  Galitzin  that  the  attitude  of  the  Jesuits 
furnished  an  excellent  opportunity  to  get  rid  of  them. 
There  was  another  reason  also  why  the  blow  was  sure 
to  fall.  A  Catholic  Polish  woman  named  Narychkine 
it  is  said  had  been  dissociated  from  the  czar  by  a 
refusal  of  absolution  at  Easter  time.  The  confessor  was 
the  Jesuit,  Father  Perkowski,  and,  of  course,  as  all 
his  associates  would  have  acted  in  the  same  way, 
the  whole  Society  came  under  the  baa. 


The  First  Congregation         719 

Zalenski,  in  his  "  Russie  Blanche,"  finds  another 
reason  for  this  loss  of  Alexander's  favor.  He  was 
not  only  not  a  Romanoff  but  had  not  a  drop  of  Russian 
blood  in  his  veins,  except  through  his  father  Paul, 
the  alleged  bastard  son  of  Catherine  before  she 
became  empress.  He  was  aware  that  the  Jesuits 
knew  of  this  family  stain,  though  not  a  word  was 
ever  uttered  about  it.  It  made  him  uncomfortable, 
nevertheless,  and  he  was  quite  willing  to  rid  himself 
of  their  presence. 

As  he  had  officially  proclaimed  that  all  religions 
were  alike,  many  who  had  professed  allegiance  to  the 
Greek  Church  under  political  pressure  became  material- 
ists or  atheists,  and  some  distinguished  women  became 
Catholics.  No  attention  was  paid  to  the  atheists, 
but  these  conversions  to  the  Faith  were  blamed  on 
the  Jesuits,  particularly  on  three  French  fathers, 
among  whom  was  Rozaven.  Count  de  Maistre,  who  was 
in  St.  Petersburg  at  the  time,  declares  emphatically 
that  they  had  nothing  to  do  with  it.  The  feeling 
against  them,  however,  was  very  intense  and  only 
lacked  an  occasion  to  show  itself.  It  came  when  a 
nephew  of  Galitzin,  announced  that  he  was  going  to 
become  a  Catholic.  This  was  too  much  for  the 
minister  of  worship  to  put  up  with  and  although  the 
lad,  who  was  a  pupil  of  one  of  the  Jesuit  colleges,  had 
let  it  be  known  that  the  Fathers  had  absolutely  noth- 
ing to  do  with  his  project  and  that  his  resolution  was 
only  the  result  of  his  own  investigations,  he  was  not 
believed,  and  a  ukase,  dated  December  25,  1815,  was 
issued,  proclaiming  their  expulsion  from  the  country. 
This  was  seventeen  months  after  the  Re-establishment. 

The  decree  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  "  when 
the  Jesuits  were  expelled  from  all  the  other  nations 
of  Europe,  Russia  had  charitably  admitted  them  and 
confided  to  their  care  the  instruction  of  youth.  In 


720  The  Jesuits 

return,  they  had  destroyed  the  peace  of  the  Orthodox 
Church  and  had  turned  from  it  some  of  the  pupils 
of  their  colleges.  Such  an  act,  said  the  document, 
explains  why  they  were  held  in  such  abhorrence  else- 
where. The  ukase  bubbles  over  with  piety,  deploring 
the  "  apostacies "  that  had  taken  place,  and  then 
goes  on  to  state  that:  first,  the  Catholic  Church  in 
Russia  is  hereby  re-established  on  the  plan  which  had 
been  adopted  since  the  time  of  Catherine  II  until 
the  year  1800;  secondly,  the  Jesuits  are  to  withdraw 
immediately  from  St.  Petersburg;  thirdly,  they  are 
forbidden  to  enter  either  of  the  capitals. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  the  decree  of  banishment 
is  not  stocked  with  calumnies  like  those  issued  by  the 
Catholic  courts  of  Europe.  It  was  based  purely  on 
religious  ground.  Nor  was  the  expulsion  characterized 
by  any  exhibition  of  brutality  as  in  Spain,  Portugal  and 
Prance ;  for  although  the  police  descended  on  the  houses, 
in  the  dead  of  night,  and  drove  out  the  occupants, 
an  almost  maternal  care  was  taken  against  their 
suffering  in  the  slightest  degree  on  their  way  to  the 
places  of  their  exile.  Of  course,  all  their  papers  and 
books  were  seised  but  perhaps  the  Fathers  were  glad 
of  it;  for  although,  since  Catherine's  time,  they  had 
been  brought  into  closest  contact  with  the  hideous 
skeletons  of  her  court  and  those  of  her  successors,  no 
mention  was  made  of  any  family  scandal  in  the  volu- 
minous correspondence  that  had  been  so  suddenly 
seized  by  the  government.  As  regards  the  charge  of 
proselytism,  there  is  a  letter  from  Father  Brzozowski 
to  Father  de  Clorivi&re,  dated  February  20,  1816, 
which  stated  that  not  only  did  none  of  the  Fathers 
ever  attempt  to  influence  their  pupils,  but  that  during 
the  thirteen  years  of  the  existence  of  the  College  of 
St.  Petersburg,  no  Russian  Orthodox  student  had  been 
admitted  to  the  Church.  It  goes  on  to  say  that  for 


The  First  Congregation         721 

a  long  time  the  storm  had  been  foreseen  and  that 
everyone  was  prepared  for  it. 

Before  the  final  blow  came,  Father  Brzozowski 
petitioned  the  emperor  at  least  to  permit  the  Fathers 
to  continue  their  labors  in  the  dangerous  mission  of 
the  Riga  district,  in  the  Caucasus,  and  on  the  banks 
of  the  Volga,  in  all  of  which  places,  their  success  in 
civilizing  .and  christianizing  the  population  had  been 
officially  recognized  by  the  emperor.  But  the  request 
was  not  granted,  and  in  1820,  just  as  Father 
Brzozowski  was  dying,  the  Jesuits  were  ordered  out 
of  the  empire,  and  all  their  possessions  were  confiscated. 
The  loss  was  a  grevious  one  in  many  respects,  but  it 
had  its  compensations.  For,  in  the  first  place,  it 
effectually  settled  the  question  of  the  General's  resi- 
dence. Secondly,  as  the  Jesuits  living  in  Russia  were 
almost  of  every  nationality  in  Europe  and  as  many 
of  them  were  conspicuous  for  their  great  ability  in 
many  branches  of  learning,  a  valuable  re-inforcement 
was  thus  available  for  the  hastily  formed  colleges  in 
various  parts  of  the  world.  Thirdly,  the  traditions 
of  the  Society  had  remained  unbroken  in  Russia,  and 
the  example  and  guidance  of  the  venerable  men  who 
were  there  to  the  number  of  358  would  transmit  to  the 
various  provinces  the  true  spirit  of  the  Society.  In  any 
case  Alexander's  successor  would  have  expelled  them, 
for  he  was  a  violent  persecutor  of  the  Church,  and, 
moreover,  Freemasonry  and  infidelity  had  been  making 
sad  havoc  with  what  was  left  of  the  religion  of  the 
nation. 

Brzozowski  when  dying,  had  named  as  Vicar, 
Father  Petrucci,  the  master  of  novices  at  Genoa, 
a  most  unfortunate  choice;  for  Petrucci  was  not  only 
old  and  ill,  but  was  woefully  lacking  in  wordly  wisdom, 
and  proved  to  be  a  pliant  tool  in  the  hands  of  designing 
men.  His  appointment  went  to  show  the  impossibility 
46 


722  The  Jesuits 

of  directing  the  Society  in  pent-up  Russia,  where  the 
General  could  not  be  sufficiently  informed  of  the 
character  of  the  various  members  of  the  Order.  The 
congregation  was  summoned  for  September  14,  1820, 
but  although  there  were  already  in  Rome  on  August  2 
seventeen  out  of  the  twenty-one  delegates,  Cardinal 
della  Genga  wrote  to  Petrucci  to  say  that  the  Pope 
wanted  the  congregation  to  be  delayed,  because  he 
desired  time  for  the  arrival  of  the  Polish  Fathers  who 
represented  a  notable  part  of  the  Society. 

As  no  one  ever  questioned  the  fact  that  the  Polish 
province,  which  alone  had  remained  intact  in  the 
general  wreck,  was  a  notable  part  of  the  Congregation 
and  of  the  Society,  and  as,  moreover,  the  Polish 
delegates  would  have  no  difficulty  in  reaching  Rome 
before  September  14,  everyone  suspected  that  some- 
thing sinister  was  being  attempted.  That  Petrucci 
and  Cardinal  della  Genga  were  in  league  with  each 
other  in  this  matter  was  clear  from  the  fact  that 
Petrucci,  without  consulting  any  one  of  his  colleagues, 
immediately  dispatched  letters  to  aH  the  provinces 
announcing  the  prorogation  of  the  congregation, 
protesting  meantime  that  the  office  of  vicar  was  too 
great  for  one  of  his  age  and  infirmities.  It  was  also 
remarked  that  with  the  cardinal  was  a  small  group 
of  malcontents  composed  of  Rizzi,  Pancaldi,  who  was 
only  in  deacon's  orders,  Pietroboni  and  a  certain 
number  of  Roman  ecclesiastics,  some  of  them  prelates 
who,  like  della  Genga,  did  not  of  course  belong  to 
the  Society. 

These  conspirators  kept  the  minds  of  the  waiting 
delegates  in  a  feverish  state  of  excitement  by  giving 
out  that  there  was  a  great  fear,  not  only  in  the  public 
at  large,  but  even  in  the  papal  court,  that  a  Paccanarist 
might  be  elected.  Indeed  there  were  already  three 
of  them  among  the  electors:  Sineo,  Rozaven  and 


The  First  Congregation         723 

Grivel,  and  hence  it  was  desirable  to  delay  the  con- 
gregation until  it  would  be  sure  that  no  others  would 
arrive*  Over  and  above  this,  some  of  those  recently 
admitted  to  the  Society  maintained  that  only  those  who 
belonged  to  the  old  Society  or  had  been  a  long  time 
in  Russia  should  be  accepted  as  delegates.  Doubts 
were  raised  also  as  to  whether  those  who  had  taken 
their  vows  before  the  formal  recognition  of  the  Society 
in  Russia  in  1801,  or  the  recognition  in  Sicily  in  1804, 
were  to  be  considered  as  Jesuits  or  as  secular  priests. 

In  brief,  Rizzi  and  his  associates  had  so  filled  the 
minds  of  outsiders  with  doubts,  that  some  prelates 
and  even  a  cardinal  advised  that  the  questions  should 
be  submitted  to  the  Pope  for  settlement.  Finally,  on 
the  day  originally  fixed  for  the  congregation,  namely, 
September  14,  Cardinal  della  Genga  sent  three  letters 
to  the  Fathers  at  Rome.  In  the  first  he  said  that  the 
Pope  was  convinced  that  the  meeting  of  the  delegates 
should  be  postponed,  and  that  he  had  given  to  the 
Vicar,  Petrucci,  all  the  faculties  of  a  regularly  elected 
General.  The  second  letter  was  directed  to  the 
assistants,  who  were  informed  that  it  was  the  wish 
of  His  Holiness  that  all  the  irregularities  which  della 
Genga  declared  existed  in  the  congregation  should  be 
remedied,  and  to  that  end,  he  had  appointed  a  com- 
mittee composed  of  himself,  Cardinal  Galiffi  and  the 
Archbishop  of  Nanzianzum,  together  with  Petrucci 
and  Rizzi  to  consider  them.  This  committee,  moreover, 
was  to  preside  at  the  election.  The  third  letter 
ordered  that  new  assistants  should  be  added  to  those 
already  in  office,  making  seven  in  all,  a  thing  absolutely 
unheard  of  in  the  Society  until  then. 

Rizzi  and  Petrucci  were  in  high  spirits  when  this 
became  known,  but  not  so  the  other  delegates,  and 
they  determined  to  appeal  directly  to  the  Pope.  Then 
a  doubt  arose  as  to  which  cardinal  was  to  present  the 


724  The  Jesuits 

appeal.  Mattel  and  Litta,  the  staunch  friends  of  the 
Society  were  dead  and  Pacca  leaned  slightly  to  Rizzi's 
views.  There  remained  ConsalvL  To  him  Father 
Rozaven  wrote  the  appeal,  but,  two  of  the  assistants 
and  Petrucci  refused  to  sign  it.  Consalvi  received  the 
petitioners  with  the  greatest  benignity,  promised  to 
present  the  document  to  the  Pope,  and  bade  the 
Fathers  not  to  be  discouraged.  He  explained  the 
situation  to  the  Holy  Father,  who  immediately  approved 
of  the  request,  and  issued  the  following  order: 
"  Having  heard  the  plea,  We  command  that  the 
general  congregation  be  convened  immediately,  and 
that,  as  soon  as  possible,  the  General  be  elected,  all 
things  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding."  "Every- 
one/* wrote  Rozaven,  "was  delighted,  except  of 
course,  Petrucci,  the  provincial  of  the  Italian  Province, 
Pietroboni,  and  those  who  had  been  misled  by  Rizzi. 
The  congregation  met  on  October  9.  Twenty-four 
professed  Fathers  were  present  and  they  elected  Father 
Aloysius  Fortis  as  General.  Petrucci  protested  the 
legality  of  the  election,  but  when  the  usual  delegation 
presented  itself  to  the  Pope,  they  were  received  most 
cordially  and  he  referred  them  to  Consalvi  for  the  decree 
of  "  sanation,"  if  any  were  needed.  "  He  is  altogether 
devoted  to  you,"  said  the  Pope,  "  and  watches  with 
the  greatest  concern  over  your  interests."  Now  that 
the  congregation  was  regularly  constituted,  the  Fathers 
proceeded  as  quickly  as  possible  to  the  punishment  of 
the  conspirators.  Both  Petrucci  and  Pietroboni  were 
deposed  from  their  respective  offices  as  Vicar  and 
provincial,  and  other  disturbers  were  expelled  from  the 
Society; — the  Pope  highly  approving  of  the  action. 
It  was  Cardinal  Consalvi  who  had  averted  the  wreck. 
In  view  of  the  great  cardinal's  attitude  in  this  matter, 
it  is  distressing  to  find  Cr6tineau-Joly  declaring  that 
Consalvi  acted  as  he  did  because  he  was  a  diplomat, 


The  First  Congregation         725 

a  man  of  the  world  rather  than  an  ecclesiastic.  He 
cared  little  for  the  Jesuits  (il  aimait  peu  les  J&uites) 
whom  he  regarded  as  adding  a  new  political  embarrass- 
ment to  the  actual  complications  in  Europe,  but  he 
knew  how  to  be  just,  and  refused  to  be  an  accomplice 
in  the  plot  (VI,  i).  This  is  a  calumny.  We  have 
the  Pope's  own  words  about  Consalvi's  concern  for 
the  Society,  and  in  the  "  Memoirs  "  edited  by  Cr6ti- 
neau-Joly  himself  the  exact  opposite  is  asserted.  Thus 
on  page  56,  we  read:  "  he  made  the  greatest  number 
of  people  happy  and  in  doing  so  was  happier  than 
they,  because  he  was  thus  making  them  venerate  the 
Church,  his  Mother."  On  page  n,  he  says  that 
whenever  Consalvi  wrote  about  Napoleon  "  he  placed 
himself  in  the  presence  of  God  in  order  to  be  impartial 
in  judging  his  persecutor."  On  page  180:  "He 
lived  without  any  concern  for  wealth;  he  never  asked 
or  received  any  gifts.  He  realized  what  St.  Bernard 
and  Pope  Eugenius  III  said  of  a  Cardinal  Cibo  in  then- 
day:  *  In  passing  through  this  world  of  money,  he 
never  knew  what  money  was.  He  was  prodigal  in  his 
benevolence  and  died  virtually  a  poor  man."  These 
are  not  the  traits  of  a  ''man  of  the  world  and  a 
politician." 

As  for  "  his  not  liking  the  Jesuits,"  we  find  in  those 
"  Memoirs,"  which  were  finished  in  1812,  and  con- 
sequently eight  years  before  the  meeting  of  the 
congregation,  the  following  words  (II,  303):  "When 
Pope  Pius  VII  returned  to  Rome  in  1801,  he  received 
a  letter  from  Paul  I,  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  asking 
for  the  re-establishment  of  the  Jesuits  in  his  dominions. 
The  Pope  was  delighted  to  have  the  chance  to  gratify 
the  Czar  and  also  to  perform  a  praiseworthy  (fauable) 
action;— for  it  was  restoring  to  life  an  Institute  which 
had  deserved  well  of  Christendom  and  whose  fall  had 
hastened  the  ruin  of  the  Church,  of  thrones,  of  public 


726  The  Jesuits 

order,  of  morality,  of  society.  One  can  assert  this 
without  fear  of  being  taxed  with  exaggeration  or 
falsehood  by  honest  and  reasonable  men  and  by  those 
who  are  not  imbued  with  a  false  philosophy  or  party 
spirit." 

He  then  narrates  how  cautious  the  Pope  had  to  be 
before  granting  Paul's  request,  "  so  as  not,"  Consalvi 
says,  "  to  arouse  the  antagonism  of  the  enemies  of 
the  Society:  the  philosophers  and  haters  of  religion 
and  of  public  order,  who,  as  they  had  forced  its 
condemnation  from  Clement  XIV,  would  now  employ 
all  the  machinery  of  the  courts  which  had  asked  for 
the  suppression  to  prevent  its  rehabilitation.  The 
Pope  succeeded,  but  a  few  years  afterwards,  when  the 
Emperor  of  Austria  asked  for  the  Jesuits,  his  ministers 
brought  about  the  failure  of  the  project.  They  con- 
sented to  accept  the  Jesuits,  but  in  such  a  fashion  and 
under  such  a  form  that  they  could  no  longer  be  Jesuits. 
The  Pope  would  not  consent  to  such  conditions,  and 
as  the  imperial  court  would  not  accept  them  as  they 
were,  the  matter  was  dropped. "  In  other  words, 
Pope  Pius  VII  and  his  great  cardinal  believed  with 
Clement  XIII  that  no  changes  should  be  made  in 
their  Institute.  Sint  ut  sunt  aut  non  sint.  Let  them 
be  themselves  or  not  at  all.  To  assert  that  in  the 
heart  of  the  great  champion  of  the  Faith,  Consalvi, 
there  was  little  love  for  the  Jesuits  is  to  say  what  is 
contrary  to  facts. 

The  new  General,  Father  Aloysius  Fortis,  was  born 
in  1748  and  was  consequently  seventy-two  years  of 
age  when  he  was  elected.  In  spite  of  his  age,  however, 
he  was  in  vigorous  health  and  governed  the  Society 
for  nine  years.  He  had  been  in  the  old  Society  for 
eleven  years  before  the  Suppression.  In  1794  he  was 
associated  in  Parma  with  the  saintly  Pignatelli,  who 
twice  foretold  his  election.  He  had  been  prefect  of 


The  First  Congregation         727 

studies  in  the  scholasticate  at  Naples,  and  when  the 
Society  was  re-established  he  was  named  as  Father 
Brzozowski's  vicar  in  Rome.  In  1819  Pius  VII 
appointed-  him  Examinator  Efiscoporum.  Hence  his 
election  was  naturally  gratifying  to  the  Pope,  and  he 
gave  evidence  of  ft  by  the  joy  that  suffused  his  counte- 
nance when  the  formal  announcement  of  the  result 
was  made  to  him.  The  eagerness  with  which  he  affixed 
his  signature  to  the  official  document  also  testified  to 
his  satisfaction.  In  the  Professed  House,  the  Fathers 
acclaimed  the  choice  with  enthusiasm,  as  did  the 
throngs  of  people  who  had  immediately  flocked  to 
the  Gesii  to  hear  the  announcement.  They  have  chosen 
a  saint  was  the  universal  cry.  The  Emperor  of  Austria, 
Francis  I,  Frederick,  the  Prince  of  Hesse,  and  Duke 
Antony,  who  was  soon  to  be  King  of  Saxony,  all 
expressed  their  pleasure  at  the  promotion  of  Father 
Fortis. 

*  The  letter  written  by  Antony  is  worth  quoting. 
"  I  have  read  with  the  greatest  joy,  in  the  public  press," 
he  said,  "  of  the  election  of  a  man  of  whom  it  may  well 
be  said  he  is  Fortis  by  name  and  fortis  by  nature. 
I  am  aware  that  his  humility  would  prompt  him  to 
differ  with  me,  but  I  hoped  that  such  would  be  the 
choice,  and  now  my  desire  has  been  fulfilled.  God 
who  directed  this  election  will  give  you  that  strength 
which  you  tVn'nk  you  lack  to  fulfill  the  duties  of  your 
office.  Now  more  than  ever  I  commend  myself  to 
the  fervent  prayers  of  yourself  and  your  associates. 
I  have  a  daim  on  them,  for  ever  since  my  earliest 
youth,  I  have  been  most  devoted  to  the  Society,  to 
which  I  owe  my  religious  training." 

In  the  congregation,  Father  Fortis  proposed  a 
resolution  or  a  decree,  as  it  is  called,  which  is  of 
supreme  importance,  and  which  was,  it  is  needless  to 
say,  unanimously  adopted.  It  runs  as  follows: 


728  The  Jesuits 

"  Although  there  is  #0  doubt  that  both  the  Consti- 
tutions given  by  Our  Holy  Pounder  and  whatever  in 
the  course  of  time  the  Fathers  have  judged  to  add  to 
them  have  recovered  their  force  at  the  very  outset 
of  the  restored  Society,  as  it  was  the  manifest  wish  of 
our  Holy  Father,  Pius  VII,  that  the  Society  re-estab- 
lished by  him  should  be  governed  by  the  same  laws 
as  before  the  Suppression,  nevertheless,  to  remove 
all  anxiety  on  that  score,  and  to  put  an  end  to  the 
obstinacy  of  certain  disturbers  of  the  peace,  this 
congregation  not  only  confirms,  but  as  far  as  necessary 
decrees  anew,  in  conformity  with  the  power  vested 
in  the  General  aad  the  congregations  by  Paul  III, 
and  reaffirms  that  not  only  the  Constitutions  with  the 
declarations  and  the  decrees  of  the  general  congrega- 
tions, but  the  Common  Rules  and  those  of  the  several 
offices,  the  Ratio  Studiorum,  the  ordinations,  the 
formulas  and  whatsoever  belongs  to  the  legislation 
of  Our  Society  are  intact,  and  it  wishes  all  and 
each  of  the  aforesaid  to  have  the  same  binding  force  on 
those  who  -live  in  the  Society  that  they  had  before 
Clement  XIV's  Bull  of  Suppression." 

Although  Fortis  was  gentle  and  humble  he  admitted 
no  relaxation,  especially  in  the  matter  of  poverty, 
and  those  who  were  unwilling  to  put  up  with  the  re- 
quirements, he  allowed  to  leave  the  Order.  "We 
want  fruits,"  he  used  to  say,  "  not  roots."  Again, 
in  spite  of  his  new  dignity  and  of  his  great  natural 
gifts  he  was  always  the  same  simple  Father  Fortis. 
He  was  such  an  ardent  lover  of  poverty  that  he  kept 
his  clothes  till  they  were  threadbare  and  torn, 
and  had  to  be  stolen  out  of  his  room  to  be  replaced 
by  others  more  befitting  his  station.  In  1821  he 
united  into  a  vice-province  the  various  members  of 
the  Society  scattered  through  Belgium,  Holland, 
Switzerland  and  Germany  and  gave  it  a  name  descrip- 


The  First  Congregation          729 

tive  of  its  composition:  "The  Vice-Province  of 
Switzerland  and  the  German  Missions."  In  1823  the 
Province  of  Galicia  was  established.  In  it  were  many 
of  the  old  Fathers  of  Russia,  but  the  number  was  so 
great  that  many  had  to  be  sent  to  Italy,  Prance  and 
elsewhere.  Sicily,  especially,  was  benefited  in  this 
way.  From  the  province  thus  established  three  others 
sprung  in  a  short  time:  Germany,  Belgium  and 
Holland. 

Father  Fortis  died  on  January  27,  1829.  The  grief 
for  his  loss  was  general  and  none  felt  it  more  keenly 
than  the  King  of  Saxony,  who  wrote  another  affection- 
ate letter  to  express  his  sorrow.  It  is  worthy  of  note 
that,  although  the  royal  family  of  Saxony  is  still 
Catholic,  no  one  who  has  been  trained  in  a  Jesuit  School 
is  eligible  there  to  any  ecclesiastical  office.  It  is  a  curious 
condition  in  a  kingdom  which  in  1821  was  ruled  by  a 
sovereign  who  exulted  in  the  fact  that  he  was  a  Jesuit 
alumnus. 

Chief  among  the  distinguished  Jesuits  in  the  con- 
gregation of  1820  was,  without  doubt,  the  Frenchman, 
John  Rozaven.  He  was  bora  at  Quimper  in  Brittany, 
March  9,  1772.  His  uncle  had  belonged  to  the  Society 
when  it  was  suppressed  in  France  in  1760,  and  had 
then  become  a  parish  priest  at  Plogonnec.  While 
there,  he  was  elected,  in  1789,  at  the  outbreak  of  the 
Revolution  to  be  a  representative  at  the  Etats  G6n6raux. 
He  accepted  the  constitutional  oath,  but  soon  retracted. 
He  had  to  atone  for  his  treason  to  the  Church,  how- 
ever, by  being  made  the  victim  of  his  bishop,  who, 
like  him,  had  joined  the  schism  but  had  not  recanted. 
On  account  of  this  ill-feeling,  Rozaven  left  the  country, 
taking  with  him  the  future  Jesuit,  his  nephew,  who 
was  living  with  him  at  that  time.  They  both  disap- 
peared on  the  night  of  June  20,  1792,  and  on  the  24th 
arrived  at  the  Island  of  Jersey.  From  there  they 


730  The  Jesuits 

went  to  London  and  after  a  few  months  made  their 
way  to  the  Duchy  of  Cleves. 

Hearing  that  there  was  a  French  ecclesiastical 
seminary  at  Brussels,  young  Rozaven  entered  it,  was 
ordained  sub-deacon>  but  was  obliged  to  leave  after 
six  months,  because  of  the  arrival  of  the  French  troops. 
He  and  his  uncle  then  took  up  their  abode  in  Pader- 
bora  and  lodged  in  an  old  Jesuit  establishment  where 
they  lived  for  four  years,  at  which  time  the  young  man 
was  ordained  priest  and  then  left  his  uncle  in  order 
to  join  the  Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart  under  Father 
Varin.  When  informed  of  the  existence  of  the  Jesuits 
in  Russia,  John  applied  for  admission  and  was  received 
on  March  28,  1804.  He  was  subsequently  made 
prefect  of  studies  and  professor  of  philosophy  in  the 
College  of  Nobles  at  St.  Petersburg.  In  the  course 
of  his  ministerial  work,  he  brought  to  the  Faith  the 
Princess  Elizabeth  Galitzin,  well-known  as  one  of 
the  first  of  the  Ladies  of  the  Sacred  Heart.  The 
famous  Madame  Swetchine  was  another  of  his  con-: 
verts.  He  was  the  professor  of  the  young  Galitzin 
who  had  created  such  an  uproar  in  St.  Petersburg  by 
his  supposed  part  in  the  conversion. 

At  the  death  of  Father  General  Brzozowski, 
Rozaven  was  sent  as  a  delegate  to  the  congregation 
and,  as  we  have  seen,  it  was  his  wisdom  and  courage 
that  saved  the  Society  from  shipwreck  on  that  occasion. 
He  was  elected  assistant  to  the  General,  and,  with  the 
exception  of  one  short  visit  to  France,  remained  for 
the  rest  of  his  life  in  Rome.  He  was  too  valuable  an 
aid  for  the  General  to  be  allowed  even  to  be  the  official 
visitor  to  France  although  everyone  there  was  clamor- 
ing for  him.  It  was  he  who  demolished  the  philo- 
sophical system  of  de  Lamennais,  and  at  the  same  time 
restrained  the  hotheads  of  the  French  provinces  from 
accepting  and  teaching  the  new  doctrine.  .His 


The  First  Congregation         731 

"  Examen  of  Certain  Philosophical  Doctrines  "  came 
out  in  1831,  and  although  his  office  of  assistant  gave 
him  plenty  of  occupation,  he  taught  theology,  was  a 
member  of  several  pontifical  congregations,  and  heard 
as  many  as  20,000  confessions  a  year.  This  immense 
labor  was  made  possible  by  his  rising  at  half  past  three 
in  the  morning,  and  by  the  clock-like  punctuality 
and  system  with  which  he  addressed  himself  to  the 
various  tasks  of  the  day.  In  the  cholera  epidemic 
of  1837,  despite  his  sixty-five  years  of  age,  he  plunged 
into  the  work  like  the  rest  of  his  brethren  and  heard 
23,000  confessions  during  the  continuance  of  the  plague. 
When  the  Revolution  of  '48  broke  out,  Rozaven 
remained  at  Rome  more  or  less  secluded,  but  at  last, 
when  there  was  danger  of  his  being  taken  to  prison, 
a  friend  of  his,  the  Count  Rampon,  said:  "  You  will 
come  to  my  chateau  and  I  shall  see  that  you  are  not 
molested."  The  protection  was  accepted,  and  a  few 
nights  after,  a  banquet  was  given  at  the  chateau,  to 
which  the  French  ambassador  and  several  conspicuous 
anti-Jesuit  personages  had  been  invited.  When  the 
guests  were  seated  it  was  remarked  that  there  was  an 
empty  place  near  the  Count.  "Are  you  waiting 
for  someone  else?*'  they  asked.  "Yes/'  he  said 
"  I  have  here  a  very  remarkable  old  gentleman  whom 
I  want  to  present  to  you.  He  is  my  friend  and  more 
worthy  of  respect  than  anyone  in  the  whole  world." 
Then  leaving  the  room,  he  led  Father  Rozaven  in  by 
the  hand  and  said  to  his  guests  in  a  loud  voice: 
"  Gentlemen,  I  have  to  present  my  friend,  Father 
Rozaven,  who  has  deigned  to  accept  my  hospitality. 
He  is  here  under  my  protection  and  I  place  him  under 
yours.  If,  contrary  to  my  expectation,  hatred  pursues 
him  into  my  house,  the  Count  Rampon  will  defend  his 
guest  to  the  last  drop  of  his  blood/'  Then  making 
a  step  backward,  he  swung  open  a  door  which  revealed 


732  The  Jesuits 

a  formidable  array  of  muskets,  pistols  and  swords 
which  would  be  available  if  the  contingency  he  referred 
to  arose.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  Father  Rozaven 
was  treated  with  the  most  distinguished  consideration, 
not  only  at  the  banquet  but  subsequently. 

From  there  he  went  to  Naples  but,  later,  joined 
Father  Roothaan  in  France.  When  Pius  IX  returned 
to  Rome,  the  Father  General  and  his  faithful  assistant 
returned  also.  But  Rozaven  had  reached  the  end 
of  his  pilgrimage.  In  1851  he  fell  seriously  ill  and 
breathed  his  last  on  April  2,  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine. 
He  had  put  in  thirty  years  of  incessant  work  since 
the  time  he  had  fought  so  valiantly  in  the  twentieth 
congregation. 

Besides  Rozaven,  there  was  present  at  the  twentieth 
congregation  the  distinguished  English  Jesuit,  Charles 
Plowden.  He  was  born  at  Plowden  Hall,  Shropshire, 
in  1743,  of  a  family  which  had  not  only  steadfastly 
adhered  to  the  Faith  in  all  the  persecutions  that  had 
desolated  England,  but  had  given  several  of  its  sons 
to  the  Society  of  Jesus  and  some  of  its  daughters  as 
nuns  in  religious  orders.  He  entered  the  Society  in 
1759,  aad  was  ordained  in  Rome  three  years  before 
the  Suppression.  He  was  in  Belgium  when  the 
Brief  was  read  and  was  kept  in  prison  for  several 
months.  After  teaching  at  Lifege,  he  returned  to 
England  where  he  was  appointed  chaplain  at  Lul- 
worth  Castle,  and  as  such  preached  there  at  Bishop 
Carroll's  consecration.  He  had  much  to  do  with 
the  establishment  of  Stonyhurst  and  was  the  first 
master  of  novices  in  England  after  the  re-establish- 
ment, subsequently  he  was  rector  of  Stonyhurst  and 
provincial.  It  was  he  who,  with  Fathers  Mattingly 
and  Sewall,  called  upon  Benjamin  Franklin  in  Paris 
to  persuade  him  to  crush  the  scheme  of  making  the 
Church  of  the  United  States  dependent  upon  the  ecclesi- 


The  First  Congregation          733 

astical  authorities  of  France.  He  died  at  Jougne,  in 
France,  on  his  way  home  from  the  congregation  and 
was  buried  with  military  honors,  because  his  attendant 
had  informed  the  authorities  of  the  little  town  that 
the  dead  man  had  been  called  to  Rome  for  the  election 
of  a  General.  They  mistook  the  meaning  of  the  word 
"  General ",  and  so  buried  the  humble  Jesuit  with  all 
the  pomp  and  ceremony  that  usually  accompany  the 
obsequies  of  a  distinguished  soldier. 

On  August  20,  1823,  Pius  VII,  the  great  friend  of  the 
Society,  died  and  it  was  with  no  little  consternation 
that  the  Jesuits  heard  of  the  election  of  Leo  XII.  He 
was  the  same  Cardinal  della  Genga  who  had  endeavored 
to  control  the  twentieth  congregation  and  was  supposed 
to  have  revealed  his  attitude  towards  the  Society 
years  before,  when  he  advised  Father  Varin  not  to 
attempt  to  form  a  union  between  the  Fathers  of  the 
Faith  and  the  Jesuits  in  White  Russia.  Father 
Rozaven,  especially,  had  reason  for  apprehension,  for 
it  was  he  who  had  thwarted  della  Genga's  plans  at 
the  election  of  Fortis;  but  the  fear  proved  to  be  ground- 
less, and  Rozaven  hastened  to  assttre  his  friends  in 
Prance  that  in  the  three  years  that  had  intervened 
since  that  eventful  struggle,  God  had  operated  a 
change  in  the  mind  of  della  Genga.  As  Sovereign 
Pontiff  he  became  one  of  the  most  ardent  friends  of  the 
Society. 


CHAPTER  XXV 

A   CENTURY  OP  DISASTER 

Expulsion  from  Holland  —  Trouble  at  Freiburg  —  Expulsion  and 
recall  in  Spain  —  Petits  Seminaires  —  Berryer  —  Montlosier  —  The 
Men's  Sodalities  —  St.  Acheul  mobbed  —  Fourteen  Jesuits  murdered 
in  Madrid  —  Interment  of  Pombal  —  de  Ravignan^s  pamphlet  — 
Veuillot  —  Montalembert  —  de  Bonald — Archbishop  Afire  —  Miche- 
let,  Quinet  and  Cousin  —  Gioberti  —  Expulsion  from  Austria  —  Kul- 
turkampf  —  Slaughter  of  the  Hostages  in  the  Commune  —  South 
America  and  Mexico  —  Flourishing  Condition  before  Outbreak  of  the 
World  War. 

WHEN  Pius  VII  restored  the  Society  in  1814,  he  said  it 
was  because  "  he  needed  experienced  mariners  in  the 
Barque  of  Peter  which  was  tossed  about  on  the  stormy 
sea  of  the  world."  The  storm  had  not  abated.  On  the 
contrary  its  violence  had  increased,  and  the  mariners 
who  were  honored  by  the  call  have  never  had  a 
moment's  rest  since  that  eventful  day  when  they  were 
bidden  to  resume  their  work. 

As  early  as  1816  the  King  of  the  Netherlands, 
William  I,  sent  a  band  of  soldiers  to  drive  the  Jesuits 
out  of  his  dominions.  He  began  with  the  novitiate 
of  Destelbergen.  Some  of  the  exiles  went  to  Hanover 
and  others  to  Switzerland.  The  dispersion,  how- 
ever, did  not  check  vocations.  In  1819,  for  instance, 
Peter  Beckx,  who  was  then  a  secular  priest  in  the 
parish  of  Uccle,  never  imagining,  of  course,  that  he 
was  afterwards  to  be  the  General  of  the  Society, 
entered  the  novitiate  at  Hildesheim.  Before  1830 
more  than  fifty  applicants  had  been  received.  The 
figure  is  amazing,  because  it  meant  expatriation, 
paternal  opposition,  and  a  decree  of  perpetual  exclu- 
sion from  any  public  office  in  Holland.  In  spite  of 

[734] 


A  Century  of  Disaster          735 

the  law  of  banishment,  however,  a  few  priests  succeeded 
in  remaining  in  the  country,  exercising  the  functions 
of  their  ministry  secretly. 

In  Russia,  the  Society,  as  mentioned  above,  had 
been  cooped  up  in  a  restricted  part  of  White  Russia 
from  1815;  on  March  13,  1820,  Alexander  II  extended 
the  application  of  the  decree  of  banishment  to  the 
entire  country. 

Then  the  storm  broke  on  the  Society  in  Freiburg, 
the  occasion  being  a  pedagogical  quarrel  with  which 
the  Jesuits  had  absolutely  nothing  to  do.  The  people 
of  the  city  were  discussing  the  relative  merits  of  the 
Pestalozzi  and  Lancaster  systems  for  primary  teaching; 
and  to  restore  peace,  the  town  council,  at  the  bishop's 
request,  closed  all  the  schools.  This  drew  down  the 
public  wrath  on  the  head  of  the  bishop,  but  as  reverence 
for  his  official  position  protected  him  from  open  attack, 
someone  suggested  that  the  Jesuits  were  at  the  back 
of  the  measure.  The  result  was  that,  at  midnight  on 
March  9,  1823,  a  mob  attacked  the  Jesuit  college,  and 
clamored  for  its  destruction.  The  bishop,  however, 
wrote  a  letter  assuming  complete  responsibility  for 
the  measure  and  the  trouble  then  ceased. 

After  the  fall  of  Napoleon,  Talleyrand  suggested  to 
Louis  XVIII  to  recall  the  Jesuits  for  collegiate  work. 
But  before  his  majesty  had  succeeded  in  making  up 
his  mind,  the  proposition  became  known  and  Talley- 
rand was  driven  from  power  in  spite  of  a  proclamation 
which  he  issued,  assuring  the  public  that  he  was 
always  a  foe  of  the  Society.  In  the  lull  that  followed, 
the  Fathers  were  able  to  remain  at  their  work,  but 
four  years  afterwards,  namely  in  1819,  they  were 
expelled  from  Brest  but  continued  to  labor  as^  mis- 
sionaries in  the  remote  country  districts. 

On  May  15,  1815,  they  had  been  recalled  to  Spain  by 
Ferdinand  as  a  reparation  for  the  sins  of  his  ancestors 


736  The  Jesuits 

and  their  reception  was  an  occasion  of  public  rejoicing 
—  the  Imperial  College  itself  being  entrusted  to  them. 
They  then  numbered  about  one  hundred,  and  in  the 
space  of  five  years  there  were  one  hundred  and  ninety- 
seven  on  the  catalogue.  They  were  left  at  peace 
for  a  time,  but  in  1820  throngs  gathered  in  the  streets 
around  their  houses,  clamoring  for  their  blood,  and  a 
bill  was  drawn  up  for  their  expulsion.  By  a  notable  — 
or  was  it  an  intentional? — coincidence  the  docu- 
ment bore  the  date  of  July  31,  the  feast  of  the  Spanish 
saint,  Ignatius  Loyola.  The  feeling  against  them  was 
so  intense  that  three  Fathers,  who  had  been  acclaimed 
all  over  Spain  for  their  devotion  to  the  plague-stricken, 
were  taken  out  of  their  beds,  thrown  into  prison  and 
then  sent  into  exile.  Meantime,  Father  Urigoitia 
was  murdered  by  a  mob,  near  the  famous  cave  of 
St.  Ignatius  at  Manresa.  The  Pope  and  king  pro- 
tested in  vain.  Indeed  the  king  was  besieged  in  his 
palace  and  kept  there  until  everything  the  rioters 
demanded  was  granted;  he  remained  virtually  a 
prisoner  until  the  French  troops  entered  Spain.  In 
1824  the  Jesuits  were  recalled  again,  in  1825  the  pre- 
paratory military  school  was  entrusted  to  their  care, 
as  was  the  College  of  Nobles  at  Madrid  in  1827. 

In  1828  new  troubles  began  for  the  French  Jesuits. 
As  they  had  been  unable  to  have  colleges  of  their  own, 
they  had  accepted  eight  petits  s$minaires  which  were 
offered  them  by  the  bishops.  This  was  before  they 
had  become  known  as  Jesuits,  for  to  all  outward 
appearances  they  were  secular  priests.  But,  little  by 
little*  their  establishments  took  on  a  compound  char- 
acter. Boys  who  had  no  clerical  aspirations  whatever 
asked  for  admittance,  so  that  the  management  of 
the  schools  became  extremely  difficult  and,  of  course, 
their  real  character  soon  began  to  be  suspected  by  the 
authorities.  Investigations  were  therefore  ordered  of 


A  Century  of  Disaster  737 

all  the  petits  seminaires  of  the  country,  though  the 
measure  was  aimed  only  at  the  eight  controlled  by 
the  Jesuits.  As  the  interrogatory  was  very  minute, 
it  caused  great  annoyance  to  the  bishops,  who  saw  in 
it  an  attempt  of  the  government  to  control  elementary 
sacerdotal  education  throughout  the  country,  and 
hence  there  was  an  angry  protest  from  the  whole 
hierarchy,  with  the  exception  of  one  prelate  who  had 
been  a  Constitutional  bishop. 

It  was  on  this  occasion  that  the  younger  Berryer 
pronounced  his  masterly  discourse  before  the  "  General 
Council  for  the  Defense  of  the  Catholic  Religion." 
He  established  irrefragably  the  point  of  law  that 
"  a  congregation  which  is  not  authorized  is  not  there- 
fore prohibited  " —  a  principle  accepted  by  Ml  the 
French  courts  until  recently.  Apart  from  the  ability 
and  eloquence  of  the  plea,  it  was  the  more  remarkable 
because  his  father  had  been  one  of  the  most  noted 
assailants  of  the  Society  in  1826.  The  plea  ended  with 
this  remarkable  utterance:  "  Behold  the  result  of  all 
these  intrigues,  of  all  this  fury,  of  all  these  outrages, 
of  all  this  hate!  Two  ministers  of  State  compel  a 
legitimate  monarchy  to  do  what  even  the  Revolution 
never  dreamed  of  wresting  from  the  throne.  One  of 
these  ministers  is  the  chief  of  the  French  magistracy, 
and  the  guardian  of  the  laws;  the  other  is  a  Catholic 
bishop,  an  official  trustee  of  the  rights  of  his  brethren  in 
the  episcopate.  Both  of  them  are  rivals  in  their  zeal 
to  exterminate  the  priesthood  and  to  complete  the 
bloody  work  of  the  Revolution.  Applaud  it,  sacri- 
legious and  atheistic  race!  Behold  a  priest  who 
betrays  the  sanctuary!  Behold  a  magistrate  who 
betrays  the  courts  of  law  and  justice!" 

Berryer's  chief  opponent"  was  the  famous  Count 
de  Montlosier  whose  "  Memoire  "  was  the  sensation  of 
the  hour.  It  consisted  of  four  chapters:  i.  The 
47 


738  The  Jesuits 

Sodalities.  2.  The  Jesuits.  3.  The  Ultramontanes. 
4.  The  Clerical  Encroachments.  These  were  described 
as  "  The  Pour  Calamities  which  were  going  to  subvert 
the  throne."  The  Sodalities  especially  worried  him, 
for  they  were,  according  to  his  conception  of  them, 
"  apparently  a  pious  assembly  of  angels,  a  senate  of 
sages,  but  in  reality  a  circle  of  intriguing  devils.*' 
These  sodalities  or  congregations,  as  they  are  called 
in  France,  had  assumed  an  importance  and  effectiveness 
for  good  which  is  perhaps  unequalled  in  the  history  of 
similar  organizations  elsewhere.  Their  founder  was 
Father  Delpuits,  "whom  it  is  a  pleasure  to  name," 
said  the  eloquent  Lacordaire,  "  for  though  others  may 
have  won  more  applause  for  their  influence  over 
young  men,  no  one  deserved  it  more." 

When  the  Society  was  expelled  from  France  in  1762, 
Delpuits  became  a  secular  priest  and  was  offered  a 
canonry  by  de  Beaumont,  the  Archbishop  of  Paris. 
He  gave  retreats  to  the  clergy  and  laity  and  especially 
to  young  collegians.  During  the  Revolution,  he  was 
put  in  prison  and  then  exiled,  but  he  returned  to 
France  after  the  storm.  There  he  met  young  Father 
Barat,  who  had  just  been  released  from  prison  and 
was  anxious  to  join  the  Jesuits  in  Russia.  Delpuits 
advised  him  to  remain  in  France  where  men  of  his 
stamp  were  sorely  needed  and  hence  Barat  did  not 
enter  the  Society  until  1814, 

In  1 80 1,  following  out  the  old  Jesuit  traditions, 
Delpuits  organized  a  sodality,  beginning  with  four 
young  students  of  law  and  medicine.  Others  soon 
joined  them,  among  them  Laennec  who  subsequently 
became  one  of  the  glories  of  the  medical  profession 
as  the  inventor  of  auscultation.  Then  came  two 
abbds  and  two  brothers  of  the  house  of  Montmorency. 
The  future  mathematician,  Augustin  Cauchy,  and  also 
Simon  Brut6  de  R&nur  who,  at  a  later  date,  was  to  be 


A  Century  of  Disaster          739 

one  of  the  first  bishops  of  the  United  States;  Forbin- 
Janson,  so  eminent  in  the  Church  of  France,  was  a 
socialist,  as  were  the  three  McCarthys,  one  of  whom, 
Nicholas,  became  a  Jesuit,  and  was  regarded  as  the 
Chrysostom  of  France.  The  list  is  a  long  one.  When 
Delpuits  died  in  1812,  his  sodalists  erected  a  modest 
memorial  above  him,  and  inserted  the  S.  J.  after  Tiis 
name.  That  was  two  years  prior  to  the  re-establish- 
ment. A  Sulpician  then  took  up  the  work,  but  in 
1814,  he  turned  it  over  to  Father  de  Clorivi£re  who, 
in  turn,  entrusted  it  to  Father  Ronsin.  Its  good 
works  multiplied  in  all  directions,  and  branches  were 
established  throughout  France.  By  the  time  Mont- 
losier  began  his  attacks,  the  register  showed  1,373 
names,  though  Montlosier  assured  the  public  that  they 
were  no  less  than  48,000,  Among  them  were  a  great 
number  of  priests  and  even  bishops,  notably,  Cheverus, 
the  first  Bishop  of  Boston  and  subsequently,  Cardinal 
Archbishop  of  Bordeaux.  The  last  meeting  of  the 
sodality  was  held  on  July  18,  1830.  Paris  was  then 
in  the  Revolution  and  the  sodality  was  suppressed, 
but  rose  again  to  life  later  on. 

While  this  attack  on  the  sodalists  was  going  on,  the 
Jesuits  of  course  were  assailed  on  all  sides.  The  fight 
grew  fiercer  every  day  until  the  <c  Journal  des  Debats  " 
was  able  to  say:  "The  name  Jesuit  is  on  every 
tongue,  but  it  is  there  to  be  cursed;  it  is  repeated 
in  every  newspaper  of  the  land  with  fear  and  alarm; 
it  is  carried  throughout  the  whole  of  France  on  the 
wings  of  the  terror  that  it  inspires."  As  many  as  one 
hundred  books,  big  and  little,  were  cottnted  in  the 
Bibliothfeque  Nationale,  all  of  which  had  been  published 
in  the  year  1826  alone.  They  were  the  works  not 
only  of  anonymous  and  money-making  scribes,  but 
of  men  like  Thiers  and  the  poet  Beranger  who  did  not 
think  such  literature  beneath  them.  Casimir  P6rier 


?40  The  Jesuits 

Appeared  in  the  tribune  against  the  Society,  and  the 
ominous  name  of  Pasquier,  whose  bearer  was  possibly 
a  descendant  of  the  famous  anti- Jesuit  of  the  time  of 
Henry  IV,  is  found  on  the  list  of  the  orators.  Lam- 
ennais  got  into  the  fray,  not  precisely  in  defense  of  the 
Jesuits,  but  to  proclaim  his  ultra  anti-Gallicanism; 
thus  bringing  that  element  into  the  war.  Added  to 
this  was  the  old  Jansenist  spirit,  which  had  not  yet 
been  purged  out  of  France;  indeed,  Bournichon  dis- 
covers traces  of  it  in  some  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Faith 
who  had  joined  the  Society. 

Finally  came  the  Revolution  of  1830,  during  which 
the  novitiate  of  Montrouge  was  sacked  and  pillaged. 
Other  houses  of  France  shared  the  same  fate.  On 
July  29  a  mob  of  four  or  five  hundred  men  attacked 
St.  Acheul,  some  of  the  assailants  shouting  for  the 
king,  others  for  the  emperor,  others  again  for  the 
Republic,  but  all  uniting  in:  "  Down  with  the  priests! 
Death  to  the  Jesuits!  "  Father  de  Ravignan  attempted 
to  talk  to  the  mob,  but  his  voice  was  drowned  in  the 
crashing  of  falling  timbers.  The  bell  was  rung  to  call 
for  help,  but  that  only  maddened  the  assailants  the 
more.  De  Ravignan  persisted  in  appealing  to  them, 
but  was  struck  in  the  face  by  a  stone  and  badly 
wounded.  Then  some  one  in  the  crowd  shouted  for 
drink,  and  wine  was  brought  out.  It  calmed  the 
rioters  for  a  while,  but  while  they  were  busy  emptying 
bottles  and  breaking  barrels,  a  troop  of  cavalry  from 
Amiens  swept  down  on  them  and  they  fled.  The 
troopers  however,  came  too  late  to  save  the  house. 
It  was  a  wreck  and  some  of  the  Fathers  were  sent 
to  different  parts  of  the  world  —  Italy,  Switzerland, 
America  or  the  foreign  missions.  But  when  there 
were  no  more  popular  outbreaks,  many  returned  from 
abroad  and  gave  their  services  to  the  French  bishops, 
with  the  result  that  there  never  had  been  a  period 


A  Century  of  Disaster          741 

for  a  long  time  which  had  so  many  pulpit  orators 
and  missionaries  as  the  reign  of  Louis-Philippe. 

Pius  VIII  died  on  November  30,  1830,  and  it  was 
a  signal  for  an  uprising  in  Italy.  Thanks  to  Cardinal 
Bernetti,  the  Vicar  of  Rome,  peace  was  maintained 
in  the  City  itself,  but  elsewhere  in  the  Papal  States, 
the  anti- Jesuit  cry  was  raised.  The  colleges  were 
closed  and  all  the  houses  were  searched,  on  the  pretext 
of  looking  for  concealed  weapons.  Meantime 
calumnious  reports  were  industriously  circulated  against 
the  reputations  of  the  Fathers. 

In  the  Spanish  Revolution  of  1820,  twenty-five 
Jesuits  were  murdered.  In  1833  c*vil  war  broke  out 
between  the  partisans  and  opponents  of  Isabella  and, 
for  no  reason  whatever,  two  Jesuits  were  arrested  and 
thrown  into  prison.  One  of  them  died  after  three 
months'  incarceration.  Meanwhile  threats  were  made 
in  Madrid  to  murder  all  the  religious  in  the  city. 
The  Jesuits  were  to  be  the  special  victims  for  they 
were  accused  of  having  started  the  cholera,  poisoned 
the  wells,  etc.  July  17,  1834,  was  the  day  fixed  for 
the  deed,  and  crowds  gathered  around  the  Imperial 
College  to  see  what  might  happen. 

The  pupils  were  at  dinner.  A  police  officer  entered 
and  dismissed  them  and  then  the  mob  invaded  the 
house.  Inside  the  building,  three  Jesuits  were  killed; 
a  priest,  a  scholastic  and  a  lay-brother.  The  priest 
had  his  skull  crushed  in,  his  teeth  knocked  out  and 
his  body  horribly  mangled.  The  scholastic  was  beaten 
with  dubs;  pierced  through  the  body  with  swords, 
and  when  he  fell  in  his  blood,  his  head  was  cloven 
with  an  axe.  Four  of  the  community  disguised 
themselves  and  attempted  to  escape  but  were  caught 
and  murdered  in  the  street.  Three  more  were  killed 
on  the  roof;  and  two  lay-brothers  who  were  captured 
somewhere  else  were  likewise  butchered.  The  rest 


742  The  Jesuits 

of  the  community  had  succeeded  in  reaching  the 
chapel,  and  were  on  their  knees  before  the  altar,  when 
an  officer  forced  his  way  through  the  crowd  and  called 
for  his  brother  who  was  one  of  the  scholastics,  to  go 
with  him  to  a  place  of  safety.  The  young  Jesuit 
refused  the  offer,  whereupon  the  soldier  replied: 
"  Very  wdl  I  shall  take  care  of  all  of  you.*'  He  kept 
his  word  and  fifty-four  Jesuits  followed  him  out  of 
the  chapel  and  were  conducted  to  a  place  of  safety. 
The  house,  however,  was  gutted;  unspeakable  horrors 
were  committed  in  the  chapel;  everything  that  could 
not  be  carried  off  was  broken,  and  in  the  meantime 
a  line  of  soldiers  stood  outside,  not  only  looking  on, 
but  even  taking  sides  with  the  rioters. 

Evidently  the  times  had  passed  when  it  was  necessary 
to  go  out  among  the  savages  to  die  for  the  Faith. 
The  savages  had  come  to  Madrid.  Nor  was  this  a 
conventional  anti- Jesuit  uprising;  for  on  that  hideous 
xyth  of  July,  1834,  seventy-three  members  of  other 
religious  communities  were  murdered  in  the  dead  of 
night  in  the  capital  of  Catholic  Spain.  Nevertheless 
Father  General  Roothaan  wrote  to  his  Jesuit  sons: 
"  I  am  not  worried  about  our  fourteen  who  have  so 
gloriously  died,  for  *  blessed  are  those  who  die  in  the 
Lord.'  What  causes  me  most  anguish  is  the  danger 
of  those  who  remain;  most  of  them  still  young,  who  are 
scattered  abroad,  in  surroundings  where  their  vocation 
and  virtue  will  be  exposed  to  many  dangers. ' '  Nothing 
was  done  to  the  murderers,  and  before  another  year  had 
elapsed,  a  decree  was  issued  expelling  the  Jesuits  from 
the  whole  of  Spain;  but  as  Don  Carlos  was  just  then  in 
the  field  asserting  his  daim  to  the  throne,  a  large  num- 
ber of  the  exiles  from  other  parts  of  Spain,  were  able  to 
remain  at  Loyola  in  the  Pyrenees  until  1840. 

The  Portuguese  had  waited  for  fifteen  years  after 
Pius  VII  had  re-established  the  Society  before  consent- 


A  Century  of  Disaster          743 

ing  to  re-admit  the  Jesuits.  Don  Miguel  issued  a 
decree  to  that  effect  on  July  10,  1829,  and  the  Countess 
Oliviera,  a  niece  of  Pombal,  was  the  first  to  welcome 
them  back  and  to  place  her  boys  in  their  college. 
The  Fathers  were  given  their  former  residence  in  Lisbon 
and,  shortly  afterwards,  the  Bishop  of  Evora  established 
them  in  their  old  college  in  that  city.  In  1832  they 
were  presented  with  their  own  college  at  Coinibra, 
and  on  their  way  thither  they  laid  in  the  tomb  the 
still  unburied  remains  of  their  arch-enemy,  Pombal, 
which  had  remained  in  the  morgue  ever  since  March 
5,  1872, —  a  space  of  half  a  century.  It  seemed 
almost  like  a  dream.  Indeed  it  was  little  else,  for 
Dom  Miguel,  who  was  then  on  the  throne,  was  deposed 
by  his  rival,  Dom  Pedro,  soon  after,  and  on  July  20, 
1833  £he  Jesuits  of  Lisbon  were  again  expelled.  The 
decree  was  superfluous,  for  in  the  early  Spring,  their 
.house  had  been  sacked,  and  on  that  occasion  the 
inmates  would  have  been  killed  had  not  a  young 
Englishman,  a  former  student  of  Stonyhurst,  appeared 
on  the  scene.  The  four  that  were  there  he  took 
on  his  yacht  to  England,  the  others  had  already 
departed  for  Genoa. 

Hatred  for  the  Society,  however,  had  nothing  to  do 
with  it.  The  whole  affair  was  purely  political.  Had 
the  Fathers  accepted  Dom  Pedro's  invitation  to  go 
out  among  the  people  and  persuade  them  to  abandon 
the  cause  of  the  deposed  king,  they  would  have  been 
allowed  to  remain*  They  were  expelled  for  not  being 
traitors  to  their  lawful  sovereign.  The  Fathers  of 
Coimbra  contrived  to  remain  another  year,  but  on 
May  26,  i&34,  they  were  seized  by  a  squad  of  soldiers 
and  marched  off  to  Lisbon.  Fortunately  the  French 
ambassador,  Baron  de  Mortier,  interceded  for  them, 
otherwise  they  would  have  ended  their  days  in  the 
dungeons  of  San  Sebastian,  to  which  they  had  already 


744  The  Jesuits 

been  sentenced.  They  were  released  on  June  28, 
1834,  and  sent  by  ship  to  Italy  and  from  there,  along 
with  the  dispersed  Spaniards  were  sent  by  Father 
Roothaan  to  France  and  South  America. 

Switzerland,  which  is  the  land  of  liberty  to  such  an 
extent  that  it  will  harbor  the  worst  kind  of  anarchists, 
refused  to  admit  the  Jesuits,  at  least  in  some  parts  of  it. 
There  were  seven  Catholic  Cantons,  Uri,  Schwyz, 
Unterwalden,  Lucerne,  Zug,  Fribourg  and  Valais. 
These  sections  formed  a  coalition  known  as  the  Sunder- 
bund.  A  war  broke  out  between  them  and  the  other 
cantons,  but  the  Sunderbund  was  defeated.  The 
Jesuits  were  then  expelled  from  the  little  town  of 
Sion  where  they  had  an  important  school.  In  1845 
the  people  of  Lucerne  asked  for  a  college,  and  though 
Father  Roothaan  refused,  Pope  Gregory  XVI  insisted 
on  it.  The  expected  happened.  The  Radicals  arose 
in  a  rage  and  with  10,000  men  laid  siege  to  Lucerne. 
They  were  beaten,  it  is  true,  but  that  did  not  insure 
the  permanency  of  the  college.  In  1847  the  Sunder- 
bund was  again  defeated,  and  in  1848  when  the  general 
European  revolution  broke  out,  the  College  of  Fri- 
bourg was  looted,  and  its  collection  of  Natural  History 
which  was  regarded  as  among  the  best  on  the  Conti- 
nent was  thrown  out  in  the  street. 

The  rumblings  of  the  storm  began  to  be  heard  in 
France  on  May  i,  the  Feast  of  the  Apostles  Philip 
and  James,  Louis-Philippe's  name-day.  Someone  in 
the  Tuilleries  said  that  the  Jesuits  were  starting  a 
conspiracy  against  the  throne.  Happily  a  distinguished 
woman  heard  the  remark,  and  admitted  that  she  was 
concerned  in  it,  along  with  300  other  conspicuous 
representatives  of  the  best  families  of  France.  It  was 
a  charity  lottery  and  most  of  the  conspirators  had 
received  a  pot  or  basket  of  flowers  for  their  partici- 
pation in  the  plot. 


A  Century  of  Disaster          745 

When,  that  myth  was  exploded,  the  "Journal  des 
Debats"  attacked  de  Ravignan  for  his  wide  influence 
over  many  important  people  in  Paris,  and  though 
admitting  his  unquestioned  probity,  added  "What 
matters  his  virtue,  if  he  brings  us  the  pest?"  The 
word  caught  the  popular  fancy,  but  it  brought  out  de 
Ravignan Js  famous  reply:  "  De  i'existence  et  de 
Finstitut  des  Jesuites."  It  was  received  with  im- 
mense favor,  applauded  by  such  men  as  Vatemesnil, 
Dupanloup,  Montalembert,  Barthelemy,  Beugnot, 
Berryer  and  others.  In  this  year  1844  alone,  25,000 
copies  were  sold. 

The  root  of  the  trouble  w;as  the  university's  monopoly 
of  education;  which  was  obnoxious  even  to  many 
who  cared  little  for  religion.  Catholics  objected  to  it 
chiefly  because  Cousin,  the  Positivist,  controlled  its 
philosophy.  Many  of  the  bishops  failed  to  see  the 
danger  until  Father  Delvaux  published  a  digest  of 
the  utterances  of  many  of  the  university  professors 
on  religious  subjects.  Then  the  battle  began.  On  the 
Catholic  side  were  such  fighters  as  Veuillot,  Monta- 
lembert, Cardinal  de  Bonald,  Mgr.  Parisis.  Ranged 
against  them  were  Michelet,  Quinet,  Sainte-Beuve 
and  their  followers.  The  battle  waxed  hotter  as  time 
went  on;  and  the  Jesuits  soon  became  the  general 
target.  Cousin  introduced  the  "  Lettres  Provinciales  " 
in  the  course.  Villemain  in  his  Reports  denounced 
"  the  turbulent  and  imperious  Society  which  the  spirit 
of  liberty  and  the  spirit  of  our  government  repudiate." 
Dupin  glorified  Etienne  Pasquier,  the  old  anti-Jesuit 
of  the  time  of  Henry  IV;  similar  eulogies  of  the  old 
enemy  were  pronounced  in  various  parts  of  France; 
Quinet  and  Michelet  did  nothing  else  in  their  historical 
lectures  than  attack  the  Society,  while  Eugene  Sue 
received  100,000  francs  from  the  editor  of  the  "  Consti- 
tutionel "  for  his  "  Juif  errant,"  which  presented  to 


746  The  Jesuits 

the  public  the  most  grotesque  picture  of  the  Jesuits  that 
was  ever  conceived.  It  was  however,  accepted  as 
a  genuine  portrait. 

The  anti- Jesuit  cry  was  of  course  the  usual  cam- 
paign device  to  alarm  the  populace.  It  was  success- 
ful, chiefly  because  of  the  persistency  with  which  it  was 
kept  up  by  the  press,  and,-  from  1842  till  1845,  the 
book-market  was  glutted  with  every  imaginable  species 
of  anti- Jesuit  literature.  Conspicuous  among  the  pro- 
Jesuits  were  Louis  Veuillot  and  the  Comte  de  Monta- 
lembert.  The  royalist  papers  spoke  in  the  Society's 
defense  but  feebly  or  not  at  all.  Finally,  a  certain 
Marshall  Marcet  de  la  Roche  Arnauld,  who  as  a  scho- 
lastic  had  been  driven  from  the  Society  in  1824,  and 
who  had  been  paid  to  write  against  it,  suddenly  dis- 
avowed all  that  he  had  ever  said.  Cretineau-Joly  also 
leaped  into  the  fray  with  his  rapidly  written  six  volumes 
of  the  "  History  of  the  Society." 

It  would  have  been  comparatively  easy  to  continue 
the  struggle  with  outside  enemies,  but  in  the  very 
midst  of  the  battle,  the  Archbishop  of  Paris,  Affire, 
ranged  himself  on  the  side  of  the  foe.  He  denied  that 
the  Jesuits  were  a  religious  order,  for  the  extraordinary 
reason  that  they  were  not  recognized  by  the  State; 
their  vows,  consequently,  were  not  solemn;  and  the 
members  of  the  Society  were  in  all  things  subject  to 
the  cur6  of  the  parish  in  which  their  establishment 
happened  to  be.  He  even  exacted  that  he  should  be 
informed  of  everything  that  took  place  in  the  com- 
munity, and  if  an  individual  was  to  be  changed,  His 
Grace  was  to  be  notified  of  it  a  month  in  advance. 
The  archbishop,  however,  was  not  peculiar  in  these 
views.  They  were  deduced  from  Bouvier's  theology 
which  was  then  taught  in  all  the  seminaries  of  Prance. 

Of  course,  this  affected  other  religious  as  well  as 
the  Jesuits,  and,  hence,  when  Dom  Gu6ranger  wanted 


A  Century  of  Disaster          747 

to  establish  the  Benedictines  in  Paris,  the  archbishop 
had  no  objection,  except  that  "  they  had  no  legal 
existence  in  France."  To  this  Gueranger  immedi- 
ately replied:  "  Monseigneur!  the  episcopacy  has  no 
legal  existence  in  England,  Ireland  and  Belgium, 
and  perhaps  the  day  will  come  when  it  will  not  have 
any  in  France,  but  the  episcopacy  will  be  no  less  sacred 
for  all  that."  The  great  Benedictine  then  appealed 
to  the  Pope,  and  when  the  reply  was  handed  to  him, 
the  Apostolic  nuncio  said:  "It  is  not  an  ordinary 
Brief  I  give  you,  but  an  Apostolic  Constitution/* 
In  it  the  archbishop  was  told  by  His  Holiness  that 
the  French  religious  had  not  been  destroyed  because 
of  the  refusal  of  the  government  to  give  them  a  legal 
existence.  His  Grace  had  also  received  a  communi- 
cation from  Father  Roothaan,  the  General,  who,  after 
reminding  him  of  the  provision  of  canon  law  on  the 
point  at  issue,  warned  him  that  if  he  persisted  in  his 
view  the  Jesuits  would  simply  withdraw  from  his  diocese. 
Meantime  the  Pope  had  suspended  the  execution  of 
the  orders  of  the  archbishop  and  shortly  after,  sent  him 
the  following  severe  admonition:  "  We  admit,  Vener- 
able Brother,  our  inability  to  comprehend  your  very 
inconsiderate  ruling  with  regard  to  the  faculties  for 
hearing  confessions  which  you  have  withdrawn  from 
the  Jesuit  Fathers,  or  by  what  authority  or  for  what 
reason  you  forbid  them  either  to  leave  the  city  or  to 
enter  it,  without  notifying  you  a  month  in  advance; 
especially  as  this  Society,  on  account  of  the  immense 
services  it  has  rendered  to  the  Church,  is  held  in  great 
esteem  by  far-seeing  and  fervent  Catholics  and  by 
the  Holy  See  itself.  We  know  also  that  it  is  calum- 
niated by  people  who  have  abandoned  the  Faith  and 
by  those  who  have  no  respect  for  the  authority  of 
the  Holy  See  and  we  regret  that  they  will  now  use  the 
authority  of  your  name  in  support  of  their  calumnies." 


748  The  Jesuits 

Of  course  the  archbishop  could  do  nothing  else  than 
obey.  But  he  did  not  change  his  mind  with  regard 
to  the  objects  of  his  hostility.  Possibly  he  was  consti- 
tutionally incapable  of  doing  so.  For  he  treated  his 
cathedral  chapter  in  the  same  fashion  and  we  read  in  a 
communication  from  the  French  ambassador  at  Rome 
to  Guizot  who  was  then  head  of  the  Government 
that  the  canons  of  Paris  had  complained  of  being 
absolutely  excluded  from  all  influence  or  authority  in 
the  administration  of  the  diocese.  This  note  gives  an 
insight  into  the  methods  of  Gallicanism,  which  con- 
ceded that  the  disputes  or  differences  of  the  clergy 
with  the  archbishop  were  to  be  passed  upon  by  a 
minister  of  state  even  if  he  were  a  Protestant. 

The  trouble  did  not  end  there  and  the  Parliamentary 
session  of  1844  marked  a  very  notable  epoch  in  the 
history  of  the  French  province  of  the  Society  and  of 
the  Church  of  France.  M.  Villemain  presented  a 
bill  which  proposed  to  reaffirm  and  reassure  the 
university's  monopoly  of  the  education  of  the  country. 
It  explicitly  excluded  all  members  of  religious  congre- 
gations from  the  function  of  teaching.  It  is  true  that 
there  was  not  a  single  word  in  it  about  the  Jesuits, 
nevertheless  in  the  stormy  debates  that  it  evoked, 
and  in  which  the  most  prominent  men  of  the  nation 
participated,  there  was  mention  of  not  one  other  teach- 
ing body.  Almost  the  very  first  speaker,  Dupin, 
pompously  proclaimed  that  "  France  did  not  want 
that  famous  Society  which  owes  allegiance  to  a  foreign 
superior  and  whose  instruction  is  diametrically  opposed 
to  what  all  lovers  of  the  country  desire"  nor  was  it 
desirable  that  "  these  religious  speculators  should  slip 
in  through  the  meshes  of  the  law.'1  His  last  word  was: 
"  Let  us  be  implacable. "  In  the  official  Report, 
however,  "implacable"  became  "inflexible."  The 
ministerial  and  university  organ,  the  "  Journal  des 


A  Century  of  Disaster          749 

D£bats,"  admitted  that  such  was  the  purpose  of  the 
bill. 

Villemain  fancied  that  he  had  silenced  the  bishops 
by  leaving  them  full  authority  over  the  little  semi- 
naries. He  was  quickly  disillusioned.  Prom  the 
entire  hierarchy  individually  and  collectively  came 
indignant  repudiations  of  the  measure  and  none  was 
fiercer  than  the  protest  of  Mgr.  Affre,  Archbishop  of 
Paris.  He  denounced  the  university  as  "  a  centre  of 
irreligion  "  and  as  perverting  in  the  most  flagrant  man- 
ner the  youth  of  Prance.  "  You  reproach  us,"  he 
said,  "  with  disturbing  the  country  by  our  protests. 
Yes,  we  have  raised  our  voices,  but  the  university  has 
committed  the  crime.  We  may  embarrass  the  throne 
for  the  present,  but  in  the  university  are  to  be  found 
all  the  perils  of  the  future/'  The  excitement  was  so 
intense  that  the  government  actually  put  the  Abb6 
Combalot  in  jail  for  an  article  he  wrote  against  the 
bill,  and  the  whole  hierarchy  was  threatened  with 
being  summoned  before  the  council  of  state  if  they 
persisted  in  their  opposition. 

Montalembert  was  more  than  usually  eloquent  in 
the  course  of  the  parliamentary  war.  To  Dupin  who 
exhorted  the  peers  to  be  "  implacable  "  he  replied: 
"  In  the  midst  of  a  free  people,  we,  Catholics,  refuse 
to  be  slaves;  we  are  the  successors  of  the  martyrs 
and  we  shall  not  quail  before  the  successors  of  Julian 
the  Apostate;  we  are  the  sons  of  the  Crusaders  and 
we  shall  not  recoil  before  the  sons  of  Voltaire." 

There  were  thirty-five  or  forty  discourses  and  twelve 
or  fifteen  of  the  speakers  described  the  Society  as 
"  the  detested  congregation,"  while  the  members  who 
admitted  the  injustice  and  the  odious  tyranny  of 
the  proposed  legislation  made  haste  to  assure  their 
constituents  that  they  had  no  use  for  the  Jesuits, 
Cousin  consumed  three  hours  in  assailing  them; 


750  The  Jesuits 

another  member  of  the  Dupin  family  saw  "  an  appalling 
danger  to  the  State  in  the  fact  that  Montalemberf 
could  speak  of  them  without  cursing  them,  and  that 
the  peers  could  listen  to  him  in  silence,  while  he 
extolled  the  poisoners  of  the  pious  Ganganelli.  * '  Others 
insisted  that  the  Jesuits  had  dragged  the  episcopate 
into  the  fight;  even  Guizot  declared  that  "public 
sentiment  inexorably  repudiated  the  Jesuits  and  the 
other  congregations,  who  are  the  champions  of  authority 
and  the  enemies  of  private  judgment."  The  great 
man  was  not  aware  that  the  same  reproach  might 
be  and  is  addressed  to  the  Church. 

The  measure  was  finally  carried  by  85  against  51, 
but  the  heavy  minority  disconcerted  the  government 
and  better  hopes  were  entertained  in  the  lower  house 
to  which  Villemain  presented  his  bill  on  June  loth. 
There  it  was  left  in  the  hands  of  Thiers,  and  it  did 
not  reach  the  Assembly,  as  a  body,  for  an  entire  month. 
As  the  summer  vacations  were  at  hand,  the  projet 
de  loi  was  dropped.  Guizot  then  conceived  the  plan  of 
appealing  directly  to  the  Pope  to  suppress  the  French 
Jesuits.  He  chose  as  his  envoy  an  Italian  named 
Rossi,  who  had  been  banished  from  Bologna,  Naples 
and  Florence  as  a  revolutionist.  After  a,  short  stay 
at  Geneva,  he  made  his  way  to  France  where,  by 
Protestant  influence,  chiefly  that  of  Guizot,  he  ad- 
vanced rapidly  to  very  distinguished  and  lucrative 
positions.  The  country  was  shocked  to  hear  that  an 
Italian  and  a  Protestant  should  represent  the  nation 
at  the  court  of  the  Pope  from  whose  dominions  he 
had  been  expelled,  but  Guizot  intended  by  so  doing,  to 
express  the  sentiments,  of  his  government.  It  was  an 
open  threat,  Rossi  arrived  in  Rome  and  presented  his 
credentials  on  April  n. 

The  French  Jesuits  who  had  been  expelled  from 
Portugal  did  not  return  to  their  native  country;  for 


A  Century  of  Disaster          751 

Charles  X,  discovering  at  last  that  the  Liberals,  as 
they  called  themselves,  had  played  him  false,  resolved 
to  have  a  thoroughgoing  monarchical  government; 
and,  to  cany  out  his  purpose,  made  the  inept  Polignac 
prime  minister.  On  July  25  he  signed  four  ordinances, 
the  first  of  which  restricted  the  liberty  of  the  press; 
the  second  dissolved  parliament;  the  third  diminished 
the  electorate  to  25,000.  The  next  day,  the  press  was 
in  rebellion;  Charles  abdicated  and  sailed  for  England. 
Of  course  the  Revolution  was  anti-religious  and  the 
Jesuits  were  the  first  sufferers.  House  after  house 
was  wrecked  and  the  scholastics  were  gathered  together 
and  hurried  off  to  different  countries  in  Europe. 
Thus  ended  the  first  sixteen  years  of  the  Society's 
existence  in  Prance,  after  the  promulgation  of  the  Bull 
of  Pius  VII  "  Sollicitudo  omnium  ecclesiarum." 

The  first  successor  of  Father  de  Clorivi&re  as  vice- 
provincial  was  Father  Simpson.  France  was  made 
a  province  in  1820,  and  on  the  death  of  Father  Simpson, 
the  new  General,  Father  Fortis,  appointed  Father 
Richardot,  who  at  the  end  of  his  three  years'  term 
asked  to  be  relieved.  In  1814  Godinot  was  appointed, 
because  none  of  those  who  had  been  proposed  for 
the  office  had  been  more  than  ten  years  in  the  Society. 
Godinot  himself  had  been  admitted  only  in  1810. 
He  had  been  vice-provincial  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Faith,  and  eleven  years  after  his  admission,  was 
directing  the  scattered  Jesuit  establishments  in  Switzer- 
land, Belgium,  Holland  and  Germany.  In  Switzerland, 
he  had  given  the  impulse  to  the  college  of  Fribourg, 
which  afterwards  became  so  famous.  It  is  worth 
noting  that  when  he  was  a  Father  of  the  Faith  he 
was  a  member  of  the  community  of  Sion  in  Valais 
which  enjoyed  the  exceptional  privilege  of  being 
united  as  a  body  to  the  Society.  Everywhere  else 
each  individual  had  to  be  admitted  separately. 


752  The  Jesuits 

On  April  14,  the  peers  met  to  discuss  a  very  exciting 
subject.    A  protest  had  come  from  Marseilles  signed 
by  89   electors,  against  the  books  of  Michelet  and 
Quinet.     Immediately  Cousin  was  on  his  feet  and 
ascribed  it  to  the  Jesuits.    A  few  days  later,  another 
topic  engrossed  their  attention.    Dupin's  "  Manual  of 
Ecclesiastical  Law  "  had  been  condemned  by  Cardinal 
de  Bonald,  and  more  than  sixty  bishops  concurred 
with  him  in  prohibiting  the  book.    At  Rome,  it  was 
put  on  the  Index,  along  with  Cousin's  "  History  of 
Philosophy/'    The  anti-Catholics  were  in  a  fury,  and 
on  April  24,  Cousin  addressed  the  House.    At  the  end 
of  a  three  hour  discourse  which  he  began,  unbeliever 
though  he  was,  by  protesting  his  respect  for  "  the 
august  religion   of  his   country,"   he   concluded  by 
saying  that   "  probably  the  action  of  the  bishops 
was  due  to  the  Jesuits  "  and  therefore  he  called  for 
the  enforcement  of  the   law  for  their  suppression. 
The  question  now  arose,  whether  they  could  proceed 
to  the  suppression  by  force  of  law  while  the  government 
actually  had  an  envoy  at  Rome  to  dispose  of  the 
affair  in  a  different   fashion.    It  was  decided  that 
the  non-authorized  congregations  would  be  suppressed, 
no  matter  what  might  be  the  outcome  of  Rossi's 
mission.    Such  a  resolution  was  a  gross  diplomatic 
insult,  but  they  cared  little  for  that. 

Meanwhile  no  news  had  come  from  Rossi.  He  had 
been  left  in  the  ante- chamber  of  the  Pope  until  the 
Abbe  de  Bonnechose  had  succeeded  in  getting  him 
an  audience,  a  service  which  de  Bonnechose  had 
some  difficulty  in  explaining  when  he  was  subsequently 
made  a  cardinal.  A  congregation  of  cardinals  was 
named  to  discuss  Guizot's  proposition,  and  it  was 
unanimously  decided  to  reject  it;  and  when  Rossi 
asked  what  he  had  to  do,  he  was  told  he  might  address 
himself  to  the  General  of  the  Society.  To  make  it 


A  Century  of  Disaster          753 

easy  for  him,  Lambruschini,  the  papal  secretary  of 
state,  proposed  to  Father  Roothaan  to  diminish  the 
personnel  of  some  of  the  houses  which  were  too  much 
in  evidence  or  remove  them  elsewhere.  As  for  dis- 
solution of  the  communities  or  banishment  from 
France,  not  a  word  was  said. 

Immediately  Rossi  despatched  a  messenger  to  Paris 
with  the  account  of  what  had  been  done,  and  twelve 
days  afterwards  the  "Moniteur"  stated:  "The 
Government  has  received  news  from  Rome  that  the 
negotiations  with  which  M.  Rossi  was  entrusted  have 
attained  their  object.  The  congregation  of  the  Jesuits 
will  cease  to  exist  in  France  and  will,  of  its  own  accord, 
disperse.  Its  houses  will  be  closed  and  its  novitiates 
dissolved."  On  July  15,  Guizot  was  asked  by  the 
peers  to  show  the  alleged  documents.  He  answered 
that  "  they  were  too  precious  to  give  to  the  public/* 
They  have  been  unearthed  since,  and  it  turns  out 
that  Guizot 's  notice  in  the  "  Moniteur  "  does  not 
correspond  with  the  despatch  of  Rossi  who  merely 
said,  "  the  Congregation  is  going  to  disperse;  "  and 
instead  of  saying  "  the  houses  will  be  closed,"  he 
wrote:  "  only  a  small  number  of  people  will  remain 
in  each  house."  In  brief,  the  famous  Guizot,  so 
renowned  for  his  integrity,  prevaricated  in  this  instance, 
and  one  of  the  worst  enemies  of  everything  Jesuitical, 
Dibidous,  who  wrote  a  "  History  of  the  Church  and 
State  in  France  from  1789  to  1870  "  declares  bluntly 
that  Guizot 's  note  in  the  "  Moniteur  "  was  not  only 
a  He  but  "  an  impudent  lie." 

A  great  many  militant  Catholics  in  France  were 
indignant  that  Father  Roothaan  had  not  defied  the 
government  on  this  occasion.  Yet  probably  those 
same  perfervid  souls  would  have  denounced  him,  had 
he  acted  as  they  wished.  He  knew  perfectly  well 
that  the  government  was  only  too  anxious  to  get  out 
48 


754  The  Jesuits 

of  the  mess  in  which  it  found  itself,  and  the  little 
by-play  which  was  resorted  to  harmed  nobody  aad 
secured  at  least  a  temporary  respite. 

"  To  gain  the  support  of  the  Catholics  against  the 
anarchical  elements  which  were  eveaywhere  revealing 
themselves,"  says  the  Cambridge  History  (XI,  34) 
"  Guizot  had  tolerated  the  unauthorized  Congre- 
gations. This  had  the  immediate  consequence  of 
concentrating  popular  attention  upon  those  religious 
passions  whose  existence  the  populace,  if  left  to  itself, 
might  have  forgotten.  Even  the  colleagues  of  Guizot, 
such  as  Villemain  and  the  editors  of  the  "  Journal  des 
D6bats,"  the  leading  ministepal  organ,  began  by  de- 
claring that  they  saw  everywhere  the  finger  of  the 
Jesuits.  In  each  party,  men's  minds  were  so  divided 
on  the  subject  of  the  Jesuits  or  rather  that  of  edu- 
cational liberty  which  was  so  closely  linked  with  it, 
that  nothing  of  immediate  gravity  to  the  Government 
would  for  the  moment  arise.1'  Liberals,  or  rather 
Republicans,  such  as  Quinet  and  Michelet,  in  their 
lectures  at  the  College  de  Prance  took  up  the  alarm 
and  spread  at  broadcast. 

Bournichon  in  his  "  Histoire  d'un  Si&de,"  (II,  492) 
calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  this  attack  was 
apparently  against  the  Jesuits,  but  in  reality  against 
the  Church.  The  "Revue  Ind6pendante "  did  not 
hesitate  to  make  the  avowal  that  "  Jesuitism  is  only 
a  formula  which  has  the  merit  of  uniting  all  the  popular 
hatred  for  what  is  odious  and  retrograde  in  a  degenerate 
religion. IJ  Cousin  started  the  hue  and  cry,  in  this 
instance,  and  Thureau-Dangin  in  his  "  Histoire  de 
la  monarchic  de  Juillet "  (p.  503-10)  says  that  "  Quinet 
and  Michelet  transformed  their  courses  into  bitter 
and  spiteful  diatribes  against  the  Jesuits.  Both  were 
hired  for  the  work,  and  did  not  speak  from  conviction." 
"Quinet,"  says  Bournichon  (II,  494)  "was  quite 


A  Century  of  Disaster          755 

indifferent  to  religious  matters  and  had  passed  for  a 
harmless  thinker  and  dreamer  up  to  that  moment. 
As  for  Michelet,  he  had  obtained  his  position  in  the 
Ecole  Normale  from  Mgr.  Frayssinous,  yet  he  forgot 
his  benefactor,  and  maintained  that  not  only  the 
Jesuits  but  Christianity  was  an  obstacle  to  human 
progress;  paganism  or  even  fetichism  was  preferable, 
and  Christ  had  to  be  dethroned/' 

Guizot  removed  Villemain  from  the  office  of  Minister 
of  public  instruction  and  reprimanded  Michelet  and 
Quinet  Then  Thiers  seized  the  occasion  to  denounce 
Guizot  for  favoring  the  religious  congregations  and 
succeeded  in  defeating  the  minister's  measure  for 
educational  freedom.  It  was  at  this  stage  that  Guizot 
sent  his  envoy  Rossi  to  Rome  to  induce  Pope  Gregory 
XVI  to  recall  the  Jesuits  so  as  to  extricate  the  French 
government  from  its  difficulty.  The  Pope  refused, 
as  we  have  seen,  and  Father  Roothaan  merely  gave 
orders  to  the  members  of  the  Society  in  France  to 
make  themselves  less  conspicuous. 

In  1847  Gioberti  published  his  "  Gesuita  Moderno  " 
which  unfortunately  had  the  effect  of  creating  in  the 
minds  of  the  Italian  clergy  a  deep  prejudice  against 
the  Society.  Gioberti  was  a  priest  and  a  professor 
of  theology.  He  first  taught  Rosminianism,  and  then 
opposed  it.  Under  the  pen-name  of  "  Demofilo  "  or 
the  "  People's  Friend  "  he  wrote  articles  for  Mazzini 
in  the  "  Giovane  Italia/'  and  was  the  author  of  "  Del 
Buono "  and  "  Del  primato  morale  e  civile  degli 
Italian!  "•  His  first  attack  on  the  Society  appeared 
in  1845  fa  the  "  Prolegomena  al  Primato;"  "  II  Gesuita 
Moderno,"  a  large  sized  pamphlet  full  of  vulgar  invec- 
tive, appeared  in  1847.  It  was  followed  in  1848  by 
the  "Apologia  del  Gesuita  Moderno,"  He  was 
answered  by  Father  Curd  Deserting  Mazzini,  Gio- 
berti espoused  the  cause  of  King  Charles  Albert,  and 


756  The  Jesuits 

founded  a  society  to  propagate  the  idea  of  a  federated 
Italy  with  the  King  of  Piedmont  at  its  head.  His 
last  book,  "  Rinnovamento  civile  d'ltalia "  showed 
him  to  be  the  enemy  of  the  temporal  power  of  the 
papacy.  His  philosophy  is  a  mixture  of  pantheistic 
ontology,  rationalism,  platonism  and  traditionalism. 
Though  a  revolutionist,  he  denied  the  sovereignty 
of  the  people-  His  complete  works  fill  thirty-five 
volumes. 

Of  course  the  Society  felt  the  shock  of  the  Italian 
Revolution  of  1848.  Gioberti's  writing  had  excited 
all  Italy  and  as  a  consequence  the  Jesuit  houses 
were  abandoned.  At  Naples,  the  exiles  were  hooted 
as  they  took  ship  for  Malta;  they  were  mobbed  in 
Venice  and  Piedmont.  The  General  Father  Roothaan 
left  Rome  on  April  28  in  company  with  a  priest  and  a 
lay-brother,  and  as  he  stood  on  the  deck  at  Genoa, 
he  heard  the  cry  from  the  shore,  "  You  have  Jesuits 
aboard;  throw  them  overboard."  There  was  nothing 
surprising  in  all  this,  however,  for  Rossi,  the  Pope's 
prime  minister,  was  stabbed  to  death  while  mounting 
tjie  steps  of  the  Cancelleria.  On  the  following  day, 
the  Pope  himself  was  besieged  in  the  Quirinal;  Palma, 
a  Papal  prelate,  was  shot  while  standing  at  a  window; 
and  finally  on  November  24,  Pope  Pius  fled  in  dis- 
guise to  Gaeta. 

In  Austria,  the  Jesuits  were  expelled  in  the  month  of 
April.  The  community  of  Innsbruck,  which  is  in 
the  Tyrol,  held  together  for  some  time,  but  finally 
drifted  off  to  France  or  America  or  Australia  or  else- 
where. The  emperor  signed  the  decree  on  May  7, 
1848.  It  applied  also  to  Galicia,  Switzerland,  and 
Silesia,  and  the  Jesuit  houses  all  disappeared  in  those 
parte. 

What  happened  to  the  Jesuits  in  France  in  the 
meantime?  Nothing  whatever.  They  had  obeyed  the 


A  Century  of  Disaster          757 


General  .in  1845,  and  had  simply  kept  their  activities 
out  of  sight.  They  did  not  wait  for  the  Revolution, 
and  hence  although  the  "Journal  des  Debats," 
announced  officially,  on  October  18,  1845,  that  "  at 
the  present  moment  there  are  no  more  Jesuits  in 
Prance,"  there  were  a  great  many.  Indeed,  the 
catalogues  of  1846  and  1847  were  issued  as  usual,  not 
in  print,  however,  but  in  lithograph,  and  as  if  they 
felt  perfectly  free  in  1848,  the  catalogue  of  that  year 
appeared  in  printed  form.  Meantime  de  Ravignan 
was  giving  conferences  in  Notre-Dame,  and  preaching 
all  over  the  country.  The  only  change  the  Fathers 
made  was  to  transport  two  of  their  establishments 
beyond  the  frontiers.  Thus  a  college  was  organized 
at  Brugelette  in  Belgium  and  a  novitiate  at  Issenheim. 
The  scholasticate  of  Laval  continued  as  usual.  What 
was  done  in  the  province  of  Paris  was  identical  with 
that  of  Lyons.  For  a  year  or  so  the  catalogues  were 
lithographed  but  after  that  they  appeared  in  the 
usual  form. 

For  two  years  Father  Roothaan  journeyed  from  place 
to  place  through  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  England, 
and  Ireland,  and  in  1850  returned  to  Rome.  The 
storm  had  spent  itself,  and  the  ruins  it  had  caused 
were  rapidly  repaired,  at  least  in  France,  where  the 
Falloux  Law,  which  was  passed  in  1850,  permitted 
freedom  of  education,  and  the  Fathers  hastened  to 
avail  themselves  of  the  opportunity  to  establish  col- 
leges throughout  the  country. 

Elsewhere,  however,  other  conditions  prevailed. 
In  1851  there  was  a  dispersion  in  Spain;  in  1859  the 
provinces  of  Venice  and  Turin  were  disrupted  and  the 
members  were  distributed  through  the  fifteen  other 
provinces  of  the  Society.  In  1860  the  arrival  of 
Garibaldi  had  already  made  an  end  of  the  Jesuits  in 
Naples  and  Sicily.  The  wreckage  was  considerable, 


758  The  Jesuits 

and  from  a  complaint  presented  to  King  Victor  Emman- 
uel by  Father  Beckx,  it  appears  that  the  Society  had 
lost  three  establishments  in  Lombardy;  in  Modena,  six; 
in  Sardinia,  eleven;  in  Naples,  nineteen,  and  in  Sicily, 
fifteen.  Fifteen  hundred  Jesuits  had  been  expelled 
from  their  houses,  as  if  they  had  been  criminals,  and 
were  thrown  into  public  jails,  abused  and  ill-treated. 
They  were  forbidden  to  accept  shelter  even  from  their 
most  devoted  friends,  and  the  old  and  the  infirm  had 
to  suffer  Eke  the  rest.  Nor  were  these  outrages  per- 
petrated by  excited  mobs,  but  by  the  authorities  then 
established  in  Sardinia,  Sicily,  Naples,  Modena  and 
elsewhere.  "  This  appeal  for  justice  and  reparation 
for  at  least  some  of  the  harm  done,"  said  Father  Beckx, 
"'is  placed,  as  it  were,  on  the  tomb  of  your  ancestor 
Charles  Emmanuel,  who  laid  aside  his  royal  dignity 
and  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus  as  a  lay-brother.  He 
surely  would  not  have  embraced  that  manner  of  life 
if  it  were  iniquitous."  But  it  is  not  on  record  that 
Victor  Emmanuel  showed  his  appreciation  of  his 
predecessor's  virtue  by  healing  any  of  the  wounds  of 
the  Society,  whose  garb  Charles  Emmanuel  had  worn. 

The  Jesuits  of  Venice  had  'resumed  work  in  their 
province,  when  in  1866  war  was  declared  between 
Prussia  and  Austria.  Sadowa  shattered  the  Austrian 
forces,  and  though  the  Italians  had  been  badly  beaten 
at  Custozzio,  Venice  was  handed  over  to  them  by 
the  treaty  that  ended  the  war.  That  meant  of  course 
another  expulsion.  Most  of  the  exiles  went  to  the 
Tyrol  and  Dalmatia.  Then  followed  the  dispersion 
of  all  the  provinces  of  Italy  except  that  of  Rome. 

The  Spanish  Jesuits  had  recovered  somewhat  from 
the  dispersions  of  1854,  but,  in  1868  just  as  the  pro- 
vincial congregations  had  concluded  their  sessions,  a 
revolution  broke  out  all  over  Spain.  Many  of  the 
houses  were  attacked,  but  no  personal  injuries  were 


A  Century  of  Disaster          759 

inflicted.  After  a  while,  a  provisional  government 
was  established  at  Madrid  which  held  the  mob  in 
check  but  made  no  pretence  to  restrain  the  attacks 
on  priests  and  nuns.  Indeed,  it  inaugurated  a  bitter 
persecution  on  its  own  account.  The  minister  of 
justice  issued  a  decree  which  not  only  ordered  the 
Jesuits  out  of  all  Spain  and  the  adjacent  islands  within 
three  days,  but  forbade  any  Spaniard  to  join  the  Society, 
even  in  foreign  parts.  Of  course  all  the  property 
was  confiscated*  That  was  probably  the  chief  motive 
of  the  whole  procedure.  The  outcasts  for  the  most 
part  went  to  France,  and  a  temporary  novitiate  was 
established  in  the  territory  known  as  Les  Landes, 
They  returned  home  after  some  time,  but  were  expect- 
ing another  expulsion  in  1912  when  the  great  war  was 
threatening.  Possibly  the  hideous  scenes  enacted  in 
Portugal  in  1912  were  deemed  sufficient  by  the  revolu- 
tionists for  the  time  being. 

The  expatriation  of  the  Jesuits  and  other  religious 
from  Portugal  which  was  decreed  by  the  Republican 
government,  on  October  10,  1910,  six  days  after  the 
bombardment  of  the  royal  palace  and  the  flight  of 
King  Manuel,  is  typical  of  the  manner  in  which  such 
demonstrations  are  made  in  Europe.  We  have  an 
account  of  it  from  the  Father  provincial  Cabral  which 
we  quote  in  part. 

"  After  the  press  had  been  working  up  the  populace 
for  three  years  to  the  proper  state  of  mind  by  stories  of 
subterranean  arsenals  in  the  Jesuit  colleges;  the  bound- 
less wealth  of  the  Fathers;  their  affiliated  secret 
organizations;  their  political  plots,  etc.,  the  colleges 
of  Campolide  and  San  Fiel  were  invaded.  The  occu- 
pants were  driven  out  and  led  between  lines  of  soldiers 
through  a  howling  mob  to  the  common  jail.  Those 
who  had  fled  before  the  arrival  of  the  soldiers  were 
pursued  across  the  fields  with  rifles,  and  when  caught 


760  The  Jesuits 

were  insulted,  beaten  and  spat  upon,  and  led  like  the 
others  to  prison.  They  had  to  eat  out  of  the  dishes  with 
their  hands,  and  at  night  sentinels  stood  over  them  with 
loaded  rifles  and  warned  the  victims  that  if  they  got 
up  they  would  be  shot.  Abandoned  women  were 
sent  in  among  them,  but  those  poor  creatures  soon 
withdrew.  The  prisoners  were  then  transferred  to 
Caixas  where  they  slept  on  the  floor.  Twenty-three 
were  confined  in  a  space  that  could  scarcely  accommo- 
date three.  They  were  kept  there  for  four  days,  and 
were  not  allowed  to  leave  the  room  for  any  reason 
whatever,  and  were  told  that  they  would  be  kept  in 
that  condition  until  they  began  to  rot,  and  that  then 
some  of  their  rich  friends  would  buy  them  off.  They 
were  photographed,  subjected  to  anthropometric  exami- 
nations, and  their  finger  prints  taken,  etc.  They 
were  then  expelled  from  the  country  and  forbidden 
ever  to  return.  They  had  only  the  clothes  on  their 
backs,  and  had  no  money  except  what  was  given  them 
by  some  friends;  their  colleges  with  their  splendid 
museums  and  libraries  were  confiscated,  and  in  this 
condition  they  set  out,  old  and  young,  the  sick  and 
the  strong,  to  ask  shelter  from  their  brethren  in  other 
lands.  It  was  almost  a  return  to  the  days  of  Pombal 

In  Germany  the  Kulturkampf  began  in  1870,  and  in 
1872  a  decree  was  signed  by  the  Kaiser,  on  June  14, 
1872,  expelling  all  members  of  the  Society,  and  with 
them  the  Redemptorists,  Lazarists,  Fathers  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  and  the  Society  of  the  Sacred  Heart. 
Some  of  the  Jesuits  went  to  Holland;  others  to  England 
and  America.  Contrary  to  expectations,  this  act  of 
tyranny  did  not  harm  the  German  province,  for,  whereas 
it  then  numbered  only  775,  it  now  (1920)  has  1210  on 
its  roll,  of  whom  664  are  priests. 

France  had  its  horror  in  1871,  when  on  May  24 
and  26,  Fathers  OHvaint,  Duqouclray,  Caubert,  Clerq 


A  Century  of  Disaster          761 

and  de  Bengy  were  shot  to  death  by  the  Communists, 
who  were  then  in  possession  of  Paris.  It  was  not, 
however,  a  rising  against  the  Jesuits.  There  were 
fifty-seven  victims  in  all;  priests,  religious  and 
seculars,  were  immolated.  At  their  head,  was  the 
venerable  Archbishop  of  Paris,  Mgr.  Darboy.  Again, 
on  March  29,  1880,  a  decree  issued  by  Jules  Ferry 
brought  about  a  new  dispersion  and  the  substitution 
of  staffs  of  non-religious  teachers  in  the  Jesuit  colleges. 
The  law  was  not  enforced,  however,  and  little  by  little 
the  Fathers  returned  to  their  posts.  Then  followed 
the  law  of  Waldeck-Rousseau  in  1901  against  unauthor- 
ized congregations,  which  closed  all  their  houses,  for 
these  religious  declined  to  apply  for  authorization 
which  they  knew  would  be  refused,  or  if  not,  would 
be  used  to  oppress  them.  The  communities  were, 
therefore,  scattered  in  various  houses  of  Europe.  The 
last  blow  was  the  summons  sent  to  all  parts  of  the 
world  for  every  Frenchman  not  exempt  from  military 
service  to  take  part  in  the  great  World  War,  as  chap- 
lains, hospital  aids  or  common  soldiers. 

The  simultaneity  as  well  as  the  similarity  in  the 
methods  of  executing  these  multiplied  expulsions  show 
clearly  enough  that  they  were  not  accidental  but  part 
of  a  universal  war  against  the  Church.  Thus,  at  the  other 
ends  of  the  earth,  similar  outrages  were  being  committed. 
When,  for  instance,  the  Conservatives  fell  from  power 
in  Colombia,  South  America,  in  1850,  the  Jesuits 
were  expelted.  They  went  from  there  to  Ecuador  and 
Guayaquil,  but  were  left  unmolested  only  for  a  year. 
In  1 86 1  they  were  re-admitted,  and  soon  had  fifty 
mission  stations  and  had  succeeded  in  converting  10,000 
natives  to  the  faith.  But  Garcia  Moreno  who  had 
invited  them  was  assassinated,  and  forthwith  they  were 
expelled.  A  second  time  they  were  recalled,  but 
remained  only  from  1883  to  1894,  and  from  there  they 


762  The  Jesuits 

returned  to  Colombia  where  they  are  at  present. 
In  Argentina,  whither  they  were  summoned  in  1836, 
their  houses  were  closed  in  1841.  They  entered 
Paraguay  in  1848,  where  the  old  Society  had  achieved 
such  triumphs,  but  were  allowed  to  remain  there 
only  three  years.  They  asked  the  Chilian  government 
to  let  them  evangelize  the  fierce  Araucanian  savages, 
but  this  was  refused.  At  the  death  of  the  dictator  Rosas 
is.  1873,  they  again  went  to  Argentina  and  have  not 
since  been  disturbed.  They  have  had  the  same  good 
fortune  in  Chile. 

A  different  condition  of  things,  however,  obtained 
in  Brazil.  In  the  very  year  that  Rosas  died  in  Argen- 
tina, 1873,  the  Jesuit  College  of  Olinda  in  Brazil  was 
looted  and  the  Fathers  expelled.  The  reason  was  not 
that  the  Jesuits  were  objectionable  but  that  the  bishop 
had  suspended  a  young  ecclesiastic  who  was  a  Free- 
mason. The  College  of  Pernambuco  was  wrecked  by 
a  mob,  and  one  of  the  priests  was  dangerously  wounded. 
Worse  treatment  was  meted  out  to  them  when  the 
Emperor,  Don  Pedro,  was  deposed  in  1889.  Since 
then,  however,  there  has  been  comparatively  no  trouble. 

Of  course,  when  the  Piedmontese  broke  down  the 
Porta  Pia  the  Jesuits  had  to  leave  Rome,  where  until 
then  they  had  undisturbed.  The  novitiate  of  Sant' 
Andrea  was  the  first  to  be  seized;  then  St.  Eusebio,  the 
house  of  the  third  probation,  and  after  that,  St.  Vitalis, 
the  Gesxi,  and  finally  the  Roman  College.  The  occupants 
had  three  months  to  vacate  the  premises.  The  other 
religious  orders  whose  general  or  procurator  resided  at 
Rome  could  retain  one  house  for  the  transaction  of 
business  but  that  indulgence  was  not  granted  to  the 
Jesuits.  Their  General  was  not  to  remain,  and  hence 
Father  Peter  Beckx,  though  then  seventy-eight  years 
old,  had  to  depart  with  his  brethren  for  Fiesole,  where 
he  was  received  in  the  family  of  the  Counts  of  Ricasole 


A  Century  of  Disaster          763 

on  November  9,  1873.  Prom  that  place  he  governed 
the  Society  until  the  year  1884,  when  he  was  succeeded 
by  Father  Anthony  Anderledy,  who  remained  in  the 
same  city  until  he  died.  Father  Luis  Martin,  the 
next  General,  returned  to  Rome  in  1893,  so  that  Piesole 
was  the  centre  of  the  Society  for  twenty  years. 

As  the  chief  representative  of  Christ  on  Earth  is  the 
most  prominent  victim  of  these  spoliations,  and  as 
he  has  been  frequently  driven  into  exile  and  is  at 
present  only  tolerated  in  his  own  territory,  the  Society 
of  Jesus  with  the  other  religious  orders  cannot  consider 
it  a  reproach  but  rather  a  glory  to  be  treated  like  him. 
How  does  the  Society  survive  all  these  disasters? 
It  continues  as  if  nothing  had  happened,  and  one  reads 
with  amazement  the  statement  of  Father  General 
"Wernz  at  the  meeting  of  the  procurators  held  in 
September  and  October  1910,  when  in  a  tone  that  is 
almost  jubilant  he  congratulates  the  Society  on  its 
"  flourishing  condition."  He  said  in  brief: 

"There  are  .five  new  provinces;  a  revival  of  the 
professed  houses;  new  novitiates,  scholasticates,  ter- 
tianships  and  courses  in  the  best  colleges  for  students  of 
special  subjects;  and  a  superior  course  for  Jesuit 
students  of  canon  law  in  the  Gregorian  University. 
Next  year  there  are  to  be  accommodations  for  300 
theologians  (boarders)  at  Innsbruck,  which  institution 
will  be  a  Collegium  Maximum  for  philosophy,  theology 
and  special  studies.  The  novitiate  is  to  be  moved  to 
the  suburbs  of  Vienna.  In  the  province  of  Galicia 
sufficient  ground  has  been  bought  to  make  the  College 
of  Cracow  similar  to  Innsbruck,  and  a  beautiful 
church  is  being  built  there.  The  province  of  Germany 
though  dispersed  has  built  in  Holland  an  immense 
novitiate  and  house  of  retreats  and  the  Luxemburg 
house  of  writers  is  to  be  united  to  the  Collegium 
Maximum  of  Valkenburg.  The  Holland  province 


764  The  Jesuits 

has  more  diplomated  professors  than  any  other  in  the 
Society,  and  is  about  to  build  a  new  scholasticate. 
Louvain  is  becoming  more  and  more  a  house  of  special 
studies.  In  England,  the  Campion  house  at  Oxford 
is  continuing  its  success  and  there  is  question  of  moving 
St.  Beuno's.  The  Irish  province  is  looking  for  another 
site  for  the  novitiate  and  juniorate,  and  is  using  the 
University  to  form  better  teachers.  Canada  is  looking 
for  another  place  for  its  novitiate  and  so  are  Mexico, 
Brazil  and  Argentina,  while  Maryland  is  trying  to  put 
its  scholasticate  near  New  York. 

"  Not  much  remains  to  be  done  in  Spain.  However, 
Toledo  has  estabEshed  a  scholasticate  in  Murcia,  and 
Aragon  is  planning  one  for  Tarragona.  Prance  is 
dispersed,  but  it  has  furnished  excellent  professors 
for  the  Biblical  Institute  and  the  Gregorian  University. 
In  the  mission  of  Calcutta,  130,000  pagans  have  been 
brought  to  the  Faith  and  in  one  Chinese  mission, 
12,000.  The  numbers  could  be  doubled  if  there  were 
more  workers."  This  was  in  1910,  and  within  a  week 
of  this  pronouncement,  the  expulsion  in  Portugal  took 
place;  in  1914  the  war  broke  out  which  shattered 
Belgium  and  made  Prance  more  wretched  than  ever. 
What  the  future  will  be  no  one  knows. 


CHAPTER  XXVI 

MODERN    MISSIONS 

During  the  Suppression  —  Roothaan's  appeal  —  South  America  — 
The  Philippines  —  United  States  Indians — De  Smet  —  Canadian 
Reservations  —  Alaska  —  British  Honduras  —  China  —  India  —  Syria 
—  Algeria  —  Guinea  —  Egypt  —  Madagascar  —  Mashonaland  — 
Congo — Missions  depleted  by  World  War — Actual  number  of  mis- 
sionaries. 

BESIDES  its  educational  work,  the  Society  of  Jesus 
has  always  been  eager  for  desperate  and  daring  work 
among  savages.  At  the  time  of  the  Suppression, 
namely  in  1773  three  thousand  of  its  members  were  so 
employed;  and  the  ruthless  and  cruel  separation  from 
those  abandoned  human  beings  was  one  of  the  darkest 
and  gloomiest  features  of  the  tragedy.  To  all  human 
appearances  millions  of  heathens  were  thus  hopelessly 
lost.  Happily  the  disaster  was  not  as  great  as  was 
anticipated.  In  his  "  Christian  Missions  "  Marshall 
says: — It  would  almost  seem  as  if  God  had  resolved  to 
justify  his  servants  by  a  special  and  marvellous  Provi- 
dence before  the  face  of  the  whole  world,  and  had  left 
their  work  to  what  seemed  inevitable  ruin  and  decay 
only  to  show  that  neither  the  world  nor  the  devil, 
neither  persecution,  nor  fraud  nor  neglect  could 
extinguish  the  life  that  was  in  it.  And  so  when  they 
came  to  look  upon  it,  after  sixty  years  of  silence  and 
desolation  they  found  a  living  multitude  where  they 
expected  to  count  only  the  corpses  of  the  dead.  Some 
indeed  had  failed,  and  paganism  or  heresy  had  sung 
its  song  of  triumph  over  the  victims;  others  had 
retained  only  the  great  truths  of  the  Trinity  and  the 
Incarnation  while  ignorance  and  its  twin  sister,  super- 
stition, had  spread  a  veil  over  their  eyes,  but  still 

765 


766  The  Jesuits 

the  prodigious  fact  was  revealed  that  in  India  alone 
that  there  were  more  than  one' million  natives  who,  after 
half  a  century  of  abandonment,  still  clung  with 
constancy  to  the  faith  which  had  been  preached  to 
their  fathers,  and  still  bowed  the  head  with  loving 
awe  when  the  names  of  their  departed  apostles  were 
uttered  amongst  them.  Such  is  the  astonishing  con- 
clusion of  a  trial  without  parallel  in  the  history  of 
Christianity,  and  which  if  it  had  befallen  the  Christians 
of  other  lands,  boasting  their  science  and  civilization, 
might  perhaps  have  produced  other  results  than 
among  the  despised  Asiatics.  The  natural  inference 
would  be  that  besides  this  special  Providence  in  their 
regard  these  neophytes  had  been  well  trained  by  their 
old  masters  (I,  246). 

For  a  time,  of  course,  there  were  some  Jesuits  who 
lingered  on  the  missions  in  spite  of  the  government's 
orders  to  the  contrary.  Thus  we  find  a  very  dis- 
tinguished man,  a  Tyrolese  from  Bolzano,  who  died  at 
Lucknow  on  July  5,  1785.  His  name  was  Joseph 
Tiffenthaller  and  he  had  Kved  forty  years  in  Hindostan. 
His -tombstone,  we  are  told,  may  be  still  seen  in  the 
cemetery  of  Agra  where  they  laid  his  precious  remains. 
He  was  a  man  of  unusual  ability  and  besides  speaking 
his  native  tongue  was  familiar  with  Latin,  Italian, 
Spanish,  French,  Hindustanee,  Arabic,  Persian  and 
Sanscrit.  He  was  the  first  European  who  wrote  a 
description  of  Hindostan.  It  is  a  detailed  account  of 
the  twenty-two  Provinces  of  India,  with  their  cities, 
towns,  fortresses,  whose  geographical  situations  were 
all  calculated  by  means  of  a  simple  quadrant.  The 
work  contains  a  large  number  of  maps,  plans  and 
sketches  drawn  by  himself  and  the  list  of  places  fills 
twenty-one  quarto  pages.  He  also  made  a  large 
atlas  of  the  basin  of  the  Ganges,  and  is  the  author  of 
a  treatise  on  the  regions  in  which  the  rivers  of  India 


Modern  Missions  767 

rise;  a  map  of  the  Gagra  which  Bernoulli  calls  "a 
work  of  enormous  labor  "  is  another  part  of  Tiffen- 
thaller's  relics. 

In  the  field  of  religion  he  wrote  books  on  "  Brah- 
martism,"  "  Indian  Idolatry,"  "  Indian  Asceticism," 
"  The  religonof  theParseesand  Mohammedanism  with 
their  relations  to  each  other."  He  also  published 
his  astronomical  observations 'on  the  sun-spots,  on  the 
zodiacal  light,  besides  discussions  on  the  astrology  and 
cosmology  of  the  Hindus,  with  descriptions  of  the 
flora  and  the  fauna  of  the  country.  He  was  besides 
all  that  an  historian,  and  has  left  us  an  account  in 
Latin  of  the  origin  and  religion  of  the  Hindus,  another 
in  German  of  the  expedition  of  Nadir  Shah  to  India ; 
a  third  in  Persian  about  the  deeds  of  the  Great  Mogul, 
Alam,  and  a  fourth  in  French  which  tells  of  the  incur- 
sions of  the  Afghans  and  the  capture  of  Delhi,  together 
with  a  contemporary  history  of  India  for  the  years 
1757-64.  In  linguistics,  he  wrote  a '  Parsee-Sanscrit 
lexicon  and  treatises  in  Latin  on  the  Parsee  language, 
the  pronunciation  of  Latin,  etc.,  He  was  held  in  the 
highest  esteem  by  the  scientific  societies  of  Europe 
with  which  he  was  in  communication.  During  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  in  India,  the  struggle  was  going 
on  between  the  French  and  English  for  the  possession 
of  the  Peninsula. 

Of  course  he  was  not  alone  in  India,  at  that  time, 
for  Bertrand  tells  us  in  his  "  Notions  sur  T  Inde  et 
les  missions  "  (p.  30)  that  "  the  Jesuits  had  a  residence 
at  Delhi  as  late  as  1790",  but,  unfortunately,  he  could 
say  nothing  more  about  them.  It  is  very  likely, 
however,  that  when  Pombars  agents  attempted  to 
crowd  the  127  Jesuits  who  were  at  work  in  the  various 
districts  of  Hindostan  into  a  ship  which  had  accommo- 
dations —  and  such  accommodations  —  for  only  forty 
or  fifty,  many  of  them  had  perforce  to  be  left  behind, 


768  The  Jesuits 

or  perhaps  failed  to  report  at  the  place  of  emharcation. 
By  keeping  out  of  Ooa,  they  could  easily  elude  the 
pursuivants.  The  jungle,  for  instance,  was  a  con- 
venient hiding  place.  However,  as  they  received  no 
recruits  the  work  went  to  pieces  when  the  old  heroes 
died,  so  that  there  were,  most  likely,  no  Jesuits  there 
at  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century.  It  was 
just  at  this  time,  that  England  took  possession  of  the 
greater  part  of  Hindostan  and,  as  a  consequence,  the 
country  was  soon  swarming  with  Protestant  parsons 
of  every  sect,  eager  to  fill  their  depleted  ranks  with 
new  converts  from  the  East. 

Marshall  had  been  employed  to  report  on  their 
success,  but  as  every  one  knows,  the  investigation 
brought  him  to  the  Church.  His  researches  furnish 
very  reliable  and  interesting  information  about  the 
conditions  prevailing  in  those  parts  among  the  old 
proselytes  of  the  Jesuits.  Quoting  from  the  "  Madras 
Directory  "  of  1857,  he  shows  that  in  the  Missions  of 
Madura,  founded  by  de  Nobili,  there  were  still  130,000 
Catholics,  and  in  Verapoli  as  many  as  300,000,  with  an 
accession  of  1000  converts  from  Mohammedanism 
every  year.  Nor  were  these  Hindus  merely  nominal 
Christians.  Bertrand  who  knew  India  thoroughly, 
writing  in  1838,  says  of  the  Sanars:  "One  might 
almost  say  that  they  have  not  eaten  of  the  tree  of 
knowledge  of  good  and  evil  with  Adam,  and  that 
they  were  created  in  the  days  of  original  innocence. 
Among  these  Hindus  there  are  numbers  who  when  asked 
whether  they  commit  this  or  that  sin,  answer :  *  Formerly 
[  did,  but  that  is  many  years  ago.  I  told  it  to  the 
Father,  and  he  forbade  me  to  do  it.  Since  then  I 
lave  not  committed  it.'  We  reckon  more  than  7000 
Christians  of  this  caste/'  Father  Gamier,  S.  J.  wrote 
n  the  same  year  as  follows:  "The  Christians  of  this 
country  are,  in  general,  well  disposed  and  strongly 


Modern  Missions  769 

attached  to  the  Faith.  The  usages  introduced  among 
them  by  the  Jesuits  still  subsist;  morning  prayer  in 
common,  an  hour  before  sunrise;  evening  prayer  with 
spiritual  reading;  catechism  for  the  children  every 
day  given  by  a  catechist ;  Mass  on  Sunday  in  the  chapel. 
But  in  spite  of  these  excellent  practices  there  still 
remains  much  ignorance  and  superstition,  and  we  shall 
have  a  good  deal  to  do  to  form  them  into  a  people 
of  true  Christians  before  we  turn  our  attention  to  the 
pagans.  We  shall  do  that  when  we  are  more  numerous." 

Of  course  these  testimonies  of  Jesuits  may  be  rejected 
by  some  people,  but  the  Protestant  missionaries  in 
Hindostan,  at  that  time,  leave  no  room  for  doubt  about 
the  actual  conditions.  Buchanan,  for  instance,  who 
was  particularly  conspicuous  among  his  fellows  and 
was  greatly  extolled  in  England  says:  "  There  are  in 
India  members  of  the  Church  of  Rome  who  deserve  the 
affection  and  respect  of  all  good  men.  From  Cape 
Commorin  to  Cochin,  there  are  about  one  hundred 
churches  on  the  seashore  alone.  Before  each  is  a  lofty 
cross  which  like  the  church  itself  is  seen  from  a  great 
distance.  At  Jaffna,  on  Sundays,  about  a  thousand 
or  twelve  hundred  people  attend  church  and  on  feast 
days  three  thousand  and  upward.  At  Manaar  they  are 
all  Romish  Christians.  At  Tutycorin,  the  whole  of 
the  tribe,  without  exception,  are  Christians  in  the 
Romish  Communion.  Before  they  hoist  sail  to  go  out 
to  sea,  a  number  of  boatmen  all  join  in  prayer  to  God 
for  protection.  Every  man  at  his  post,  with  the  rope 
in  his  hands,  pronounces  the  prayer." 

One  of  these  parsons  who  bore  the  very  inappropriate 
name  of  Joseph  Mullens  and  whose  writing  is  usually 
a  shriek  against  the  Church  says  that  "  in  1854,  the 
Jesuit  and  Roman  Catholic  missions  are  spread  very 
widely  through  the  Madras  Presidency.  At  Pubna 
there  is  a  population  of  13,000  souls.  It  is  all  due  to 

40 


770  The  Jesuits 

the  Catholic  missionaries.  I  allow  that  they  dress 
simply,  eat  plainly  and  have  no  luxuries  at  home; 
they  travel  much;  are  greatly  exposed;  live  poorly, 
and  toil  hard,  and  I  have  heard  of  a  bishop  living  in 
a  cave  on  fifty  rupees  a  month,  and  devoutly  attending 
the  sick  when  friends  and  relatives  had  fled  from  fear. 
But  all  that  is  much  easier  on  the  principles  of  a 
Jesuit  who  is  supported  by  motives  of  self -righteous- 
ness than  it  is  to  be  a  faithful  minister  on  t*he  principles 
of  the  New  Testament. " 

The  bloody  persecution  of  1805  in  China  showed 
how  fervent  and  strong  those  Christians  were  in 
their  faith.  Very  few  apostatized,  though  new  and 
terrible  punishments  were  inflicted  on  them.  Dr.  Wells 
Williams,  a  Protestant  agent  in  China,  says  that 
"  many  of  them  exhibited  the  greatest  constancy  in 
their  profession,  suffering  persecution,  torture,  banish- 
ment and  death,  rather  than  deny  their  faith,  though 
every  inducement  of  prevarication  and  mental  reser- 
vation was  held  out  to  them  by  the  magistrates,  in 
order  to  avoid  the  necessity  of  proceeding  to  extreme 
measures.*'  It  came  to  an  end  only  when  it  was 
discovered  that  Christianity  had  even  entered  the 
royal  family,  and  that  the  judges  were  sometimes 
trying  their  own  immediate  relatives.  In  1 8 1 5 ,  however, 
the  very  year  that  the  Protestant  missionaries  arrived 
in  China  the  persecution  broke  out  again.  Bishop 
Dufresse  was  one  of  the  victims,  and  when  the  day  of 
execution  arrived  he  with  thirty-two  other  martyrs 
ascended  the  scaffold.  In  1818  many  were  sent  to  the 
wastes  of  Tatary,  and  1823  when  pardon  was  offered 
to  all  who  would  renounce  their  faith,  after  suffering 
in  the  desert  for  five  years  only  five  proved  recreant. 
In  the  midst  of  all  this  storm  one  of  the  missionaries 
reported  that  he  had  baptized  one  hundred  and  six 
adults. 


Modern  Missions  771 

That  a  great  many  Chinese  had  remained  faithful 
CathoEcs  during  the  long  period  which  had  elapsed 
after  the  Suppression  was  manifested  by  a  notable 
event  recorded  by  Brou  in  "  Les  Jgsuites  Mission- 


aires." 


"On  November  i,  1903, "  he  writes  "a  funeral 
ceremony  took  place  in  Zikawei,  a  town  situated  about 
six  miles  from  Shanghai.  It  was  more  like  the  triumph 
of  a  great  hero  than  an  occasion  of  mourning.  The 
people  were  in  a  state  of  great  enthusiasm  about  it, 
and  assembled  in  immense  throngs  around  the  tomb 
of  the  illustrious  personage  whose  glories  were  b'eing 
celebrated.  The  object  of  these  honors  was  Paul  Zi 
or  Sin,  a  literary  celebrity  in  his  day,  the  prime  minister 
of  an  emperor  in  the  long  past,  and  one  of  the  first 
converts  of  the  famous  Father  Ricci,  whom  he  had 
aided  with  lavish  generosity  in  building  churches  and 
in  establishing  the  Faith  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Shanghai. 

"  The  celebration  of  1903  was  the  third  centenary 
of  his  baptism,  and  all  his  relations  or  descendants 
who  were  very  numerous,  had  gathered  at  Zikawei 
for  the  occasion.  Among  them,  the  Fathers  discovered 
a  great  number  of  Christians  who  had  remained  true 
to  the  teachings  of  the  Church  during  those  300  years; 
and  there  were  many  others  throughout  the  country 
who  resembled  the  Zi  family  in  this  particular.  In 
Paul's  district,  that  is  in  the  neighborhood  of  Shanghai, 
there  were,  60  years  after  the  baptism  of  the  great 
man,  as  many  as  40,000  Christians,  and  in  1683  the 
number  had  risen  to  800,000,  but  a  century  later  the 
persecutions  had  cut  them  down  to  30,000  though 
doubtless  there  were  many  who  had  succeeded  in 
concealing  themselves.  *  * 

With  Cochin  the  Jesuits  never  had  anything  to  do, 
except  that  their  great  hero,  de  Rhodes,  was  its  first 


772  The  Jesuits 

successful  missionary  in  former  days.  It  was  at  his 
suggestion  that  the  Society  of  the  Missions  Etrang£res 
was  founded  and  took  up  the  work  which  the  Jesuits 
were  unable  to  cany  on  alone. 

About  Corea,  Marshall  furnishes  us  with  two  very 
interesting  facts.  The  first  is  that  England  had  the 
honor  of  giving  a  martyr  to  Corea,  the  English  Jesuit, 
Thomas  King,  who  died  there  in  1788,  that  is  fifteen 
years  after  the  Suppression.  Unfortunately  the  name 
"King"  does  not  appear  in  Foley's  "Records/* 

The  second  is  vouched  for  by  the  "  Annales  "  (p.  190) 
which  relate  that  a  French  priest,  known  as  M.  de 
Maistre,  had  for  ten  years  vainly  endeavored  to  enter 
the  forbidden  kingdom  and  had  spent  60,000  francs  in 
roaming  around  its  impenetrable  frontier.  He  assumed 
all  sorts  of  disguises,  faced  every  kind  of  danger  in 
his  journeys  from  the  ports  of  China  to  the  deserts  of 
Leao-tong,  asking  alternately  the  Chinese  junks  and 
the  French  ships  to  put  him  ashore  somewhere  on  the 
coast.  Death  was  so  evidently  to  be  the  result  of 
his  enterprise  that  the  most  courageous  seaman  refused 
to  help  him.  It  required  the  zeal  of  an  apostle  to 
comprehend  this  heroism  and  to  second  its  endeavors. 
Father  H61ot,  being  a  priest,  understood  what  the 
Cross  required  of  him,  and  as  a  member  of  a  society 
whose  tradition  is  that  they  have  never  been  baffled 
by  any  difficulties  or  perils,  felt  himself  at  the  post 
where  his  Company  desired  him  to  be.  The  Jesuit 
becomes  the  pilot  of  a  battered  ship,  safely  conducts 
his  intrepid  passenger  to  an  unknown  land,  and  having 
deposited  him  on  the  shore,  looked  after  him  for  a 
while  and  returned  to  his  neophytes  with  the  consoling 
satisfaction  of  having  exposed  his  life  for  a  mission 
that  was  not  his  own. 

From  the  Catalogues  of  the  Society,  we  find  that 
Louis  Hflot  was  born  on  January  29,  1816.  He  was 


Modern  Missions  773 

a  novice  at  St.  Acheul,in  1835,  and  in  the  same  house 
there  happened  to  be  a  certain  Isidore  Daubresse, 
not  a  novice,  however,  but  a  theologian  who  was  well- 
known  later  on  in  New  York.  The  master  of  novices 
was  Ambrose  Rubillon  who  was  subsequently  assistant 
of  the  General  for  France.  By  1850  Hflot  was  in 
China  and  spent  the  rest  of  his  life  hunting  after  souls  in 
the  region  of  Nankin.  He  died  sometime  after  1864. 
De  Maistre  succeeded  in  entering  the  country  and  we 
find  him  waiting  one  Good  Friday  night  to  welcome 
the  first  bishop  who  had  three  priests  with  him,  one 
of  whom  was  a  Jesuit. 

Before  the  re-establishment  the  few  Jesuits  in  White 
Russia  had  kept  up  the  missionary  traditions  of  the 
Society.  Their  missions  extended  all  along  the  Volga 
and  they  were  at  Odessa  in  1800.  In  1801,  thanks  to 
the  Emperor  Paul's  intercession,  they  had  returned 
to  their  ancient  posts  on  the  JEgean  Islands,  which 
were  in  the  dominions  of  the  Grand  Turk;  by  1806  they 
had  reached  Astrakhan;  and  in  1810  were  in  the  Cau- 
casus. Before  Father  Grassi  came  to  America,  he 
was  studying  in  St.  Petersburg  to  prepare  himself 
for  the  missions  of  Astrakhan. 

In  America,  in  spite  of  the  Suppression,  the  work 
of  the  old  Jesuits  did  not  fail  to  leave  its  traces.  Thus 
in  Brazil  where  Nobrega  and  Anchieta  once  labored, 
over  800,000  domesticated  Indians  now  represent  the 
fruit  of  their  toil.  Deprived  during  sixty  years  of 
their  fathers  and  guides  and  too  often  scandalized  by 
men  who  are  Christians  only  in  name,  the  native 
races  have  not  only  preserved  the  Faith  through  all 
their  sorrows  and  trials,  but  every  where  rejected  the 
bribes  and  promises  of  heresy.  In  that  vast  region,  which 
stretches  from  the  mouth  of  the  San  Francisco  to  the 
Isthmus  of  Panama,  watered  by  the  mightiest  rivers 
of  our  globe,  and  including  the  district  of  the  Amazon 


774  The  Jesuits 

with  its  45,000  miles  of  navigable  water  communication, 
"  the  natives  who  still  find  shelter  in  its  forests  or 
guide  their  barks  over  its  myriad  streams,"  says  a 
Protestant  writer,  "push  their  profession  of  the 
Catholic  religion  even  to  the  point  of  fanaticism.'' 

The  Paraguayans  of  course  could  be  counted  upon  not 
to  forget  their  fathers  in  Christ.  Both  Sir  Woodbine 
Parish  and  d'Orbigny  testify  that  the  effects  of  the 
preponderating  influence  of  the  monastic  establish- 
ments are  still  visible  in  the  habits  of  the  generality 
of  the  people.  One  thing  is  certain,  they  say,  and 
ought  to  be  declared  to  the  praise  of  the  Fathers, 
that  since  their  expulsion  the  material  prosperity  of 
Paraguay  has  diminished;  many  lands  formerly  culti- 
vated have  ceased  to  be  so;  many  localities  formerly 
inhabited  present  at  this  day  only  ruins.  What  ought 
to  be  confessed  is  this  —  that  they  knew  how  to  engrave 
with  such  power,  on  their  hearts,  reverence  for  authority 
that  even  to  this  very  hour  the  tribes  of  Paraguay 
beyond  all  those  who  inhabit  this  portion  of  America 
are  the  most  gentle  and  the  most  submissive  to  the 
dictates  of  duty. 

In  "  La  Compania  de  Jesds  en  las  Republicas  del  Sur 
de  America,"  Father  Hernandez  tells  us  that  there 
were  three  former  Jesuits  in  Chile  at  the  beginning  of 
the  nineteenth  century:  Father  Caldera,  Vildaurre 
and  Carvajal.  The  first  two  died  respectively  in  1818 
and  1822,  the  date  of  CarvajaTs  demise  is  not  known, 
nor  is  there  any  information  available  as  to  whether 
or  not  they  ever  re-entered  the  Society.  In  the  old 
Province  of  Paraguay,  there  was  a  Father  Villafane 
who  was  seventy-four  years  old  in  1814.  Hearing  of 
the  re-establishment,  he  wrote  to  the  Pope  asking  to 
renew  his  vows  when  "in  danger  of  death."  The 
request,  of  course,  was  granted  but  he  continued  to 
live  till  the  year  1830.  Whether  he  waited  till  then 


Modern  Missions  775 

to  renew  his  vows  has  not  been  found  out.  In  that 
same  year  there  died  in  Buenos  Aires  an  Irish  Jesuit 
named  Patrick  Moran.  His  name  is  inscribed  not 
only  on  the  headstone  over  his  remains,  in  the  Recolta 
graveyard,  but  on  a  slab  inserted  "in  the  wall  of  the 
church.  He  was  probably  a  chaplain  in  some  dis- 
tinguished family  or  what  was  more  likely  exercising 
his  ministry  in  the  Irish  colony  of  that  place. 

Coming  to  the  northern  part  of  the  hemisphere  we 
are  told  by  Mr.  Russell  Bartlett  that  the  Yaqui  Indians 
of  Sonora,  the  fishermen  and  pearl  divers  of  California 
are  invariably  honest,  faithful  and  industrious.  They 
were  among  the  first  to  be  converted  by  the  Jesuits. 
Originally  extremely  warlike,  their  savage  nature  was 
completely  subdued  on  being  converted  to  Christianity, 
and  they  became  the  most  docile  and  tractable  of 
people.  They  are  now  very  populous  in  the  southern 
part  of  Sonora. 

Anyone  who  has  visited  the  Abenakis  at  Old  Town 
in  Maine,  or  La  Jeune  Lorette  in  Quebec,  or  Caugh- 
nawaga  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  or  the  Indian  settlements 
at  Wekwemikong  and  Killarney  on  Lake  Huron  will 
testify  to  the  excellent  results  of  the  teachings  implanted 
in  their  hearts  by  the  old  Jesuit  missionaries  who 
reclaimed  them  from  savagery. 

A  most  remarkable  example  of  this  fidelity  to  their 
former  teachers  was  afforded  by  the  Indians  of  Caugh- 
nawaga.  They  were  mostly  Iroquois  from  New  York 
who  after  their  conversion  to  the  Faith  were  sent  or 
went,  of  their  own  accord,  to  the  Christian  village 
that  was  assigned  to  them  above  Montreal.  Long 
after  the  Suppression  of  the  Society,  namely  in  the 
first  third  of  the  nineteenth  century,  a  party  of  these 
Indians  headed  by  two  chiefs  with  the  significant 
names  of  Ignace  and  Frangois  R6gis  tramped  almost 
completely  across  the  continent,  and  without  the  aid 


776  The  Jesuits 

of  a  priest,  for  none  could  be  got,  converted  an  entire 
tribe  to  Christianity  and  did  it  in  such  wonderful 
fashion  that  the  first  white  men  who  visited  these 
converts  were  amazed  at  the  purity,  honesty,  self- 
restraint  and  piety  'that  reigned  in  the  tribe.  Over 
and  over  again,  Ignace  travelled  down  to  St.  Louis, 
thus  making  a  journey  of  two  thousand  miles  each 
time  to  beg  for  a  Black  Robe  from  the  poor  missionary 
bishop  who  had  none  to  give  him.  The  devoted  Ignace, 
at  last,  lost  his  life  in  pursuance  of  his  apostolic  purpose. 
He  fell  among  hostile  Indians,  and  though  he  might 
have  escaped,  for  he  was  dressed  as  a  white  man,  he 
confessed  himself  an  Iroquois  and  died  with  his  people. 

Father  Fortis,  the  first  General  after  the  re-establish- 
ment of  the  Society,  was  rather  averse  to  any  missionary 
enterprise  for  the  time  being,  because  he  judged  that 
he  had  not  as  yet  any  available  men  for  such  perilous 
work.  Father  Roothaan,  his  immediate  successor,  was 
of  a  different  opinion,  and  when  in  1833,  he  appealed 
for  missionaries  the  response  was  immediate.  Hence 
Bengal  was  begun  in  1834;  Madura,  Argentina  and 
Paraguay  in  1836,  and  the  Rocky  Mountains  and 
China  in  1840.  In  1852  at  the  request  of  Napoleon 
III  the  penal  colony  of  French  Guinea  was  accepted  as 
were  the  offers  of  Fernando  Po  in  Africa  and  the 
Philippines  from  Queen  Isabella  of  Spain. 

The  Spanish  missions  in  Latin  America  were  the 
least  successful  of  any  in  the  Society,  The  Fathers 
were  debarred  from  any  communication  with  the 
native  tribes,  even  those  formerly  Christianized  and 
civilized  by  them,  or  if  permission  were  granted  it 
was  soon  under  some  frivolous  pretext  or  other  res- 
cinded, as  we  have  mentioned  above. 

The  Belgian  Jesuits  went  to  Guatemala  in  1843, 
but  only  after  considerable  trouble  was  their  existence 
assured  by  a  government  Act,  in  1851,  In  1871, 


Modern  Missions  777 

however,  they  were  expelled  and  withdrew  to  Nicaragua, 
from  which  they  were  driven  in  1884.  The  Brazilian 
Mission  was  inaugurated  by  the  Jesuits  whom  Rosas 
had  exiled  from  Argentina.  They  were  acceptable 
because  priests  were  needed  in  the  devastated  Province 
of  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  which  had  been  the  theatre  of 
an  unsuccessful  war  of  independence.  Of  course, 
the  usual  government  methods  in  vogue  in  that  part 
of  the  world  were  resorted  to. 

The  suppression  of  the  Society  wrought  havoc  in 
the  Philippines,  and  we  are  told  that  in  1836  as  many 
as  6000  people  were  carried  off  into  slavery  by  Moham- 
medan pirates,  a  disaster  that  would  have  probably 
been  prevented  had  the  missionaries  been  left  there. 
They  would  have  made  soldiers  out  of  the  natives 
as  they  did  in  Paraguay.  It  was  only  in  1859  ^at 
they  returned  to  that  field  of  work.  They  resumed 
their .  educational  labors  in  Manila  and  at  the  same 
time  evangelized  Mindanao  with  wonderful  success. 
In  1881  there  were  on  that  island  194,134  Christians 
and  in  1893,  302,107.  Inside  of  thirty-six  years,  the 
Fathers  had  brought  57,000  Filipinos  to  the  Faith 
and  established  them  in  Reductions  as  in  Paraguay. 
Great  success  was  also  had  with  the  Moros,-  who  were 
grouped  together  in  three  distinct  villages.  The 
Spanish  War  brought  its  disturbances,  but  little  by 
little  the  Jesuits  recovered  what  they  had  lost  and 
there  are  at  present  162  members  of  the  province  of 
Aragon  at  work  in  the  Islands. 

In  the  United  States,  the  native  races  have  largely 
disappeared  except  in  the  very  far  West.  With  the 
remnants,  the  Jesuits  are,  of  course,  concerned,  and 
perhaps  the  most  reliable  official  estimate  of  the  success 
they  have  achieved  was  expressed  by  Senator  Vest 
during  the  discussion  of  the  Indian  Appropriation 
Bill  before  the  United  States  Senate  in  1900; 


778  The  Jesuits 

"  I  was  raised  a  Protestant,"  he  said;  "  I  expect  to 
die  one.  I  was  never  in  a  Catholic  church  in  my  life, 
and  I  have  not  the  slightest  sympathy  with  many  of 
its  dogmas;  but  above  all  I  have  no  respect  for  the 
insane  fear  that  the  Catholic  Church  is  about  to  over- 
turn this  Government.  I  should  be  ashamed  to 
call  myself  an  American  if  I  indulged  in  any  such 
ignorant  belief.  I  said  that  I  was  a  Protestant.  I 
was  reared  in  the  Scotch  Presbyterian  Church;  my 
father  was  an  elder  in  it  and  my  earliest  impressions 
were  that  the  Jesuits  had  horns  and  hoofs  and  tails, 
and  that  there  was  a  faint  tinge  of  sulphur  in  the 
circumambient  air  whenever  one  of  them  crossed 
youf  path.  Some  years  ago  I  was  assigned  by  the 
Senate  to  examine  the  Indian  schools  in  Wyoming 
and  Montana.  I  visited  every  one  of  them.  I  wish 
to  say  now  what  I  have  said  before  in  the  Senate 
and  it  is  not  the  popular  side  of  the  question  by  any 
means,  that  I  did  not  see  in  all  my  journey  a  single 
school  that  was  doing  any  educational  work  worthy  of 
the  name  educational  work,  unless  it  was  under  the  con- 
trol of  the  Jesuits.  I  did  not  see  a  single  Government 
school,  especially  day  schools  where  there  was  any  work 
done  at  all.  The  Jesuits  have  elevated  the  Indian  wher- 
ever they  have  been  allowed  to  do  so  without  the  inter- 
ference of  bigotry  and  fanaticism  and  the  cowardice 
of  politicians.  They  have  made  him  a  Christian,  have 
made  him  a  workman  able  to  support  himself  and  those 
dependent  on  him.  Go  to  the  Flathead  Reservation 
in  Montana,  and  look  at  the  work  of  the  Jesuits  and 
what  do  you  find?  Comfortable  dwellings,  herds  of 
cattle  and  horses,  self-respecting  Indian?.  I  am  not 
afraid  to  say  this,  because  I  speak  from  personal 
observation,  and  no  man  ever  went  among  these 
Indians  with  more  intense  prejudice  than  I  had  when 
I  left  the  city  of  Washington  to  perform  that  duty. 


Modern  Missions  779 

Every  dollar  you  give  to  the  Government  day  schools 
might  as  well  be  thrown  into  the  Potomac  under  a 
ton  of  lead."  (Congressional  Records,  Apl.  7,  1900,, 
p.  7-  4120.) 

The  most  conspicuous  of  the  missionaries  among 
the  North  American  Indians  is  Father  Peter  de  Smet. 
He  was  born  in  Dendermonde  on  the  Scheldt, 
and  was  twelve  years  old  when  the  booming  of  the 
cannons  of  Waterloo  startled  the  little  town.  He 
came  out  to  Maryland  in  1821  and  after  remaining 
for  a  short  time  at  Whitemarsh  in  the  log  cabin  which 
then  sheltered  the  novices  of  the  Province  of  Mary- 
land, set  out  on  foot  with  a  party  of  young  Jesuits  for 
the  then  Wild  West.  They  walked  from  Whitemarsh 
to  Wheeling,  a  distance  of  400  miles,  and  then  went 
in  fiat  boats  down  the  Ohio  to  Shawneetown  and  from 
there  proceeded  again  on  foot  to  St.  Louis.  It  was  a 
journey  of  a  month  and  a  half. 

His  first  work  was  among  the  Pottawotamis,  and 
then  he  was  sent  to  the  wonderful  Platheads,  whom 
the  Iroquois  from  Caughnawaga  had  converted. 
From  that  time  forward  his  life  was  like  a  changing 
panorama.  In  the  story,  there  are  Indians  of  every 
kind  who  come  before  us.  Gros  Ventres  and  Flatheads 
and  Pottawotamis,  and  Pend  d'Oreilles  and  Sioux; 
their  incantations  and  cannibalism  and  dances  and 
massacres  and  disgusting  feasts  are  described;  there 
are  scenes  in  the  Bad  Lands  and  mountains  and  forests; 
there  are  tempests  in  the  mid-Pacific  and  more  alarming 
calms;  there  are  councils  with  Indian  chiefs,  and  inter- 
views with  Popes  and  presidents  and  kings  and  ambas- 
sadors and  archbishops  and  great  statesmen  and 
Mormon  leaders,  always  and  exclusively  in  the  interests 
of  the  Church.  The  great  man's  life  has  been  written 
in  four  volumes  by  two  admiring  Protestants,  and 
another  biography  has  lately  come  from  the  pen  of  a 


780  The  Jesuits 

Belgian  Jesuit.  In  them  appears  an  utterance  from 
Archbishop  Purcell  about  'the  hero,  which  deserves  to 
be  quoted.  "  Never,"  he  says,  "since  the  days  of  Xavier, 
Brebeuf,  Marquette  and  Lalemant  has  there  been  a 
missionary  more  clearly  pointed  out  and  called  than 
Father  de  Smet"  Thurlow  Weed,  one  of  the  most 
conspicuous  American  statesmen  of  the  day,  said  of 
him:  "  No  white  man  knows  the  Indians  as  Father  de 
Smet  nor  has  any  man  their  confidence  to  the  same 
degree."  Thomas  H.  Benton  wrote  to  him  in  1832: 
"  You  can  do  more  for  the  welfare  of  the  Indians  in 
keeping  them  at  peace  and  friendship  with  the  United 
States  than  an  army  with  banners." 

Again  and  again  he  was  sent  by  the  government  to 
pacify  the  Indians.  His  mission  in  1868  was  partic- 
ularly notable.  Sitting  Bull  was  on  the  warpath 
and  was  devastating  the  whole  regions  of  the  Upper 
Missouri  and  Yellowstone.  They  were  called  for  a 
parley,  and  de  Smet  went  out  alone  among  the  painted 
warriors.  He  held  a  banner  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  in 
his  hand  and  pleaded  so  earnestly  with  them  to  forget 
the  past,  that  they  went  down  into  the  very  midst  of 
the  United  States  troops  and  signed  the  treaty  of 
peace  that  brought  50,000  Indians  to  continue  their 
allegiance  to  the  government.  De  Smet  in  his  journeys 
had  crossed  the  ocean  nineteen  times  and  had  travelled 
180,000  miles  by  sailing  vessels,  river  barges,  canoes, 
dogsleds,  snow  shoes,  wagons,  or  on  horseback  or  on 
foot.  "  We  shall  never  forget,"  said  General  Stanley 
of  the  United  States  Army  —  and  this  eulogy  of  the 
great  man  will  suffice —  "  nor  shall  we  ever  cease  to 
admire  the  disinterested  devotion  of  Reverend  Father 
de  Smet  who  at  the  age  of  sixty-eight  years  did  not 
hesitate,  in  the  midst  of  the  summer  heat,  to  undertake 
a  long  and  perilous  journey  across  the  burning  plains, 
destitute  of  trees  and  even  of  grass,  having  none  but 


Modern  Missions  781 

corrupted  and  unwholesome  water,  constantly  exposed 
to  scalping  by  Indians,  and  this  without  seeking 
honor  or  remuneration  of  any  sort  but  solely  to  arrest 
the  shedding  of  blood,  and  save,  if  it  might  be,  some 
lives  and  preserve  some  habitations." 

In  Canada,  the  Indian  reservation  of  La  Jeune 
Lorette,  which  was  established  in  the  early  days  by 
Father  Chaumonot,  is  now  directed  by  the  secular 
clergy  of  Quebec.  The  Caughnawaga  settlement  near 
Montreal  was,  of  course,  lost  to  the  Society  at  the  time 
of  the  Suppression,  but  of  late  years  has  been  restored 
to  its  founders.  The  Canadian  Jesuits  also  look  after 
the  Indians  of  Lakes  Huron  and  Superior.  Their  latest 
undertaking  is  in  Alaska  which  began  by  a  tragedy. 

The  saintly  Bishop  Charles  John  Seghers,  who  was 
coadjutor  to  the  Bishop  of  Oregon,  had  himself  trans- 
ferred to  the  See  of  Vancouver  in  order  to  devote  his 
life  to  the  savages  of  Alaska.  In  1886  when  he  asked 
the  Jesuits  to  come  to  his  assistance,  Fathers  Tosi 
and  Robaut  were  assigned  to  the  work.  In  July,  the 
bishop,  the  two  Jesuits  and  a  hired  man  started  over 
the  Chilcoot  Pass  for  the  headwaters  of  the  Yukon. 
It  was  decided  that  the  two  Jesuits  should  spend  the 
winter  at  the  mouth  of  the  Stewart  River,  while  the 
Bishop  with  his  man  hastened  to  a  distant  post  to 
forestall  the  members  of  a  sect,  who  contemplated 
establishing  a  post  at  the  same  place.  During  the 
terrible  1,100  mile  journey  the  servant  became  insane 
and  in  the  dead  of  night  killed  the  bishop.  The  result 
was  that  new  arrangements  had  to  be  made  and  Father 
Tosi  was  made  prefect  Apostolic  in  1894.  His  health 
soon  gave  way  under  the  terrible  privations  of  the  mis- 
sion and  he  died  in  1898,  although  only  fifty-one  years  of 
age.  He  was  succeeded  by  Father  Ren6  of  the  Society 
who  resigned  in  1904,  and  the  present  incumbent  Father 
Crimont,  S.  J.,  took  his  place. 


782  The  Jesuits 

The  condition  of  Alaska  has  greafly"  changed 
since  the  advent  of  the  missionaries.  The  discovery 
of  placer  gold  deposits  with  the  influx  of  miners  robbed 
a  portion  of  Alaska  of  its  primitive  isolation.  The 
invading  whites  had  to  be  looked  after,  and  hence 
there  are  resident  Jesuit  priests  at  Juneau,  Douglas, 
Fairbanks,  Nome,  Skagway,  St.  Michael  and  Seward. 
A  great  number  of  posts  are  attended  to  from  these 
centres.  The  Ten'a  Indians  and  Esquimaux  are  the 
only  natives  whom  the  missionaries  have  been  able 
to  evangelize  thus  far.  There  is  a  training-school 
for  them  at  Koserefsky,  where  the  boys  are  taught 
gardening,  carpentry  and  smithing  of  various  kinds, 
and  the  girls  are  instructed  in  cooking,  sewing  and  other 
household  arts.  This  work  is  particularly  trying  not 
only  because  of  the  bodily  suffering  it  entails,  but  because 
of  the  awful  monotony  and  isolation  of  those  desolate 
arctic  regions.  Some  idea  of  it  may  be  gathered 
from  a  few  extracts  taken  from  a  letter  of  one  of  the 
missionaries..  It  is  dated  May  29, 1916. 

"The  Sktilarak  district  of  15,000  square  miles, 
depending  on  St.  Mary's  Mission,"  says  the  writer, 
"  is  as  large  as  a  diocese.  It  has  seventy  or  eighty 
villages.  The  whole  country  along  the  coast  is  a  vast 
swamp  covered  with  a  net  work  of  rivers,  sloughs, 
kkes  £nd  ponds.  There  is  only  one  inhabitant  to 
every  ten  or  twelve  square  miles.  There  is  no  question 
of  roads  except  in  winter  and  then  as  everything  is 
deep  in  snow,  it  is  impossible  to  tell  whether  one  is 
going  over  land  or  lake  or  river.  When  we  started  the 
thermometer  registered  28°  below  zero,  Fahrenheit. 
We  had  nine  dogs;  but  two  were  knocked  out  shortly 
after  starting.  Eleven  hours  travelling  brought  us 
to  our  first  cabins.  We  rose  next  morning  at  five,  said 
Mass  on  an  improvised  altar  and  set  out  southward. 
At  noon  we  stopped  for  lunch,  which  consisted  of  frozen 


Modern  Missions  783 

bread  and  some  tea  from  our  thermo  bottle.  It  was 
only  at  seven  o'clock  that  we  reached  a  little  'village' 
of  three  houses  at  the  foot  of  the  Kusilwak  Mountains, 
which  are  two  or  three  thousand  feet  high.  They  served 
as  a  guide  to  direct  our  course. '  *  At  another  stage  of  the 
journey  he  writes:  "  At  sundown  as  we  lost  all  hope  of 
reaching  any  village  we  made  for  a  faraway  clump  of 
brushwood  intending  to  pass  the  night  there.  It  is  full 
moon  and  its  rays  light  up  an  immaculate  white 
landscape,  there  is  a  bright  cloudless  sky,  and  every- 
thing is  so  still  that  you  cannot  even  breathe  without 
a  plainly  audible  sound/' 

What  kind  of  people  was  he  pursuing?  Not  very 
interesting  in  any  way,  "  I  came  upon  a  new  style 
of  native  dwelling,  a  low-roofed  miserable  hovel  about 
twelve  feet  square;  in  the  centre,  a  pit,  about  two  and 
a  half  feet  deep,  was  the  sink  and  dumping  ground  for 
the  refuse  of  the  house.  There  we  had  to  descend 
if  we  wanted  the  privilege  of  standing  erect.  That  is 
where  I  placed  myself  to  perform  a  baptism  of  the  latest 
arrival  of  the  family  whom  t  the  mother  held  on  her 
lap  squatted  on  the  higher  ground  which  served  as 
a  bed.  The  habits  of  the  natives  cannot  be  described." 
"  Our  dogs  were  so  exhausted,"  he  says  in  the  course 
of  his  narrative,  "that  they  lay  down  at  once  without 
waiting  to  have  their  harness  taken  off.  We  fed  them 
their  ration  of  dry  fish,  they  curled  up  in  the  snow  and 
went  to  sleep.  As  for  ourselves  we  tried  to  build 
a  fire  but  could  not  succeed  in  boiling  enough  of  melted 
snow  for  even  a  cup  of  tea;  a  box  of  sardines,  the 
contents  of  which  were  so  frozen  that  I  had  to  chop 
them  up  with  the  prong  of  a  fork  constituted  my  royal 
supper.  A  hole  was  soon  dug  in  the  snow,  by  using 
the  snow  shoes  for  a  shovel  and  a  few  sticks  thrown 
in  to  prevent  direct  contact  with  the  snow.  I  opened 
my  bag  of  blankets,  put  on  my  fur  parkey  and  tried 


784  The  Jesuits 

to  keep  the  blankets  around  me  to  keep  from  freezing. 
After  a  couple  of  hours  I  felt  my  limbs  getting  numb, 
and  I  was  compelled  to  crawl  out  and  look  around  for 
a  hard  mound  of  snow  where  I  began  to  execute  a 
dance  that  would  baffle  the  best  orchestra.  I  jigged 
and  clogged  around  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  and 
feeling  I  was  alive  again  sought  my  blankets  once  more, 
but  the  cold  was  too  intense  and  I  could  only  say 
a  few  prayers  and  make  a  peaceful  application  of  the 
meditation  *  de  propriis  peccatis.' 

"  Another  time,  after  fruitlessly  scanning  the  horizon 
for  a  sign  of  a  village,  we  found  ourselves  compelled 
to  pass  the  night  in  the  open  air.  This  time  I  con- 
structed a  scientific  Pullman  berth  for  myself. 
Selecting  the  leeward  side  of  an  ice  block,  I  dug  a  trench 
in  the  snow,  using  the  fire-pan  as  a  shovel.  I  hewed  out 
the  pillow  at  the  head  and  made  the  grave  (indeed  it 
looked  like  one)  about  two  feet  wide  and  two  deep 
and  my  exact  length.  Stretching  my  cassock  over  it, 
with  the  snow  shoes  as  a  supporting  rack,  I  crawled 
into  it  and  passed  a  tolerably  comfortable  night, 
though  I  awoke  dozens  of  times  from  the  violent 
coughing  that  had  stuck  to  me  since  my  stay  in 
Tumna.  So  it  went  on  till  April  8.  We  had  been 
three  weeks  on  the  road.  Never  had  the  trip  to 
Tumna  lasted  so  long.  This  was  due  to  the  fact  that 
the  dogs  were  exhausted  and  we  had  to  walk  back 
for  about  250  miles  in  the  snow." 

The  missionaries  of  the  old  Society  would  recognize 
this  light  hearted  modern  American  apostle  as  their 
brother* 

Another  example  in  a  region  which  is  the  -very 
opposite  of  Alaska  will  convince  the  skeptic  that  the 
modern  Jesuit  retains  the  old  heroic  spirit  of  the 
missions.  This  time  we  are  in  the  deadly  swamps 
and  forests  of  British  Honduras  and  the  apostle  there 


Modern  Missions  785 

is  Father  William  Stanton  of  the  Missouri  province. 
As  a  scholastic  he  was  teaching  the  dark  skinned  boys 
of  Belize  and  incidentally  gathering  numberless  speci- 
mens of  tropical  flora  and  fauna  for  the  Smithsonian 
Institute  in  Washington.  From  there  he  went  to  the 
other  end  of  the  earth  and  was  put  at  scientific  work 
in  the  Observatory  at  Manila.  He  was  the  first 
American  priest  ordained  in  the  Philippines,  and  his 
initial  ministerial  work  was  to  attend  to  the  American 
soldiers,  who  were  dying  by  scores  of  cholera.  After 
that  we  find  him  again  in  Honduras,  no  longer  in  college 
but  in  the  bush  with  about  800  Maya  Indians,  whose 
language  he  did  not  know  but  soon  learned.  He  was 
still  a  naturalist  but  first  of  all  he  was  absorbed  in 
the  care  of  the  lazy  and  degraded  Indians.  His  hut 
was  made  of  sticks  plastered  with  mud  and  thatched 
with  palm  leaves  and  he  was  all  alone. 

"Roads!  Roads!*'  he  writes,  "they  are  simply 
unspeakable.  It's  only  a  little  over  nine  miles  from 
Benque  Viejo  to  Cayo  but  it  took  me  five  hours  to  do 
it  on  horseback.  Rain  and  the  darkness  caught  me. 
It  was  so  dark  I  could  not  see  my  horse's  head  but 
my  Angel  Guardian  brought  me  through  all  right. 
.  .  .  The  only  beasts  that  bother  me  are  the  garrapatas 
(ticks).  I  have  to  spend  from  an  hour  and  a  half  to 
two  hours  picking  them  out  of  my  flesh  and  my  whole 
body  is  thickly  peppered  with  blotchy  sores  where 
they  have  left  their  mark.  But  one  can't  expect  to 
have  everything  his  own  way  in  this  life  even  in  the 
paradise  of  Benque.  By  the  way,  before  I  forget, 
would  you  try  to  send  me  a  wash  basin  or  bowl  of 
glazed  metal.  I  have  nothing  but  the  huge  tin  dishpan 
of  the  kitchen  to  wash  my  face  in.  It's  a  little  inconven- 
ient to  scour  the  grease  out  every  time  I  want  to  wash 
and  I  don't  want  to  fall  into  real  Spanish  costMmbres" 
His  table  was  a  packing  case,  his  chair  a  box  of 
50 


786  The  Jesuits 

tinned  goods,  his  bed  four  ropes  and  a  mat  woven 
of  palm  leaves.    He  had  one  cup,  plate  and  saucer. 

"  I  have  forty  stations  to  get  around  to,  and  I  haven't 
a  decent  crucifix,  or  ciborium,  and  only  one  chalice. 
I  am  not  squealing  for  my  house  but  for  the  Lord's. 
My  good  little  mud  house  is  a  palace,  even  if  the  pigs 
and  goats  of  the  village  do  break  in  now  and  then  to 
make  a  meal  off  one's  old  boots  or  the  scabbard  of 
one's  machete.  My  bush  church  is  fine;  same  archi- 
tecture as  my  house,  only  larger.  In  ch  rch,  the  men 
stand  around  the  walls,  while  the  women  and  children 
squat  on  the  clay  floor  and  the  babies  roll  all  over, 
garbed  only  in  angelic  innocence.'* 

Of  one  of  his  journeys  he  writes:  "  I  have  just 
returned  from  a  river  trip,  after  being  away  from 
home  thirty-one  days  moving  about  from  place  to 
place  among  my  scattered  people  on  the  river  b.anks 
and  in  the  bush.  My  health  was  good  until  last  week 
when  I  got  a  little  stroke  from  the  heat,  followed 
by  several  days'  fever  which  put  me  on  my  back  for 
four  days,  but  I  am  now  myself  again.  Fortunately 
I  had  only  three  more  days*  journey,  and  with  the  help 
of  my  two  faithful  Indians  I  arrived  safely  at  Benque." 
These  "  three  days,"  though  he  does  not  say  so,  were 
days  of  torture,  and  his  Indians  wondered  if  they  could 
get  him  back  alive.  "  I  am  now  back  as  far  as  Cayo, 
arriving  at  1.30  this  morning.  Everything  is  flooded 
with  mud  and  water.  I  must  get  a  horse  and  get 
out  to  Benque  today,  as  I  hear  Father  Henneman  is 
down  with  fever.  I  have  ten  miles  more  to  make, 
and  over  a  terrible  road  through  the  bush,  with  the 
horse  up  to  his  belly  in  mud  and  water  most  of  the 
time;  but  with  the  Lord's  help  I  hope  to  be  safe  at  home 
before  night.  I  have  been  away  only  a  week,  having 
made  some  hundred  and  sixty  miles  on  horseback, 
the  whole  of  it  through  a  dense  jungle.  I  had  to  cut 


Modern  Missions  787 

my  way  through  with  my  machete,  for  the  rank  vege- 
tation and  hanging  lianas  completely  closed  the  narrow 
trail." 

He  had  gone  out  to  visit  a  village  and  crossed  a  ford 
on  the  way.  The  river  was  high  and  the  current 
strong.  His  horse  was  swept  off  his  feet  and  Father 
Stanton  slipped  out  of  his  saddle  and  swam  beside 
the  animal.  Some  quarter  of  a  mile  below  there  was 
a  dangerous  fall  in  the  river,  but  they  managed  to  reach 
the  bank  a  hundred  feet  above  the  fall.  He  caught 
hold  of  a  branch,  but  it  broke  and  he  was  swept  down 
the  stream.  With  a  prayer  to  his  Guardian  Angel  he 
struck  out  for  the  deepest  water  and  went  over  the  fall. 
Some  Indians  near  the  bank  saw  the  bearded  white 
man  go  over  the  roaring  cataract  and  they  thought 
he  was  a  wizard,  but  he  went  safely  through,  and  then 
with  long  powerful  strokes  (he  was  a  marvellous 
swimmer)  he  made  for  the  bank.  Then  waving  his 
hand  to  the  startled  Indians,  he  cut  his  way  with  his 
machete  through  the  bush  to  look  for  his  horse. 
Another  time  we  find  him  returning  after  what  he 
calls  a  "  stiff  trip,7*  soaking  wet  all  the  time,  for  he 
had  to  swim  across  a  swift  river  with  boots  and  clothes 
on,  he  was  all  day  in  the  saddle,  was  caught  one  night 
in  the  jungle  in  a  swamp,  pitch  dark,  knee  deep  in 
the  mud  —  "  Clouds  of  mosquitos  and  swarms  of  fiery 
ants  had  taken  their  fill  of  me,"  he  writes,  "while  the 
blood  sucking  vampire  bats  lapped  my  poor  horse. 
We  got  out  all  right  and  I  had  the  consolation  of 
being  told  by  an  Indian  that  three  big  tigers  (jaguars) 
had  been  killed  near  the  place  last  month." 

On  April  13,  1909,  he  says:  "Just  at  present  I  am 
flat  on  my  back  with  an  attack  of  something,  apparently 
acute  articular  rheumatism."  He  felt  it,  the  first 
time  while  he  was  working  in  the  garden.  "  I  simply 
squirmed  on  the  ground  and  screeched  like  a  wild 


788  The  Jesuits 

a 

Indian."  And* yet  he  starts  off  to  Belize  on  horseback 
to  see  the  doctor,  which  meant  a  distant  journey  of 
four  days,  and  he  had  to  sleep  in  the  bush  one  night. 
From  Belize  he  returned  by  water  in  a  "pitpan," 
a  freight  boat  for  shallow  rivers  that  can  easily  upset 
in  the  slightest  current.  That  meant  eight  weary 
days  without  room  even  to  stretch  himself  out  at  night; 
with  no  awning  in  the  day  to  shield  him  from  the  sun 
and  frequently  drenched  by  torrential  rains.  In 
September  he  is  following  his  horse  through  the  mud 
of  the  jungle.  In  October  he  was  sent  for  again  by 
the  doctor  at  Belize,  and  returns  a  second  time  to  his 
mission  which  meant  eight  days  in  the  forest  alone. 

Finally,  Father  Stanton  was  ordered  home  to  St. 
Louis,  and  it  was  found  that  his  whole  body  was 
ringed  around  with  a  monstrous  growth  of  cancer. 
He  died  in  intense  agony,  but  never  spoke  of  his 
sufferings.  In  his  delirium  he  was  talking  about 
Honduras.  Only  once  he  said  "  I  am  so  long  a-dying." 
He  finally  expired  on  March  10,  1910.  He  had  just 
completed  his  fortieth  year,  but  his  missionary  work 
was  equal  to  anything  in  the  old  Society. 

When  the  Jesuits  resumed  work  in  China  in  1841  they 
found  that  all  over  the  country  there  were  great 
numbers  of  natives  who  had  kept  the  Faith  in  spite 
of  the  bitter  persecutions  to  which  they  had  been 
subjected  during  the  absence  of  the  missionaries. 
The  Province  of  Kiang-nan,  the  capital  of  which  is 
Nankin,  and  the  city  where  Ricci  began  his  apostolic 
labors,  welcomed  back  the  great  man's  brethren. 

Kiang-nan  is  a  territory  half  the  size  of  France, 
In  the  west  and  south-west  it  is  hilly,  but  the  rest 
of  it  is  an  immense  plain  watered  by  the  Yang-tse- 
Kiang  and  by  countless  lakes,  streams  and  canals. 
It  is  marvellously  fertile  and  furnishes  a  double  crop 
every  year.  The  rivers  swarm  with  fish,  and  the 


Modern  Missions  789 

land  with,  human  beings.  In  it  are  many  large  cities 
such  as  Shanghai  with  its  650,000  inhabitants;  Tchen- 
Kiang  with  170,000,  Odi-si  with  200,000  and  so  on. 
Nankin  is  the  residence  of  the  viceroy,  and  was  formerly 
the  "  Capital  of  the  south/'  and  the  rival  of  Peldn, 
but  later  it  had  only  130,000  people  within  its  walls. 
At  present,  however,  it  is  reviving  and  is  credited  with 
three  or  four  hundred  thousand  inhabitants.  Before 
the  Jesuits  arrived,  the  country  had  been  cared  for 
by  other  religious  orders,  chiefly  the  Lazarists  and  the 
Fathers  of  the  Missions  EtrangSres. 

In  the  neighborhood  of  Shanghai,  there  were  48,000 
Catholic  Chinese  who  dated  back  through  their 
ancestors  to  the  time  of  the  Jesuit  missionaries  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  Perhaps  four  thousand  more 
might  have  been  found  in  the  rest  of  the  province, 
but  they  were  submerged  in  the  mass  of  45,000,000 
idolaters.  The  outlook  on  the  whole  was  consoling, 
for  the  vicar  Apostolic,  Mgr.  de  Besi,  had  founded 
a  seminary,  which  before  1907  furnished  more  than 
one  hundred  native  priests.  The  work  of  the  Holy 
Childhood  was  enthusiastically  carried  on,  with  the 
result  that  in  the  years  1847-48,  60,963  names  appear 
on  the  baptismal  registers.  In  1849  the  Jesuits  had 
establishments  at  Nankin,  Ousi  and  along  the  Grand 
Canal,  That  year,  however,  was  made  gloomy  by 
floods,  famine  and  sickness.  Nevertheless  the  trials 
had  the  good  result  of  compelling  the  erection  of 
orphanages  where  the  Faith  could  be  taught  without 
difficulty,  In  1852  the  revolt  against  the  Manchu 
dynasty  broke  out,  and  in  1853  Nankin  and  Shanghai 
were  sacked.  Everything  Christian  disappeared  in  the 
general  carnage;  but  in  1855  the  imperial  troops  with 
the  aid  of  the  French  Admiral  Laguerre  entered 
Shanghai,  but  Nankin  and  the  provinces  remained 
in  the  hands  of  the  rebels. 


790  The  Jesuits 

Certain  ecclesiastical  changes  also  occurred  at  that 
time.  Pekin  and  Nankin  disappeared  as  dioceses, 
and  the  province  of  Kiang-nan  became  a  vicariate 
Apostolic,  whose  administration  was  entrusted  to  the 
Jesuits  of  Paris  under  Mgr.  Borgniet.  He  was  ap- 
pointed in  1856.  The  vicariate  of  South-Eastern 
Tche-ly  was  given  to  the  province  of  Champagne  and 
Mgr.  Languillat  began  his  work  there  with  three 
Fathers  and  9,475  old  Christians,  the  descendants  of 
the  neophytes  of  Pekin. 

In  1860  the  Chinese  war  broke  out  and  the  Taipings 
availed  themselves  of  it  for  another  rising.  The 
English  and  French,  who  were  fighting  the  emperor, 
held  different  opinions  about  what  to  do  with  the 
rebels,  and  finally  contented  themselves  with  defending 
Shanghai;  leaving  the  rest  of  the  country  to  be  ravaged 
at  will.  Father  Massa  was  thrown  into  prison  and 
was  about  to  be  executed,  but  contrived  to  make  his 
escape.  His  brother  Louis,  however,  was  put  to  death 
at  Tsai-kia-ouan,  along  with  a  crowd  of  orphans 
whom  he  was  trying  to  protect.  In  1861  Father 
Vuillaume  was  killed  at  Pou-tong  and  others  were 
robbed,  taken  prisoners  and  ill-treated.  In  1862  an 
epidemic  of  cholera  broke  out  in  the  province  and 
lasted  two  years;  the  vicar  Apostolic,  Mgr.  Borgniet, 
sixteen  religious  and  four  hundred  of  the  faithful 
succumbed  to  the  pestilence.  In  the  following  year 
six  more  Jesuits  died.  At  this  time  General  Gordon 
was  beginning  his  great  career.  He  was  then  only 
a  major  but  he  reorganized  the  imperial  army,  crushed 
the  rebels  and  took  Nankin.  This  gave  a  breathing 
spell  to  the  missionaries;  but  in  1868,  the  Taipings 
were  out  again,  under  another  name,  and  anarchy 
reigned  for  an  entire  year. 

In  the  mean  time  the  cities  of  Shanghai  and  Zikawei 
had  relatively  little  to  suffer,  and  the  end  of  the  war 


Modern  Missions  791 

gave  the  missionaries  the  right  to  build  churches,  to 
exercise  the  ministry  everywhere,  and  even  to  be 
compensated  for  the  destruction  of  their  property* 
But  the  rights  were  merely  on  paper,  and  fourteen 
or  fifteen  years  of  quarrels  with  every  little  mandarin 
in  the  country  followed.  Nevertheless  the  work  went 
on.  At  Zikawei,  for  instance,  schools  were  established, 
a  printing-establishment  inaugurated,  and  in  1872  the 
observatory  which  was  soon  to  be  famous  in  all  the 
Orient  was  begun.  Progress  was  also  made  at 
Shanghai.  Of  course  the  usual  burnings  and  plunder- 
ings,  with  occasional  massacre  of  groups  of  Christians 
continued,  but  not  much  attention  was  paid  to  these 
disturbances  until  1878,  when  the  Church  at  Nankin 
was  set  on  fire,  and  Sisters  of  Charity,  priests,  and 
Christians  in  general,  among  whom  was  the  French 
consul,  were  all  ruthlessly  murdered.  The  imperial 
government  then  took  cognizance  of  the  outbreak, 
and  eleven  alleged  culprits  were  put  to  death.  That 
helped  to  calm  the  mob,  and  evangelical  work  was 
resumed,  so  that  Kiang-nan,  which  had  70,685 
Christians  in  1866  counted  over  100,000  in  1882. 
In  the  year  1900  there  were  124,000  of  whom  55,171 
were  adults.  There  were  also  50,000  catechumens 
preparing  for  baptism.  The  number  of  priests  had 
grown  to  159,  of  whom  42  were  Chinese.  The  940 
schools  had  an  attendance  of  18,563  children 

The  Boxer  uprising  was  the  most  formidable  trial 
to  which  the  mission  has  so  far  been  subjected.  It  was 
organized  in  the  court  itself  by  Toan,  the  emperor's 
unde,  General  Tong-Fou-Siang  and  the  secretary  of 
state,  Kangi-i,  and  its  rumblings  were  heard  for  years 
before  the  actual  outbreak.  In  Se-tchouan,  a  third 
of  the  churches  were  destroyed,  villages  set  on  fire, 
missionaries  thrown  into  prison  and  many  Christians 
massacred.  A  priest  and  his  people  were  burned  in 


792  The  Jesuits 

the  church  at  Kouang-toung;  and  at  Hou-pe,  another 
was  put  to  death.  These  outrages  were  as  yet  local, 
but  there  was  every  evidence  that  a  general  conspiracy 
was  at  work  for  the  expulsion  of  all  foreigners  from 
the  empire.  Finally  the  Boxers,  or  Grand  Sabres, 
declared  themselves,  and  by  order  of  the  viceroy, 
Yu-heen,  360  Christian  villages  were  destroyed.  That 
was  only  a  beginning.  Tche4y  suffered  most.  It  was 
the  stronghold  of  the  rebels.  In  the  autumn  of  1899 
there  were  conflagrations  and  riots  everywhere.  In 
1900  the  northern  part  of  the  mission  was  in  flames, 
and  forty-five  Christian  centres  were  reduced  to  ashes, 
but  there  were  few,  if  any,  apostacies,  although 
thousands  were  put  to  death  in  the  most  horrible 
fashion.  On  June  20  Fathers  Isore  and  Andlauer 
were  murdered  at  the  altar.  On  July  20  Fathers 
Mangin  and  Denn  were  killed,  and  on  April  26,  1902, 
after  peace  had  been  concluded,  Father  Lomuller 
with  his  catechist  and  servant  suffered  death. 

In  this  storm,  five  missionaries  had  been  killed; 
Mgr.  Henry  Bulte  died  of  exhaustion;  5,000  Christians 
had  disappeared  from  the  country;  616  churches  had 
been  destroyed  along  with  381  schools  and  three 
colleges.  But  that  the  blood  of  martyrs  is  the  seed 
of  the  Church  was  shown  by  the  fact  that  there  are 
now  more  Christians  in  the  district  than  there  were 
before  the  persecution.  The  churches  have  been 
rebuilt;  priests  and  catechists  are  more  numerous; 
the  seminary  is  crowded,  and  schools  and  pupils  and 
teachers  are  at  work,  as  if  nothing  had  happened. 
The  exact  figures  may  be  found  in  Brou's  "  JSsuites 
missionaires  au  xix  si6cle."  Shanghai  and  Zikawei 
form  the  center  of  the  Vicariate  of  Kiang-nan.  In 
Shanghai  are  a  cathedral  and  three  parish  churches 
which  provide  for  a  CathoEc  population  of  9,724* 
There  are  three  hospitals;  m  orphanage  with  trade 


Modern  Missions  793 

schools;  six  schools;  a  home  for  the  aged;  conferences 
of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul.  At  Zikawei  there  is  a  scholas- 
ticate  of  the  Society;  a  grand  and  little  seminary; 
a  meteorological  and  magnetic  observatory;  a  museum 
of  natural  history;  a  college  with  266  students,  of 
whom  105  are  pagans;  a  printing-house;  a  bi-weekly 
publication,  and  the  beginnings  of  a  university  which 
it  is  hoped  will  head  off  the  tendency  of  the  natives 
to  go  for  an  education  to  Japan  or  to  the  Japanese 
schools  founded  in  China  itself. 

When  Gregory  XVI  sent  the  Jesuits  to  China,  it 
was  thought  that  from  there  it  would  be  easy  for  them 
to  go  to  Japan  to  resume  the  work  in  which  they  had 
so  distinguished  themselves  in  former  times.  Eighty 
years  have  passed  since  then,  and  only  lately,  a  few 
Jesuits  have  shown  themselves  in  that  country.  The 
Fathers  of  the  Missions  Etrang&res  have  occupied 
the  ground  and  have  succeeded  in  establishing  a  com- 
plete hierarchy  of  five  bishops  and  have  won  praise 
for  themselves  by  their  work  in  missions  and  parishes, 
in  polemics  and  conferences.  A  school  has  been 
attempted  and  an  American  Jesuit  has  lately  been 
placed  on  the  staff  of  the  University  of  Tokio.  Only 
that  and  nothing  more.  What  the  future  has  in 
store,  who  can  tdl? 

It  was  a  happy  day  for  the  new  Society  when  in 
1841  it  was  ordered  by  Gregory  XVI  to  undertake  the 
missions  of  Hindostan;  the  country  sanctified  by  the 
labors  of  Francis  Xavier,  de  NobiE,  de  Britto,  Crim- 
inali  and  a  host  of  other  saintly  missionaries.  No 
work  could  be  more  acceptable.  The  chief  obstacle 
in  the  way  of  success  was  the  protectorate  which 
Portugal  exercised  over  the  churches  of  the  Orient. 
In  Catholic  times  its  kings  had  the  right  not  only  to 
nominate  all  the  bishops  of  the  East,  but  to  legislate 
on  almost  the  entire  ecclesiastical  procedure  within  its 


794  The  Jesuits 

dominions.  Not  even  a  sacristan  could  be  sent  to 
the  Indies  without  the  official  approval  of  the  Portu- 
guese government.  Such  a  state  of  things  was  bad 
enough  in  Catholic  times,  but  when  the  politics  of 
Portugal  were  in  the  hands  of  infidels  and  enemies  of 
the  Church,  it  could  not  possibly  be  tolerated,  no 
matter  how  persistent  was  the  claim  that  the  right 
still  adhered  to  the  crown.  Another  abnormality  in 
the  pretence  was  that  the  country  no  longer  belonged 
to  Portugal  but  was  to  a  very  great  extent  English 
and  hence  if  there  were  to  be  any  dictation  it  should 
come  from  the  government  of  that  country. 

The  first  act  of  the  Pope  was  to  create  a  number  of 
vicars  Apostolic  who  were  to  be  independent  of  the 
Archbishop  of  Goa.  This  started  a  war  which  lasted 
sixty  years.  It  was  called  the  Goanese  schism,  or  the 
fight  of  the  double  jurisdiction.  The  vicar  Apostolic 
of  the  Calcutta  district  was  Robert  St.  Leger,  an 
Irish  Jesuit,  who  came  to  India  with  five  members  of 
the  Society  after. his  appointment  on  15  April,  1834. 
St.  beger's  jurisdiction  was  disputed  by  a  number  of 
the  adherents  of  Goa  and  he  retired  in  December,  1838. 
The  Jesuits  with  him  had  begun  a  college,  which  was 
enthusiastically  supported  by  his  successor,  Bishop 
Jean-Louis  Taberd,  Unfortunately  he  died  suddenly 
in  1840,  and  the  same  encouragement  was  not  given 
by  Dr.  Patrick  Carew,  the  third  vicar,  with  the  result 
that  the  college  which  had  begun  to  prosper  was 
closed.  In  1846  the  Jesuits  left  Calcutta,  but  in  1860 
they  were  recalled  by  Mgr.  Oliffe,  the  successor -of  Dr. 
Carew, 

The  missionaries  came  under  the  leadership  of 
Father  Depelchin,  who  when  he  had  finished  his  work  in 
Calcutta  was  later  to  add  to  his  glory  by  founding  the 
mission  of  the  Zambesi  in  Africa.  They  found  every- 
thing in  ruins.  Out  of  a  population  of  2,300,000  in 


Modern  Missions  795 

the  city  and  suburbs,  there  were  no  more  than  seven 
or  eight  thousand  Catholics,  many  of  whom  were 
Tamouls  from  Madras.  Only  a  few  of  the  faithful 
were  in  easy  circumstances  and  their  influence  in  the 
city  amounted  to  nothing.  There  was  no  help  for  it, 
therefore,  but  to  resuscitate  the  College  of  St.  Francis 
Xavier,  which  had  been  suppressed  fourteen  years 
before,  ft  had  no  furniture  and  its  library  consisted 
of  a  few  books  with  the  covers  off.  The  college  was 
opened  nevertheless  and  had,  on  the  first  day,  eighty 
students  on  the  benches.  When  Bishop  OKffe  died 
there  was  a  dreadful  possibility  of  the  appointment  of 
a  Goanese  bishop,  which,  for  the  Jesuits,  meant  pack- 
ing up  a  second  time  and  leaving  Calcutta.  An 
appeal  was  therefore  made  to  Rome  and  Father 
Auguste  Van  Heule  was  named,  but  he  died  in  1865 
shortly  after  his  arrival,  and  in  1867,  Bishop  Walter 
Steins  was  called  over  from  Bombay  to  take  his  place. 
By  this  time  the  college  had  350  students;  a  new 
building  and  another  situation  were  imperative,  but 
Depelchin  was  equal  to  the  task,  and  before  he  left 
Calcutta  for  Africa  he  had  500  students  on  the  roster. 

The  initial  work  of  the  missionaries  was  the  develop- 
ment of  the  colleges  but  they  subsequently  addressed 
themselves  to  the  evangelization  of  the  whole  popu- 
lation of  the  city  and  suburbs,  and  to-day  they  have 
six  parishes  with  a  population  of  13,000  souls,  who  are 
provided  with  schools,  hospitals,  asylums  and  the 
like.  The  native  population,  the  Bengalis  as  they  are 
called,  were  found  to  be  hopeless.  Contact  with  the 
whites  has  made  them  skeptical  in  religion,  and  morally 
worse  than  they  had  been  originally.  The  only 
Christian  Hindoos  in  Calcutta  are  Tamouls  from 
the  South. 

Not  finding  the  Bengalis  apt  for  evangelization, 
they  sought  out  their  countrymen,  the  Ourias  in  the 


796  The  Jesuits 

Delta  of  the  Ganges.  Their  home  had  the  unhappy 
distinction  of  being  called  "  the  famine  district/* 
the  dreadful  calamity  being  caused  either  by  too 
much  water  or  by  none.  In  1866  there  was  a  drought 
that  withered  all  the  crops,  and  then  came  inundations 
that  covered  68,000  acres  of  land,  swept  away  hundreds 
of  villages,  and  diminished  the  population  by  half  a 
million.  Orphans,  of  course,  abounded,  and  in  1868 
an  asylum  was  built  for  them  in  Balasore,  which  served 
also  as  an  evangelical  centre  for  missionary  expeditions 
into  the  interior.  But  this  venture  was  not  very  suc- 
cessful, for  only  about  1,600  conversions  resulted  after 
years  of  hard  labor.  The  Ourias,  it  was  found,  had 
all  the  bad  qualities  of  their  friends  the  Bengalis. 
Perhaps  also  the  movement  was  halted  because  their 
territory  was  a  sort  of  Holy  Land  for  Hindooism. 
Every  year  500,000  pilgrims  arrived  there  to  pray  at 
the  shrine  of  Vishnu,  and  idolatry  of  all  kinds,  from 
the  bloody  ancestral  fetichism  to  the  refined  cult  of 
the  Vedas  and  undiluted  Brahmanisin,  took  root  and 
flourished  there.  Hence  a  mission  was  begun  among 
the  Orissas  still  further  south. 

Better  than  anywhere  else  one  can  see  at  close  range 
among  the  Ourias  how  formidable  are  the  moral, 
intellectual,  social  and  historical  obstacles  that  oppose 
the  progress  of  Christianity  in  Hindostan.  To  add 
to  the  difficulty,  Protestantism  with  its  jumble  of 
sects  had  established  itself  there  and  claimed  at  this 
time  15,000  adherents.  But  when  cholera  swept  over 
the  land  in  1868,  the  Protestant  missionaries  fled  and 
many  of  the  native  converts  came  over  to  the  priests 
who,  of  course,  did  not  imitate  their  non-Catholic  rivals 
in  deserting  their  charges.  Father  Goffinet  especially 
distinguished  himself  i#  this  instance,  going  everywhere 
in  his  narrow  canoe  and  lavishing  spiritual  and  corporal 
aid  on  the  victims.  In  1873  he  was  joined  by  Father 


Modern  Missions  797 

Delplace,  who  went  still  nearer  the  sea.  Others 
followed,  lived  in  the  huts  of  the  natives,  satisfied  their 
hunger  with  a  few  handf uls  of  rice  varied  by  a  fish  on 
Sundays  to  break  the  monotony  of  the  diet,  with  the 
result  that,  in  three  years,  there  were  thirty  Catholic 
missions  between  the  Hoogly  and  the  Mutlah  with 
3,000  converts  in  what  had  been  previously  a  strong- 
hold of  Hindoo  Protestantism. 

In  the  same  year,  Father  Schoff  went  north  of  Cal- 
cutta to  Bardwan  — "  The  Garden  of  Western  Bengal." 
He  kept  away  from  the  rich,  and  devoted  himself  to  the 
dregs  of  the  populace.  Over  and  over  again  the 
superiors  doubted  if  it  were  worth  while,  but  to-day 
the  Haris,  who  were  previously  so  degraded,  live  in 
pretty  villages,  and  the  order,  piety  and  honesty  for 
which  they  are  noted  make  one  forget  the  ignorance, 
debauchery  and  dishonesty  of  the  past.  A  group  of 
over  5,000  Catholics  may  be  found  there  at  the  present 
time. 

In  these  parts,  the  caste  system  prevails  in  all  its 
vigors  but  if  you  go  still  further  west  into  the  heart  of 
the  Province  of  Chota-Nagpur  you  come  upon  a  half- 
savage  people,  the  offscouring  of  humanity  who  have 
been  driven  into  the  hills  and  forests  by  the  conquering 
Aryans  of  the  plains.  They  are  the  Ouraons  of 
Dravidian  origin;  small,  black  as  negroes,  filthy, 
often  wrapped  in  cow-dung  and  tattooed  all  over  the 
body,  but  nevertheless  light-hearted,  robust  and  proud 
of  their  ability  to  perform  hard  work.  With  them  also 
lives  a  more  ancient  race  known  as  the  Koles:  men 
of  broad  flat  faces  which  recall  the  Mongolian  type. 
They  are  probably  the  aborigines.  Their  religion  is 
grossly  elementary  —  a  vague  adoration  of  the  Supreme 
Being,  superstition  and  ancestor  worship;  but  with  a 
shade  of  the  pride  that  characterizes  the  horrible  caste 
system  of  the  Hindoos.  The  German  Lutherans  had 


798  The  Jesuits 

essayed  to  convert  them.  Fifty  rupees  were  paid  for 
each  adhesion,  and  fifty  ministers  devoted  themselves 
to  this  apostolate.  They  are  credited  with  having  dis- 
bursed 3,700,000  francs  by  the  year  1876,  Then  came 
the  AngEcans  who  claimed  40,000  of  them.  In  1869 
Father  Stockman  arrived  and  opened  a  mission  at 
Chaibassa.  In  1873  ^e  had  only  a  group  of  thirty 
converts.  Nine  years  later,  he  had  succeeded  in 
baptising  only  273,  but  by  1885  there  were  four 
residences  in  Chota-Nagpur  with  one  out-mission. 
Five  priests  were  engaged  in  the  task. 

The  progress  of  the  work,  however,  was  compara- 
tively slow  until  the  young  Father  Constant  Lievens 
made  himself  the  champion  of  the  natives  in  the  courts. 
This  gave  it  a  phenomenal  impulse.  For  years,  these 
poor  mountaineers  had  been  cruelly  exploited  by 
Hindoo  traders  from  Calcutta.  As  soon  as  the  natives 
had  contrived  to  cultivate  a  bit  of  land  they  were 
loaded  down  with  taxes  and  enforced  contributions, 
haled  before  the  magistrates  and  flung  into  jail  to  rot. 
Unfortunately  the  police  regulations  were  all  in  favor 
of  the  aggressors.  Hence  there  were  incessant  riots 
and  massacres,  and  when  the  English  authorities 
tried  in  good  faith  to  remedy  matters,  they  could 
find  no  one  among  these  poor  outcasts  fit  to  hold  any 
position  of  responsibility.  The  Lutherans  presented 
themselves  and  promised  protection  for  those  who  would 
join  the  sect,  and  many  went  over  to  them,  but  the 
government  disapproved  of  these  unworthy  tactics,  as 
calculated  only  to  make  things  worse  in  the  end. 
It  was  like  the  temptation  on  the  mountain. 

At  this  point  Father  Lievens  stepped  into  the  breach. 
He  could  speak  all  the  languages:  Bengali,  Hindoo, 
Mundari  and  Ouraon;  and  he  then  plunged  into  a 
study  of  the  laws  and  customs  of  the  land;  an  appar- 
ently inextricable  maze,  but  in  less  than  a  year  he  was 


Modern  Missions  799 

master  of  the  whole  legal  procedure  then  in  force. 
Thus  armed,  he  appeared  in  court  whenever  a  victim 
was  arraigned,  and  almost  invariably  won  a  verdict  in 
his  favor.  His  reputation  spread,  and  the  victims  of 
the  sharks  flocked  to  him  from  all  sides.  He  argued 
for  all  of  them,  without  however,  omitting  his  minis- 
terial occupation  of  preaching,  teaching,  composing 
canticles,  helping  the  needy,  and  seeking  out  souls 
everywhere.  He  cut  out  so  much  work  for  his  associates 
that  his  superiors  were  in  a  panic.  But  he  succeeded. 
The  native  Protestants  came  over  in  crowds,  and 
there  was  a  flood  tide  of  conversions  to  the  Faith. 
It  cost  him  his  life,  indeed,  for  he  died  in  1892,  overcome 
by  his  labors  and  privations,  but  he  had  started  a  great 
movement  and  two  years  after  his  death,  the  flock 
had  grown  from  16,000  to  61,312,  with  more  than  2,566 
catechumens  preparing  for  baptism.  To-day  the  dis- 
trict is  absolutely  unlike  its  former  self.  Sacred 
canticles  have  taken  the  place  of  the  old  pagan  chants 
and  immoral  dances  are  unknown.  Even  the  pagans 
who  are  in  the  majority  do  not  dare  to  perform  certain 
rites  of  theirs  in  public. 

In  a  district  of  Chota-Nagpur  other  than  that  in 
which  Lievens  labored,  the  conversions  are  still  more 
pronounced.  Six  missionaries  are  at  work,  and  their 
catechumens  number  more  than  25,000.  They  offered 
themselves  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  Rajah  was  in 
a  rage  with  his  subjects  about  it;  beat  many  of  them 
unmercifully,  and  flung  them  into  jail.  Indeed  the 
English  government  had  to  intervene  to  stop  him. 
If  there  were  a  sufficiency  of  priests,  there  would  be 
no  difficulty  in  converting  the  whole  countryside. 
The  last  accounts  available  tell  us  that  the  inhabitants 
of  fifteen  villages  have  declared  themselves  Christians, 
and  cut  off  their  hair  to  let  the  world  know  that  they 
have  renounced  idolatry.  Fifty  years  ago  there  were 


800  The  Jesuits 

in  all  Western  Bengal  only  a  few  thousand  Catholics. 
In  1904  there  were  106,000;  in  the  following  year, 
119,705;  in  1906,  126,529.  Chota-Nagpur  alone  has 
another  102,000  and  the  number  could  be  doubled  if 
twenty  new  missionaries  were  on  the  spot.  Western 
Bengal  has  now  27  churches,  346  chapels,  124  schools 
and  two  great  colleges.  Working  there,  are  101  priests, 
55  scholastics  and  27  coadjutor  brothers  of  the  Society, 
along  with  34  Christian  Brothers  and  158  Sisters. 

When  Bishop  Steins  left  Bombay,  his  successor 
Mgr.  Jean-Gabriel  Meurin  built  the  college  already* 
planned,  and  called  it  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  The 
undertaking  was  a  difficult  one,  for  the  schismatical 
Goanese  numbered  40^00  out  of  the  60,000  Catholics 
in  the  city,  and  their  ecclesiastical  leaders  were  not 
only  indifferent  to  the  project  but  refused  to  contrib- 
ute anything  to  carry  it  out,  just  as  if  it  had  been  a 
Moslem  or  a  heretical  establishment.  The  people, 
however,  were  better  minded.  -  Every  one,  Catholic, 
heathen  and  heretic,  was  eager  to  build  the  college, 
for  Bombay  was  proud  of  being  a  great  intellectual 
centre;  and  hence  when  the  government  promised  to 
double  what  could  be  collected,  the  enthusiasm  was 
general  and  money  poured  in.  The  Observatory  still 
bears  the  name  of  the  rich  Parsee  who  built  it. 

The  Bombay  mission  included  Beluchistan  up  to 
the  frontiers  of  Afghanistan;  its  southern  limit  was 
the  Diocese  of  Poona.  In  this  vast  territory  were 
native  villages,  military  posts,  Anglo-Indian  settle- 
ments, Indo-Portuguese,  and  pure  Hindoos.  There 
were  only  about  33,000  Christians  to  be  found  in 
this  amalgam,  excluding  the  70,000  people  of  the 
Goanese  allegiance.  Four  colleges  were  erected  in 
the  various  districts  of  this  territory,  but,  unlike  the 
great  establishments  of  Bombay  and  Calcutta,  they 
were  exclusively  Catholic.  They  gave  instructions 


Modern  Missions  801 

respectively  to  500,  690,  298,  and  306  pupils.  The 
girls  of  the  two  dioceses  were  also  provided  for  and  the 
high  school  population  exceeded  10,000.  .  The  great 
advantage  of  this  scheme  was  that  it  ate  very  rapidly 
into  the  schism  through  the  children  of  the  insur- 
gents. 

The  Carmelites  had  been  in  Mangalore;  but  found 
it  too  hard  to  hold  out  against  the  Calvinists  from 
BMe  who,  in  1880  had  twenty  stations,  sixty-five 
schools  and  an  annual  budget  of  half  a  million;  conse- 
quently they  begged  the  Holy  See  to  call  in  the  Jesuits. 
When  the  new  missionaries  arrived  in  December,  1879, 
the  Carmelites  went  out  to  meet  them  in  a  ship  hung 
with  flags  and  bunting  and,  on  landing,  presented  them 
to  the  enthusiastic  multitude  waiting  on  the  shore. 
The  college  of  St.  Aloysius  was  immediately  begun  and 
opened  its  classes  with  1 50  students.  Thus  it  happened 
that  the  greatest  part  of  St.  Francis  Xavier's  territory 
had  come  back  to  the  Society;  German  Jesuits  being 
in  Bombay,  Belgians  in  Calcutta,  French  in  Madura 
and  Italians  in  Mangalore.  In  the  latter  mission 
out  of  a  population  of  3,685,000  there  are  to-day  only 
93,000  Catholics,  but  there  were  1,500  Christian 
students  in  St.  Aloysius'  college  in  1920.  It  might  be 
noted  that  Mangalore  has  acquired  a  world  wide 
reputation  for  its  leper  hospital  which  was  founded 
by  Father  Muller,  formerly  of  the  New  York  province. 
In  that  district  also  there  are  more  native  priests  than 
in  any  other  part  of  India.  They  number  60  all  told 
and  take  care  of  about  32  parishes.  They  are  not 
pure-blood,  however,  for  they  bear  distinctively  Portu- 
guese names,  such  as  Coelho,  Fernandes,  Saldanha 
and  Pinto.  This  growth  of  the  native  clergy  is  encour- 
aging, but  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  regard  them  as 
useful  for  spreading  the  Faith.  They  make  relatively 
very  few  conversions.  They  leave  that  to  outsiders. 
51 


802  The  Jesuits 

They  merely  hold  on  to  what  has  been  won  for  them 
by  others. 

In  1884,  the  college  of  Negapatam  was  transferred  to 
Trichinopoly,  the  reason  being  that  in  the  latter  there 
was  a  Catholic  population  of  20,000.  Of  course,  the 
Anglican  educators  of  the  city  tried  to  prevent  the 
move  but  failed,  The  college  at  one  time  had  1,800 
pupils,  and  although  there  was  a  drop  to  1,550  in  1905, 
because  of  new  rivals  in  the  field,  the  latest  accounts 
place  the  attendance  at  2,562.  St.  Xavier's  high 
school  in  Tuticorin,  in  the  Madura  mission  had  563 
pupils  in  1920,  and  St.  Mary's  erected  in  1910  in  the 
very  heart  of  Brahmanism  has  441.  In  Trichinopoly, 
the  discipline  and  work  of  the  students  have  attracted 
much  attention,  but  especially  the  enterprise  of  the 
sodalists,  who  have  formed  twenty  groups  of  catechists 
and  are  engaged  in  giving  religious  instruction  to  700 
children.  Most  notable,  however,  is  the  success  of 
the  college  in  overthrowing  the  caste  barriers.  Indeed 
the  missionaries  of  the  old  days  would  look  with  amaze- 
ment at  the  grouping  in  the  class  rooms  of  Brahmins, 
Vellalans,  Odeayans,  Kalians,  Paravers  and  twenty 
other  social  divisions  down  to  the  very  Pariahs,  all 
studying  in  the  same  house  and  eating  at  the  same 
table.  There  were  walled  divisions,  at  first;  then 
screens;  then  benches,  and  now  there  is  only  an 
imaginary  line  between  the  grades  which  formerly 
could  not  come  near  each  other  without  contamination. 

Among  these  castes,  the  Brahmins  display  the 
greatest  curiosity  about  things  Christian,  but  like  the 
rich  young  man  in  the  Gospel  when  they  hear  the 
truth  they  turn  sadly  away.  "  Why  did  God  permit 
me  to  meet  you/1  said  one  of  them,  "  if  I  am  going  to 
suffer  both  here  and  hereafter?"  One  of  them  at  last 
yielded  and  took  flight  to  the  ecclesiastical  seminary 
at  Ceylon,  When  the  news  spread  abroad,  priests 


Modern  Missions  803 

from  the  pagodas  and  professors  from  the  national 
schools  came  to  the  college  and  stormed  against  the 
other  catechumens  but  without  avail.  Another 
Brahmin  declared  himself  a  Christian  the  next  year; 
three  in  1896,  three  in  1897,  four  in  1898,  six  in  1899 
and  two  in  1900.  They  all  have  a  hard  fight  before 
them;  for  they  are  thrown  out  of  their  caste  and  are 
disinherited  by  their  families.  Two  of  these  con- 
verts died,  and  there  is  a  suspicion  that  at  least  one 
was  poisoned.  Already  60  Brahmins  have  been  bap- 
tized and  India  is  in  an  uproar  about  it.  To  those  who 
know  the  country,  these  conversions  are  of  more 
importance  than  that  of  a  thousand  ordinary  people 
and  it  is  almost  amusing  to  learn  that  the  well-known 
theosophist  leader,  Annie  Besant,  hastened  back  to 
India  to  denounce  the  Catholic  Church  for  its  effrontery. 
The  incident,  it  is  true,  gave  a  new  life  to  idol-worship 
but  possibly  it  was  the  last  gasp  before  death. 

The  Madura  district  had  been  taken  over  by  the 
Fathers  of  the  Foreign  Missions,  after  the  Jesuits  had 
been  suppressed  in  1773.  When  the  Pope,  Pius  VII, 
re-established  the  Society,  insistent  appeals  were 
made  by  those  devoted  and  overtaxed  missionaries 
to  have  the  Jesuits  resume  their  old  place  in  that  part 
of  the  Peninsula.  The  petition  was  heeded  and  the 
Jesuits  returned  to  Madura  in  1837.  They  were  con- 
fronted by  a  frightful  condition  of  affairs.  La  spite 
of  the  heroic  labors  of  their  immediate  predecessors, 
there  were  scandals  innumerable,  and  a  large  part 
of  the  population  had  lapsed  into  the  grossest  super- 
stition and  idolatry.  The  missionaries  were  well 
received  at  first,  but  a  fulmination  from  Goa  incited 
the  people  to  rebellion.  Moreover  their  labors  were 
so  crushing  that  four  of  the  Fathers  died  of  exhaustion 
in  the  year  1843  alone.  Little  by  little  however  a 
change  of  feeling  began  to  manifest  itself,  and  as  early 


804  The  Jesuits 

as  1842,  there  were  118,400  Catholics  in  the  mission, 
many  of  them  converts  from  Protestantism  and 
paganism.  In  1847  Madura  was  made  a  vicariate 
Apostolic  under  Mgr.  Alexis  Canoz,  a  year  after  the 
Hindo-European  college  was  established  at  Negapatam. 

Madura  has  another  great  achievement  to  its  credit. 
The  English  government  had  put  an  end  to  the  suttee: 
the  frightful  and  compulsory  custom  of  widows  flinging 
themselves  on  the  funeral  pyres  of  their  husbands 
who  were  being  incinerated.  The  prohibition  was 
universally  applauded  but  the  Fathers  started  another 
movement.  It  was  against  the  enforced  celibacy  of 
widows,  some  of  whom  had  been  married  in  babyhood, 
often  to  some  old  man,  and  were  consequently  obliged 
to  live  a  single  life  after  his  death.  The  moral  results 
of  such  a  custom  may  be  imagined.  It  was  difficult 
at  first  to  convince  a  convert  that  it  was  a  perfectly 
proper  thing  for  him  to  marry  a  widow,  but  little  by 
little  the  prejudice  was  removed.  Of  course  there  are 
orphanages,  old  people's  homes,  Magdalqn  asylums, 
maternity  hospitals,  industrial  schools,  and  other 
charitable  institutions  in  prosperous  Madura. 

The  work  among  the  lower  classes  in  the  country 
districts  is  of  the  most  trying  description.  There  is 
no  place  for  the  itinerant  missionary  to  find  shelter  in 
the  villages  except  in  some  miserable  hut.  Indeed, 
I»8S3  of  these  hamlets  out  of  2,035  have  no  accommo- 
dations at  all  for  the  priest,  who  perhaps  has  travelled 
for  days  through  forests  to  visit  them.  Moreover, 
though  the  people  have  their  good  qualities  and  a  great 
leaning  to  religion,  they  are  fickle,  excitable,  ungrate- 
ful, unmindful  as  children  at  times,  and  hard  to  manage. 
In  certain  quarters,  especially  in  the  south,  conversions 
are  multiplying  daily.  The  movement  began  as  early 
as  1876,  after  a  frightful  famine  that  swept  the  country, 
and  in  one  place  the  Christian  population  grew  in 


Modern  Missions  805 

fifteen  years  from  4,800  to  68,000.  In  1889  around 
Tuticorin  whole  villages  came  over  in  a  body.  In 
December,  1891, 600  people  were  clamoring  for  baptism 
in  one  place,  and  they  represented  a  dozen  different 
castes.  In  1891  one  missionary  was  compelled  to  erect 
thirty-two  new  chapels.  "  I  said  we  have  75  new 
villages; "  writes  another,  "  if  we  had  priests  enough 
we  could  have  75  more." 

In  1920,  there  were  in  the  Diocese  of  Trichinopoly 
besides  the  bishop,  Mgr.  Augustine  Faisandier,  119 
Jesuit  priests  of  whom  28  are  natives.  There  are 
a  number  of  native  scholastics.  Besides  this  group 
there  are  27  natives  studying  philosophy  and  theology 
in  the  seminary  at  Zandy.  Add  to  this  32  Brothers 
of  the  Sacred  Heart,  an  institute  of  Indian  lay  religious, 
who  assist  the  missionaries  as  catechists  and  school 
teachers;  75  nuns  in  European  and  346  in  Indian 
institutions;  and  75  oblates  or  pious  women  who 
devote  themselves  to  the  baptizing  of  heathen  children; 
and  you  have  some  of  the  working  corps  in  this  pros- 
perous mission.  The  Catholic  population  was  267,772 
in  1916,  There  are  1,100  churches  and  chapels,  2,620 
posts,  a  school  attendance  of  27,378  children,  and 
7  Catholic  periodicals. 

The  missions  in  Mohammedan  countries  were 
particularly  difficult  to  handle,  because  Turkey  is  a 
veritable  Babel  of  races,  languages  and  religions.  There 
are  Turks,  and  Syrians,  and  Egyptians  and  Arabians, 
along  with  the  Metualis  of  Mount  Lebanon  and  the- 
Bedouins  of  the  desert.  There  are  Druses,  who  have 
a  slender  link  holding  them  to  Islamism;  there  are 
idolaters  of  every  stripe;  there  are  Schismatical  Greeks, 
who  call  themselves  Orthodox  and  depend  on  Con- 
stantinople; and  there  are  United  Greeks  or  Melchites 
who  submit  to  Rome;  Monophysite  Armenians,  and 
Armenian  Catholics;  and  Copts  also  of  the  same 


806  The  Jesuits 

divided  allegiance.  Then  come  Syrian  Jacobites  and 
United  Syrians,  Nestorians,  Chaldeans,  Maronites, 
Latins,  Russians,  with  English,  German  and  American 
Protestants,  and  to  end  all,  the  ubiquitous  Jews. 
The  missionaries  who  labor  in  this  chaos  are  also  of 
every  race  and  wear  every  kind  of  religious  garb. 
What  will  be  the  result  of  the  changes  consequent  upon 
the  World  War  no  one  can  foretell.  There  is  nothing 
to  hope  for  from  the  Jews  or  Mohammedans;  and  only 
a  very  slight  possibility  of  uniting  the  schismatics  to 
Rome,  or  of  converting  the  Protestants  who  have 
nothing  to  build  on  but  sentiment  and  ingrained  and 
inveterate  prejudice.  There  is  plenty  to  do,  however, 
in  restraining  Catholics  from  rationalism  and  heresy; 
in  lifting  up  the  dergy'to  their  proper  level,  by  imparting 
to  them  science  and  piety;  forming  priests  and  bishops 
for  the  Uniates;  promoting  a  love  for  the  Chair  of 
Peter;  and  aU  the  while  not  only  not  hurting  Uniate 
susceptibilities,  but  showing  the  greatest  respect  for 
the  jealous  autonomy  of  each  Oriental  Church. 

Before  the  Suppression,  the  missions  of  the  Levant 
were  largely  entrusted  to  the  Jesuits  of  the  province 
of  Lyons.  The  alliance  of  the  Grand  Turk  with  the 
kings  of  Prance  assured  the  safety  of  the  missionaries 
and  hence  there  were  stations  not  only  at  Constanti- 
nople, but  in  Roumelia,  Anatolia,  Armenia,  Mingrelia, 
Crimea,  Persia,  Syria,  Egypt  and  in  the  Islands  of 
the  JEgean  Sea.  The  work  of  predilection  in  all  these 
places  was  toiling  in  the  galleys  with  the  convicts,  or 
in  the  lazar  houses  with  the  plague-stricken.  Between 
1587  and  1773,  tnore  than  100  Jesuit  missionaries 
died  of  the  pest.  In  1816,  that  is  two  years  after  the 
re-establishment  of  the  Society,  the  bishops  of  the 
Levant  petitioned  Rome  to  send  back  the  Jesuits. 
Thanks  to  Paul  of  Russia,  they  had  resumed  their 
old  posts  in  1805  in  the  -/Egean,  where  one  of  the 


Modern  Missions  807 

former  Jesuits,  named  Mortellaro,  had  remained  as 
a  secular  priest,  and  lived  long  enough  to  have  one  of 
the  Fathers  from  Russia  receive  his  last  sigh  and  hear 
him  renew  his  religious  vows.  This  was  the  beginning 
of  the  present  Sicilian  Jesuit  missions  in  the  Archipelago. 
The  Galician  province  has  four  stations  in  Moravia, 
and  the  Venitian  has  posts  in  Albania  and  Dalmatia. 

In  1831  Gregory  XVI  ordered  the  Society  to  under- 
take the  missions  of  Syria;  but  at  that  time  Mehemet 
Ali  of  Egypt  was  at  war  with  the  Sultan,  and  the 
Druses  and  Maronites  were  butchering  each  other  at 
will.  Finally,  in  the  name  of  the  Sultan,  Emir 
Haidar  invited  the  Fathers  to  begin  a  mission  at 
Bekfaya  on  the  west  slope  of  Mount  Lebanon  and 
about  10  miles  west  of  Beirut.  Simultaneously  Emir 
Beckir,  who  was  an  upholder  of  Egypt,  established 
them  at  Muallakah,  a  suburb  of  Zghl6  on  the  other 
side  of  the  mountain.  At  Hauran,  on  the  borders 
of  the  desert,  they  found  a  Christian  population  in  the 
midst  of  Druses  and  Bedouins.  They  were  despised, 
ill-treated  and  virtually  enslaved.  They  had  no 
churches  and  no  priests,  were  in  absolute  ignorance 
of  their  duties  as  Christians,  and  were  stupefied  to 
find  that  Rome  had  come  so  far  to  seek  them.  The 
work  of  lifting  them  up  was  hard  enough,  but  it  was 
a  trying  task  to  be  commissioned  by  Rome  to  settle 
the  disputes  that  were  continually  arising  between 
Christian,  Orthodox,  and  Turk,  and  even  between 
ecclesiastical  authorities.  Father  Planchet  was  the 
chief  pacificator  in  all  these  wrangles,  and  for  his 
punishment  was  made  delegate  Apostolic  in  1850, 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Mossul  in  1853,  and  murdered 
in  1839  wh-en  about  to  set  out  for  Rome. 

Father  Planchet  was  a  Frenchman;  with  Father 
Riccadonna,  an  Italian,  and  Brother  Henze,  a  Han- 
overian, he  went  to  Syria  in  1831,  at  the  joint  request 


808  The  Jesuits 

of  the  MdcHte  bishop,  Muzlottm,  Joseph  Assemani, 
the  procurator  of  the  Maronite  patriarch  and  the 
Maronite  Archbishop  of  Aleppo,  Germanus  Harva. 
A  hitherto  unpublished  document  recently  edited 
by  Father  Jullien  in  "  La  Nouvelle  Mission  en  Syrie  " 
gives  a  detailed  account  of  the  journey  of  this  illus- 
trious trio  from  Leghorn  to  Syria. 

"  The  vessel  was  called  '  The  Will  of  God/  and  the 
voyage  was,"  says  Riccadonna  "an  uninterrupted 
series  of  misfortunes, —  fevers,  faintings,  rotten  water, 
broken  rigging,  shattered  masts,  wild  seas,  frightful 
tempests,  a  sea-sick  crew  and  escapes  from  English, 
Turkish  and  other  cruisers  on  the  high  seas.  When 
they  came  ashore  the  cholera  was  raging  throughout 
the  country."  The  narrative  is  full  of  interest  with 
its  picturesque  descriptions  of  the  people,  their  habita- 
tions, their  festivals,  their  caravans,  their  filth,  their 
fanaticism  and  the  continually  recurring  massacres  of 
Christians.  The  travellers  journeyed  to  Beirut  and 
Qamar  and  Bagdad  and  Damascus,  and  give  vivid 
pictures  of  the  conditions  that  met  them  in  those 
early  days.  The  medical  ability  of  ,the  lay-brother 
was  of  great  service,  He  was  the  only  physician  in 
the  country,  with  the  result  that,  according  to  Ricca- 
donna, each  stopping  place  was  a  probatica  piscina, 
every  one  striving  to  reach  him  first.  "  In  Arabia," 
says  the  Relation,  "as  in  the  plains  of  Ba'albek,  there 
is  nothing  but  ignorance  and  sin.  There  are  sorcerers 
and  sorceresses  in  every  village;  superstitions  of  every 
kind,  lies,  blasphemies,  perjury  and  impurity  prevail. 
It  is  a  common  thing  for  Christians  to  bear  Mussulman 
names  and  to  pray  to  Mahomet.  They  never  fast, 
and  on  feast  days  never  go  to  Mass.  Of  spiritual 
books  or  the  sacraments  they  know  nothing;  dan  and 
personal  vengeance  and  murder  are  common,  and 


Modern  Missions  809 

sexual  immorality  indescribable,'*  Such  was  the  state 
of  these  countries  in  1831. 

In  1843  the  mission,  which  until  then  depended  on 
the  general,  was  handed  to  the  province  of  Lyons.  In 
that  year  a  seminary  for  native  priests  was  begun  at 
Ghazir,  in  an  old  abandoned  castle  bought  from  an 
emir  of  the  mountains.  It  began  with  two  students, 
but  at  the  end  of  the  year  there  were  twenty-five 
on  the  benches,  and  in  that  small  number,  many 
Rites  were  represented.  A  college  for  boys  soon  grew 
up  around  it,  and  a  religious  community  of  native 
nuns  for  the  education  of  children  was  established. 
The  latest  account  credits  the  Sisters  with  nearly 
4,000  pupils. 

New  posts  were  established  at  Zahle  and  ancient 
Sidon  and  also  at  Deir  el  Qamar.  The  prospects 
seemed  fair  for  the  moment,  for  had  not  the  French 
and  Turks  been  companions  in  arms  in  the  Criipea? 
But  in  1860  the  terrible  massacres  in  Syria  began  as 
a  protest  of  the  ultra-Mussulmans  against  the  liberal 
concession  of  Constantinople  to  the  Christians.  In 
the  long  list  of  victims  the  Jesuits  counted  for  something ; 
for  on  June  18,  four  of  them  were  butchered  at  Zahl6 
and  a  fifth  at  Deir  el  Qamar.  In  that  slaughter 
eight  thousand  Christians  were  killed;  560  churches 
destroyed;  three  hundred  and  sixty  villages  devastated 
and  forty-two  convents  burned  Three  months  later 
the  Turkish  troops  from  the  garrison  at  Damascus 
butchered  eight  thousand  five  hundred  people,  four 
prelates,  fifty  Syrian  priests,  and  all  the  Franciscan 
Friars  in  the  city.  They  levelled  to  the  ground 
three  thousand  eight  hundred  houses  and  two  churches, 
and  would  have  done  more;  but  the  slaughter  was 
stopped  when  the  Algerian  Abd-el-Kader  arrived  on 
the  scene.  They  still  live  on  a  volcano.  Preceding 


810  The  Jesuits 

and  during  the  war  of  1914,  massacre  of  the  Christians 
continued  as  usual. 

Armenia  is  the  Ararat  of  Scripture.  Little  Armenia, 
in  which  the  Jesuits  are  laboring,  is  an  irregular  strip 
of  territory  that  starts  from  the  Gulf  of  Alexandretta' 
and  continues  on  towards  the  Black  Sea.  Its  principal 
towns  are  Adana,  Caesarea,  Civas,  Tokat,  Amasia,  and 
Marswan,  about  two  or  three  days'  journey  from  each 
other.  The  country  is  mountainous,  without  rail- 
roads or  other  means  of  transport.  The  highways  are 
infested  with  brigands;  and  the  climate  is  excessively 
hot  and  excessively  cold.  The  difficulties  with  which 
the  Church  has  to  contend  in  this  inhospitable  region 
are  first,  the  government  which  is  Turkish;  second, 
the  secret  societies  which  are  continually  plotting 
against  their  Turkish  masters;  and  third,  the  American 
Protestant  sects  which  are  covering  the  country  with 
churches,  orphan  asylums,  schools  and  dispensaries, 
and  flooding  it  with  anti-Catholic  literature,  and  money. 
In  1886  all  the  schools  were  closed  by  the  Turks,  but 
when  the  French  protested  they  were  reopened.  In 
1894  two  of  the  priests  died  while  caring  for  the  cholera 
victims  and  that  helped  to  spread  the  Faith,  for,  of 
course,  there  are  never  any  parsons  on  the  scene  in 
such  calamities.  Under  Turkish  rule  also,  massacres 
are  naturally  chronic,  but  Brou  informs  us  that  on 
such  occasions  the  Protestants  suffer  more  than  the 
Catholics;  for  the  latter  are  not  suspected  of  being  in 
the  secret  revolutionary  societies,  while  the  others  are 
known  to  be  deeply  involved. 

The  population  of  this  region  consists  of  500,000 
Christians,  of  whom  14,000  are  Protestants  and  12,000 
Catholics*  The  rest  are  Monophysite  schismatics. 
In  the  mission  besides  the  secular  priests  there  are 
57  Jesuits  and  50  teaching  sisters  from  France.  There 
are  22  schools  with  3,309  pupils,  but  only  504  of  these 


Modern  Missions  811 

children  are  Uniate  Catholics.  They  are  what  are 
called  Gregorians,  for  the  tradition  is  that  Armenia 
was  converted  to  the  Faith  bySt.  Gregory  the  Illumi- 
nator. There  are  few  conversions,  but  the  schismatics 
accept  whatever  Catholic  truth  is  imparted  to  them. 
They  believe  in  the  Immaculate  Conception;  pray  for 
the  dead;  love  the  Pope;  say  their  beads;  and  invoke 
the  Sacred  Heart.  For  them  the  difference  between 
Romans  and  Gregorians  is  merely  a  matter  of  ritual. 
In  several  places,  however,  whole  villages  have  asked 
to  be  received  into  Roman  unity.  As  a  people  they 
look  mainly  to  Russia  for  deliverance  from  the 
Turk,  but  neither  Turk  nor  Russian  now  counts 
in  the  world's  politics  and  no  one  can  foresee  the 
future. 

Father  Roothaan  had  long  been  dreaming  of  sending 
missionaries  to  what  until  very  recently  has  been  called 
the  Unknown  or  Dark  Continent,  Africa.  Hence 
when  the  authorities  of  the  Propaganda  spoke  to  him 
of  a  proposition,  made  by  an  ecclesiastic  of  admitted 
probity,  about  establishing  a  mission  there,  Roothaan 
accepted  it  immediately,  and  in  the  year  1846  ordered 
Father  Maximilian  Ryllo  with  three  companions  to 
ascend  the  Nile  as  far  as  possible  and  report  on  the 
conditions  of  the  country.  Ryllo  was  born  in  Russia 
in  1802  and  entered  the  Roman  province  in  1820. 
After  many  years  of  missionary  work  in  Syria,  Malta 
and  Sicily  he  was  made  rector  of  the  Urban  College  in 
Rome  on  July  4,  1844,  and  was  occupying  that  post 
when  he  was  sent  by  Father  Roothaan  to  the  new 
mission  of  Central  Africa. 

In  1845  Ryllo  was  at  Alexandria  in  search  of  "  the 
eminent  personage  "  who  had  suggested  the  mission 
and  had  been  consecrated  bishop  in  partibus,  for  the 
purpose  of  advancing  the  enterprise.  But  the  "  emi- 
nent personage  "  was  not  to  be  found  either  there  or 


812  The  Jesuits 

in  Cairo.  Hence  after  waiting  in  vain  for  a  month, 
Ryllo  and  his  companions  started  for  Khartoum 
which  .was  to  be  the  central  point  for  future,  explora- 
tions. After  a  little  rest,  they  made  their  way  up  the 
White  Nile.  They  were  then  under  the  equator,  and 
had  scant  provisions  for  the  journey,  and  no  means  of 
protection  from  the  terrible  heat,  and,  besides,  they 
were  in  constant  peril  of  the  crocodiles  which  infested 
the  shores  of  the  river*  The  first  negro  tribes  they 
met  spoke  an  Arabic  dialect,  so  it  was  easy  to 
understand  them.  The  native  houses  were  caves  in 
the  hillsides,  a  style  of  dwelling  that  was  a  necessity 
on  account  of  the  burning  heat.  Their  manner  of 
life  was  patriarchal;  they  were  liberal  and  kind,  and 
seemed  to  be  available  foundation  stones  for  the  future 
Church  which  the  missionaries  hoped  to  build  there. 
Satisfied  with  what  they  had  discovered,  they  returned 
to  Khartoum,  but  when  they  reported  in  due  time  to 
Propaganda,  the  mission  was  not  entrusted  to  them. 
It  was  handed  over  to  the  Congregation  of  the  Mis- 
sionaries of  Verona. 

In  1840  the  Jesuits  went  to  Algeria.  The  work  was 
not  overwhelming.  They  were  given  charge  of  an 
orphan  asylum.  But  unfortunately  though  they  had 
plenty  of  orphans  they  had  no  money  to  feed  them. 
Nevertheless,  trusting  in  God,  Father  Brumauld  not 
only  did  not  dose  the  establishment,  but  purchased 
370  acres  of  ground,  in  the  centre  of  which  was  a  pile 
of  buildings  which  had  formerly  been  the  official  baths 
of  the  deys  of  Algiers,  In  1848  the  asylum  sheltered 
250  orphans.  Fr.  Brumauld  simply  went  around  the 
caf 6s  and  restaurants  and  money  pottfed  into  his  hat, 
for  the  enterprise  appealed  to  every  one.  He  even 
gathered  up  at  the  hotels  the  left-over  food  and  brought 
it  back  to  the  motherless  and  fatherless  little  beggars 
whom  he  had  picked  up  at  the  street  corners.  They  were 


Modern  Missions  813 

filthy,  ragged  and  vicious,  but  he  scraped  them  clean 
and  clothed  them,  taught  them  the  moral  law  and  gave 
them  instructions  in  the  useful  trades  and  occupations. 
Marshal  Bougeaud,  the  governor,  fell  in  love  with 
the  priest  and  when  told  he  was  a  Jesuit,  replied 
"  he  may  be  the  devil  himself  if  you  will,  but  he  is  doing 
good  in  Algeria  and  will  be  my  friend  forever.1*  One 
day  some  Arab  children  were  brought  in  and  he  said 
to  Father  Brumauld  "  Try  to  make  Christians  out  of 
these  youngsters.  If  you  succeed  they  won't  be  shoot- 
ing at  us  one  day  from  the  underbrush. " 

The  Orphanage  stood  in  the  highroad  that  led  to 
Blidak  and  permission  was  asked  to  get  in  touch  with 
natives.  Leave  was  given  Father  Brumauld  to  put  up 
a  house  which  served  as  caf6  for  the  Arabs.  It  had  a 
large  hall  for  the  travellers  and  a  shed  for  the  beasts. 
Next  to  it  was  a  school  the  upper  part  of  which  gave 
him  rooms  for  his  little  community.  It  was  a  zaoui 
for  the  Christian  marabouts,  a  meeting  place  for  the 
French  and  natives,  and  a  neutral  ground  where 
fanaticism  was  not  inflamed  but  made  to  die  out. 
All  the  governors,  Pelissier,  the  Due  d'Aumale,  Mac- 
Mahon,  Admiral  de  Gu6ydon  and  General  Chanzy  were 
fond  of  the  Father  and  encouraged  him  in  his  work. 
One  day  General  d'Hautpoul  praised  him  for  his 
success,  and  advised  him  to  begin  another  establish- 
ment. The  suggestion  was  acted  on  immediately. 
The  government  was  appealed  to  and  soon  a  second 
orphanage  was  in  operation  at  Bouffarik  further  South. 
Finally,  as  the  number  of  Arab  orphans  was  diminish- 
ing in  consequence  of  better  domestic  conditions, 
Brumauld  asked  why  he  could  not  receive  orphans  from 
France?  Of  course  he  could,  and  he  was  made  happy 
when  200  of  them  were  sent  as  a  present  from  Paris. 
There  would  be  so  many  gamins  less  in  the  streets  of 
the  capital. 


814  The  Jesuits 

Meantime,  residences  and  colleges  were  being  estab- 
lished in  the  cities  of  Al-Oran,  Constantine  and  Algiers, 
but  when  at  the  instance  of  the  bishop,  Father  Schimbri 
opened  a  little  house  in  the  neighborhood  of  Selif  and 
was  ingratiating  himself  with  the  natives,  the  authori- 
ties demanded  his  immediate  recall.  Later,  when  the 
bishop  solicited  leave  to  begin  a  native  mission  he 
was  denounced  in  Paris  for  influencing  minors,  because 
he  had  asked  some  Lazarists  to  teach  a  few  vagabond 
Arab  children;  but  the  government,  whose  disrespect 
for  religion  was  a  by-word  with  the  natives,  had  no 
scruple  in  building  Moslem  schoolhouses,  allowing  a 
French  general  to  pronounce  an  eulogy  of  Islamism  in  the 
pulpit  of  a  mosque.  While  it  forbade  religious  pro- 
cessions, it  provided  a  ship  to  carry  Arabian  pilgrims 
to  Mecca.  It  was  so  scrupulously  careful  of  the 
Moslem  conscience  that  it  forbade  the  nuns  to  hang  up 
a  crucifix  in  the  hospital  when  these  holy  women  were 
nursing  sick  Mohammedans. 

In  1864  there  were  Jesuit  chaplains  in  two  of  the 
forts,  and  from  there  they  ventured  among  the  natives 
with  whom  they  soon  became  popular.  That  was 
too  much  to  put  up  with,  so  they  were  ordered  to  dis- 
continue, because,  forsooth,  they  were  attacking  the 
right  of  freedom  of  conscience.  The  result  of  this 
governmental  policy  was  that  in  the  revolt  of  the 
Kabyles  in  1871  the  leaders  of  the  insurgents  were  the 
Arab  students  who  had  been  given  exclusively  lay  and 
irreligious  instructions  in  Fort  Napoleon.  Father 
Brou  says  (viii,  218)  that  MacMahon  who  was  governor 
of  the  colony  was  opposed  to  Cardinal  Lavigerie's 
efforts  to  Christianize  the  natives,  but  that  Napoleon 
III  supported  the  cardinal,  who  after  his  victory, 
installed  the  Jesuits  in  the  orphanage  and  also  made 
Father  Terasse  novice  master  of  the  community 


Modern  Missions  815 

of  White  Fathers,  which  was  then  being  founded; 
two  others  were  commissioned  to  put  themselves  in 
communication  with  the  tribes  of  the  Sahara  and  when 
they  reported  that  everything  was  favorable  the  new 
Order  began  its  triumphant  career.  That  was  in  1872. 
When  Vice-Admiral  de  Gu6ydon  was  made  governor 
he  willingly  permitted  the  cardinal  to  employ  Jesuits  as 
well  as  White  Fathers  in  the  work  among  the  Kabyles, 
but  de  Gu6ydon  was  quickly  removed  from  office  and 
the  old  methods  of  persecution  were  resumed.  When 
the  year  1880  arrived  and  the  government  was  busy 
closing  Jesuit  houses,  the  single  one  left  to  them  in 
Algeria  was  seized. 

Portugal  graciously  made  a  gift  to  Spain  of  the 
Island  of  Fernando  Po  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea.  Brou 
calls  it  "  an  island  of  hell/'  with  heat  like  a  lime-kiln, 
and  reeking  with  yellow  fever.  It  was  inhabited  by 
a  race  of  negroes  called  Boubis,  who  were  dwarfs,  with 
rickety  limbs,  malformed,  tattooed  from  head  to  foot, 
smeared  with  a  compound  of  red  clay  and  oil,  speaking 
five  different  dialects,  each  one  unintelligible  to 
speakers  of  the  others;  they  had  been  charged  with 
poisoning  the  streams  so  as  to  get  rid  of  the  Portuguese 
and  were  trying  to  kill  the  Spaniards  by  starvation. 
It  cannot  have  been  brotherly  love  that  suggested 
this  Portuguese  present.  To  this  lovely  spot  Queen 
Isabella  of  Spain  invited  the  Jesuits  in  1859,  and  they 
accepted  the  offer.  They  lived  among  the  blacks, 
unravelled  the  tangle  of  the  five  dialects  and  won 
the  affection  of  the  natives.  Their  success  in  civilizing 
these  degraded  creatures  was  such  that  whenever  a 
quarrel  broke  out  in  any  of  the  villages  the  governor 
had  only  to  send  his  staff  of  office  and  peace  descended 
on  the  settlement.  In  other  words  the  missionaries 
had  made  Fernando  Po  a  Paraguay.  This  condition 


816  The  Jesuits 

of  things  lasted  twelve  years,  but  when  Isabella  de- 
scended from  her  throne  the  first  act  of  the  revolutionists 
was  to  expel  the  Jesuits  from  the  mission. 

Leo  XIII  had  ordered  the  General,  Father  Beckx  to 
begin  a  seminary  at  Cairo,  It  was  opened  with  twelve 
pupils.  Three  years  afterwards  occurred  the  Turkish 
massacre  of  Damascus  and  Libanus  and  the  bombard- 
ment of  Alexandria  by  the  English.  In  consequence 
of  all  this  the  seminarians  fled  to  Beirut,  and  after 
the  war  a  college  was  begun  at  the  deserted  establish- 
ment of  the  Lazarists  at  Alexandria.  Cairo  was  near 
by,  but  there  was  such  an  antagonism  between  the 
two  cities  that  two  distinct  colleges  with  different 
methods  and  courses  had  to  be  maintained.  Cairo 
was  Egyptian  in  tone;  Alexandria  was  French.  Mean- 
while, a  mission  was  established  on  the  Nile  at  Nineh 
which  was  some  distance  south  of  Cairo.  In  this 
mission  the  young  priests  trained  at  Beirut  were 
employed,  and  they  proved  to  be  such  excellent  apostles 
that  Leo  XIII  made  three  of  them  bishops  and  thus 
laid  the  foundation  of  the  United  Coptic  hierarchy. 
In  1905  there  were  20,000  United  Copts  in  Egypt, 
four-fifths  of  whom  had  been  reclaimed  from  the 
schism.  This  is  all  the  more  remarkable  because  the 
Protestants  had  spent  enormous  amounts  of  money  in 
schools,  hospitals,  and  asylums. 

Madagascar  was  originally  called  the  Island  of 
St.  Lawrence,  because  it  was  first  sighted  on  the  festival 
day  of  the  great  martyr  by  Diego  Diaz,  who  with 
Cabral,  the  Portuguese  discoverer,  was  exploring  the 
Indian  Ocean  in  the  year  1500.  A  Portuguese  priest 
was  massacred  there  in  1540;  in  1585  a  Dominican 
was  poisoned  by  the  natives,  and  in  the  seventeenth 
century  two  Jesuits  came  from  Goa  with  a  native 
prince  who  had  been  captured  by  the  Portuguese. 
Their  benevolence  toward  the  prince  secured  them 


Modern  Missions  817 

permission  to  preach  Christianity  for  a  while,  but 
when  their  influence  began  to  show  itself,  they  were, 
in  obedience  to  a  royal  order,  absolutely  avoided  by 
the  natives  so  that  one  starved  to  death;  the  other 
succeeded  in  reaching  home.  The  Lazarists  came  in 
1648,  but  remained  only  fourteen  months,  two  of  their 
number  having  died  meantime.  Other  attempts  were 
made,  but  all  ended  in  disaster  to  the  missionaries. 
Nothing  more  was  done  until  the  middle  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.  In  1832  Fathers  de  Solages  and  Dal- 
mond  were  sent  out,  but  they  had  been  anticipated  by 
the  Protestant  missionaries  who,  as  early  as  1830,  had 
32  schools  with  4,000  pupils.  De  Solages  soon 
succumbed  and  Dalmond  continued  to  work  on  the 
small  islands  off  the  coast  until  1845,  when  he  returned 
to  Europe  to  ask  Father  Roothaan  to  send  him  some 
Jesuits.  Six  members  of  the  Society  together  with 
two  Fathers  of  the  Holy  Ghost  responded  to  the  call, 
but  they  could  get  no  farther  than  the  islands  of  Nossi- 
B6  or  St.  Mary's  and  Reunion,  or  Bourbon  as  it  was 
called. 

The  Queen  Ranavalo,  who  was  a  ferocious  and  blood- 
thirsty pagan,  had  no  use  for  any  kind  of  evangelists, 
Protestant  or  Catholic,  but  there  was  a  Frenchman 
named  Laborde  in  the  capital,  who  was  held  in  high 
esteem  by  her  majesty,  because  he  was  a  cannon- 
founder,  a  manufacturer  of  furniture  and  a  maker  of 
soap.  Besides  these  accomplishments  to  recommend 
him,  he  had  won  the  esteem  of  the  heir-apparent. 
Incidentally  Laborde  put  the  prince  in  relation  with 
the  missionaries  off  the  coast.  A  short  time  after- 
wards, there  appeared  in  the  royal  city  another  French- 
man who  could  make  balloons,  organize  theatrical 
representations,  and  compound  drugs.  He  was  ac- 
cepted in  the  queen's  service.  He  was  a  Jesuit  in 
disguise.  His  name  was  Finaz,  and  he  continued  to 
5* 


818  The  Jesuits 

remain  at  Tananarive  until  1857,  when  the  violence  of 
the  queen,  who  was  insanely  superstitious,  brought 
about  an  uprising  against  her  which  was  organized  by 
the  Protestant  missionaries.  She  prevailed  against  the 
rebels,  and  as  a  consequence  all  Europeans  were 
expelled  from  the  island,  and  among  them  Father 
Finaz.  He  could  congratulate  himself  that  he  had  at 
least  learned  the  language  and  made  himself  acquainted 
with  the  inhabitants. 

Four  years  later  (1861),  the  queen  died,  and  King 
Radama  II  ascended  the  throne;  whereupon  six  Jesuits 
opened  a  mission  in  Tananarive.  They  soon  had  2 
schools  with  400  pupils  and  numberless  catechumens, 
but  their  success  was  not  solid,  for  the  Malgassy 
easily  goes  from  one  side  to  another  as  his  personal 
advantage  may  dictate.  Radama  was  killed,  and 
then  followed  a  forty  years'  struggle  between  the 
French  and  the  English  to  get  control  of  the  island. 
The  English  prevailed  for  a  time  and,  in  1869, 
Protestantism  was  declared  to  be  the  state  religion. 
The  number  of  evangelists  multiplied  enormously, 
but  they  were  merely  government  agents  and  knew 
next  to  nothing  about  Christian  truth  or  morality. 
The  confusion  was  increased,  when  to  the  English 
parsons  were  added  American  Quakers  and  Nor- 
wegian Lutherans.  The  Evangelical  statistics  of  all 
of  them  in  1892  were  most  imposing.  Thus  the 
Independents  claimed  51,033  and  the  Norwegians 
47,681,  with  37,500  children  in  their  schools.  The 
names  were  on  the  lists,  but  the  school-houses  were 
often  empty,  and  in  the  interim  between  the  different 
official  visits  of  the  inspectors  often  no  instruction  tras 
given.  Against  this  the  Catholics  had  only  22  chapels 
and  25  schools,  and  they  were  mostly  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Tananarivo. 


Modern  Missions  819 

France  was  subsequently  the  dominant  influence  in 
Madagascar  but,  as  in  the  mother  country  religion 
was  tabooed,  there  was  little  concern  about  it  in  the 
colonies.  When  the  Franco-Prussian  war  showed  the 
weakness  of  France,  the  respect  for  the  alleged  religion 
of  France  vanished,  especially  when  a  crusade  began 
against  the  Catholic  schools.  Nevertheless  the  faithful 
continued  to  grow  in  number,  and  in  1882  they  were 
reckoned  at -80,000  with  152  churches-,  44  priests,  527 
teachers  and  2,000  pupils.  War  broke  out  in  1881, 
and  the  missionaries  were  expelled  but  returned  after 
hostilities  ceased,  and  found  that  their  neophytes, 
under  the  guidance  of  a  princess  of  the  royal  blood, 
had  held  firmly  to  their  religion,  notwithstanding  the 
closing  of  the  schools  and  the  sacking  of  the  churches. 
After  these  troubles,  conversions  increased,  and  in 
1894  there  were  75  Jesuit  priests  in  the  island;  and, 
besides  the  primary  schools  which  had  increased  in 
number,  a  college  and  nine  high  schools  as  well  as 
a  printing  house  and  two  leper  hospitals  were  erected. 
Added  to  this,  an  observatory  was  built  and  serious 
work  began  in  geographical  research,  cartography, 
ethnography,  natural  history,  folklore  and  philology. 

Just  at  the  height  of  this  prosperity,  a  persecution 
began.  The  missionaries  were  expelled,  their  buildings 
looted,  and  the  observatory  wrecked.  In  1896  the 
bishop  counted  108  of  his  chapels  which  had  been 
devastated,  but  in  1897  General  Galieni  arrived,  and 
the  queen  vanished  from  the  scene.  After  that  the 
faith  prospered,  and  in  the  year  1900  alone  there  were 
94,998  baptisms.  In  1896  Propaganda  divided  Mada- 
gascar into  three  vicariates:  one  entrusted  to  the 
Lazarists;  another  to  the  Fathers  of  the  Holy  Ghost; 
and  a  third  to  the  Jesuits  of  the  provinces  of  Toulouse 
and  Champagne.  In  the  Jesuit  portion,  the  latest 


820  The  Jesuits 

statistics  give  160,080  Christians  and  170,000  cate- 
chumens, with  74  priests,  8  scholastics  and  n  lay- 
brothers.  The  chief  difficulty  to  contend  with  is  the 
gross  immorality  of  the  people  who  are,  in  consequence, 
almost  impervious  to  religious  teaching,  and  at  the  same 
time  easily  captured  by  the  money  that  pours  into  the 
country  from  England  and  Norway.  The  French 
officials,  of  course,  cannot  be  expected  to  further  the 
cause  of  Catholicity. 

In  1877,  when  Bishop  Ricards  of  Grahamstown  in 
South  Africa  asked  the  Jesuits  to  accept  the  Zam- 
besi Mission,  Father  Weld  ardently  took  up  the 
work,  and  in  April,  1879,  Father  Depelchin,  a 
Belgian,  started  from  Kimberly,  with  eleven  com- 
panions for  Matabeleland,  over  which  King  Lo  Benguela 
ruled.  It  was  a  five  months'  journey  and  the 
missionaries  did  not  arrive  at  the  royal  kraal  until 
September  2.  But  as  the  prospects  of  conversion  of 
the  much-married  king  and  his  followers  were  not 
particularly  bright,  only  one  part  of  the  expedition 
remained  with  Lo  Benguela,  while  two  others  struck 
for  the  interior.  There  several  of  the  strongest 
missionaries  sickened  and  died.  The  work  went  on, 
however,  for  ten  weary  years  when  the  king  told  them 
to  stop  teaching  religion  and  show  the  people  how 
to  till  the  soil.  Otherwise  they  must  go.  They 
accepted  the  offer,  of  course,  for  it  got  them  a  better 
means  of  imparting  religious  instruction. 

Then  a  quarrel  broke  out  between  the  British,  the 
Portuguese,  the  Boers  and  Lo  Benguela  for  the  pos- 
session of  Mashonaland.  The  British  as  usual  won 
the  fight,  but  when  Cecil  Rhodes  came  to  the  kraal, 
to  arrange  matters,  Lo  Benguela  ordered  all  the  whites 
out  of  his  dominion  and  the  Fathers  withdrew.  A 
new  difficulty  then  arose  between  the  English  and 
Portuguese,  and  the  mission  was  divided  between 


Modern  Missions  821 

Upper  and  Lower  Zambesi,  the  latter  being  assigned 
to  the  Portuguese  Jesuits.  There  was  trouble  with 
the  natives  of  both  sections  for  some  time,  and  then 
the  Anglo-Boer  war  broke  out,  so  that  for  twenty-five 
years  very  little  apostolic  progress  was  made.  In 
Upper  Zambesi  or  Rhodesia,  as  it  is  called,  there  are  at 
present  40  Jesuit  priests  and  24  brothers,  and  3  mis- 
sionaries of  Mariannhill,  with  115  nuns,  20  churches 
or  chapels,  and  30  schools  of  which  26  are  for  natives, 
and  about  5,000  Catholics.  Naturally  speaking  the 
result  scarcely  warrants  the  outlay  but  the  purpose  is 
supernatural  and  intelligible  only  from  that  point  of 
view.  In  Lower  Zambesi,  which  was  given  to  the 
Portuguese  Jesuits,  there  have  been  no  troubles  because 
it  is  garrisoned  by  Portuguese  soldiers;  the  four  sta- 
tions in  that  district  with  their  thirty-five  Fathers 
were  doing  splendid  work  when  the  Portuguese  revolu- 
tion occurred;  the  Jesuits  were  then  expelled,  but 
twenty-six  Fathers  of  the  Divine  Word  took  their 
place. 

The  early  days  of  the  Zambesi  mission  evoked 
splendid  manifestations  of  the  old  heroic  spirit  of 
the  Society.  Thus  we  read  of  one  of  the  missionaries,  a 
Father  Wehl,  who  was  separated  from  his  companions 
and  wandered  for  twenty-six  days  in  the  bush,  luckily 
escaping  the  wild  beasts  and  finally  falling  into  the 
hands  of  some  Kaffirs  who  were  about  to  put  him  to 
death,  when  he  was  saved  by  the  opportune  arrival  of  an 
English  gold-hunter,  But  starvation  and  disease  had 
shattered  his  health  and  his  mind  was  gone.  Six 
months  afterwards  he  died. 

Meantime  his  two  companions  Father  Law  and 
"Brother  Hedley  found  shelter  among  the  natives,  but 
had  to  live  in  a  clay  hut  which  was  a  veritable  oven. 
They  both  fell  sick  of  fever;  little  or  no  food  was  given 
them,  and  they  slowly  starved  to  death.  They  lay 


822  The  Jesuits 

along  side  of  each  other,  neither  being  able  to  assist  his 
companion,  and  when  finally  the  Father  breathed  his 
last,  all  the  poor  lonely  brother  could  do  was  to  place 
a  handkerchief  on  the  face,  but  when  he  removed  the 
covering  in  the  morning,  he  found  that  the  rats  had 
been  eating  the  flesh.  The  dead  missionary  lay  there 
for  some  time  because  the  superstitious  natives  would 
not  touch  the  corpse;  when  finally  a  rope  was  tied 
around  it,  they  dragged  it  out  of  the  hut  and  left  it 
in  the  forest.  For  three  weeks  after  this  horrible 
funeral  the  poor  brother  had  to  fight  off  the  rats  that 
were  attacking  himself;  at  last  the  chief  took  pity  on 
him  and  had  him  carried  on  a  litter  to  a  band  of  other 
missionaries  who  were  approaching.  When  his  friends 
saw  him  they  burst  into  tears.  He  had  not  changed 
his  clothes  for  five  months  and  they  were  in  tatters. 
His  whole  body  was  covered  with  sores  and  ulcers 
and  the  wounds  were  filled  with  vermin.  He  was  in  a 
state  of  stupor  when  he  arrived,  but  strange  to  say 
he  recovered.  His  dead  companion,  the  priest,  had  been 
a  naval  officer,  and  was  a  convert  to  the  Faith  and  the 
grandson  of  one  of  the  lord  chancellors  of  England. 
The  Congo  mission  was  organized  by  the  Belgium 
Jesuits  in  1885,  under  the  auspices  of  Leopold  II  of 
Belgium,  who  had  established  the  Congo  Free  State. 
His  majesty  requested  the  Fathers  to  assist  him,  but 
he  gave  them  no  financial  aid  whatever,  though  he 
was  pointedly  asked  to  do  so.  The  Congo  Free  State 
begins  400  miles  from  the  Atlantic  ocean  and  extends 
to  Central  Africa.  Leopold's  plan  was  to  abolish 
slavery  within  the  boundaries  of  this  domain;  then  to 
make  the  adult  male  population  his  soldiers,  and  mean- 
time to  place  the  orphans  and  abandoned  children  in 
asylums  which  the  missionaries  would  manage.  Some 
of  these  establishments  were  to  be  supported  from  the 
public  revenues,  others  by  charity.  The  whole  hope 


Modern  Missions  823 

of  the  mission  was  in  these  orphanages,  for  nothing 
could  be  expected  from  the  adult  population.  The 
boys  were  to  be  taught  a  trade  and  then  married  at 
the  proper  time*  These  households  were  to  be  visited 
and  supervised  by  the  missionaries. 

It  was  an  excellent  plan,  but  it  was  opposed  by  the 
Belgian  anti-clericals,  who  objected  to  giving  so  much 
power  to  priests.  A  number  of  English  Protestants 
also  busied  themselves  in  spreading  calumnies  about 
these  settlements  and  brought  their  accusations  to 
court,  where  sentence  was  frequently  given  without 
hearing  the  accused.  The  charges  were  based  on 
alleged  occurrences  in  three  out  of  the  forty-four  mis- 
sion stations.  The  persecution  became  so  acute 
that  the  Jesuits  appealed  to  the  king  and  received 
the  thanks  of  his  majesty  and  the  government  for  the 
work  they  had  performed,  but  the  calumnies  were  not 
retracted,  until  May  26,  1906,  when  a  formal  docu- 
ment was  issued  by  the  Free  State  declaring  that  it 
greatly  esteemed  the  work  performed  by  the  Catholic 
missionaries  in  the  civilization  of  the  State.  In  the 
following  year  on  May  22,  it  added:  "  Since  it  is 
impossible  to  do  without  the  missionaries  in  the 
conversion  of  the  blacks,  and  as  their  help  is  of  the 
greatest  value  in  imparting  instruction,  we  recommend 
that  the  mission  be  made  still  more  efficacious  by  grant- 
ing them  a  subsidy  for  the  upkeep  of  their  institutions. 
At  the  beginning  of  1913,  the  Jesuits  had  seven  stations 
and  forty  missionaries.  In  spite  of  all  this,  however, 
the  work  of  systematic  calumniation  still  continues. 

The  great  war  of  1914  brought  absolute  ruin  on  all 
the  missions  of  Asia  and  Africa.  Thus  Prance  called 
to  the  army  every  French  priest,  or  lay  brother  who 
was  not  crippled  by  age  and  infirmity,  and  made  him 
fight  in  the  ranks  as  a  common  soldier  or  a  stretcher 
bearer  in  the  hospital  or  on  the  battlefield.  This  was 


824  The  Jesuits 

the  case  not  only  -with  the  Jesuits,  but  with  other 
religious  orders  and  the  secular  priesthood.  Nor  was 
this  call  to  the  colors  restricted  to  those  who  were  in 
the  French  colonies;  it  affected  all  priests  or  brothers 
of  French  birth  who  were  laboring  in  Nigeria,  Sierra 
Leone,  Belgian  Congo,  Angola,  Zambesi,  Canada,  Haiti, 
the  United  States  or  South  America.  Sixty  priests 
or  brothers  had  to  leave  Japan.  Out  of  forty-three 
missionaries  of  the  Society  of  African  Missions  who 
were  in  Egypt,  half  had  to  leave.  Of  the  twenty-two 
who  were  on  the  Ivory  Coast  sixteen  were  mobilized. 
Indeed,  four  bishops  were  summoned  to  the  ranks, 
Mgr$.  Moury  of  the  Ivory  Coast,  Terrien  of  Benin, 
Perros  of  Siam,  and  Hermel  of  Haiti.  There  were  at 
the  outbreak  of  the  war  thirty-five  Jesuits  from  the 
Levant  in  the  army,  besides  others  from  Madagascar, 
Madura  and  China. 


CHAPTER  XXVII 

COLLEGES 

Responsibility  of  the  Society  for  loss  of  Faith  in  Etirope.    The  Loi 
Falloux  —  Bombay  —  Calcutta  —  Beirut  —  American  Colleges  — 
Scientists,  Archaeologists,  Meteorologists,  Seismologists,  Astronomers — 
Ethnologists. 

THE  Society  of  Jesus  is  frequently  charged  with  being 
responsible  for  the  present  irreligious  condition  of  the 
Latin  nations,  of  France  in  particular,  because,  having 
had  the  absolute  control  of  education  in  the  past,  it 
did  not  train  its  pupils  to  resist  the  inroads  of  atheism 
and  unbelief. 

In  the  first  place,  the  charge  is  based  on  the  sup- 
position that  the  Society  had  complete  control  of  the 
education  of  Catholic  countries,  which  is  not  the  case. 
Thus,  for  instance,  Montesquieu,  one  of  the  first  and 
most  dangerous  of  the  assailants  of  the  Church  in  the 
eighteenth  century,  was  educated  by  the  Oratorians. 
As  much  as  thirty-seven  years  before  the  French 
Revolution,  namely,  in  1752,  Father  Vitelleschi,  the 
General  of  the  Society,  addressed  the  following  letter 
to  the  Jesuits  throughout  the  world: 

"  It  is  of  supreme  importance  that  what  we  call  the 
schol®  inferiores  (those  namely  below  philosophy  and 
theology)  should  be  looked  after  with  extreme  solici- 
tude. We  owe  this  to  the  municipalities  which  have 
established  colleges  for  us,  and  entrusted  to  us  the 
education  of  their  youth.  This  is  especially  incumbent 
upon  us  at  the  present  time,  when  such  an  intense  desire 
for  scholastic  education  everywhere  manifests  itself, 
and  has  called  into  existence  so  many  schools  of  that 
kind.  Hence,  unless  we  are  careful,  there  is  danger  of 

[825] 


826  The  Jesuits 

our  colleges  being  considered  unnecessary.  We  must 
not  forget  that  for  a  long  time  there  were  almost  no 
other  Latin  schools  but  ours,  or  at  least  very  few; 
so  that  parents  were  forced  to  send  their  sons  to  us 
who  otherwise  would  not  have  done  so.  But  now  in 
many  places,  many  schools  are  competing  with  ours,  and 
we  are  exposing  ourselves  to  be  regarded  as  not  up  to 
the  mark,  and  thus  losing  both  our  reputation  and  our 
scholars.  Hence,  our  pupils  are  not  to  be  detained 
for  too  long  a  period  by  a  multiplication  of  courses, 
and  they  must  be  more  than  moderately  imbued  with  a 
knowledge  of  the  Classics.  If  they  have  not  the  best 
of  masters,  it  is  very  much  to  be  feared  that  they  will 
betake  themselves  elsewhere  and  then  every  effort  on 
our  part  to  repair  the  damage  will  be  futile." 

In  the  second  place,  after  the  year  1762,  that  is 
twenty-seven  years  before  the  Revolution,  there  were 
not  only  no  Jesuit  colleges  at  all  in  France,  but  no 
Jesuits,  and  consequently  there  was  an  entire  generation 
which  had  been  trained  in  schools  that  were  distinctly 
and  intensely  antagonistic  to  everything  connected  with 
the  Society.  Furthermore,  it  is  an  undeniable  fact, 
provable  by  chronology,  that  the  most  conspicuous 
men  in  that  dreadful  upheaval,  namely,  Robespierre, 
Desmoulins,  Tallien,  Fr&ron,  Chenier  and  others  were 
educated  in  schools  from  which  the  Jesuits  had  been 
expelled  before  some  of  those  furious  young  demagogues 
were  born.  Danton,  for  instance,  was  only  three  years 
old  in  1762;  Marat  was  a  Protestant  from  Geneva, 
and,  of  course,  was  not  a  Jesuit  pupil;  and  Mira- 
beau  was  educated  by  private  tutors.  The  fact  that 
Robespierre  and  Desmoulins  were  together  at  Louis- 
le-Grand  has  misled  some  into  the  belief  that  they  were 
Jesuit  students,  whereas  the  college  when  they  were 
there  had  long  been  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Society. 
The  same  is  true  of  Portugal  and  Spain.  The  Society 


Colleges  827 

had  ceased  to  exist  in  Portugal  as  early  as  1758,  and  in 
Spain  in  1767. 

Far  from  being  in  control  of  the  schools  of  France, 
the  whole  history  of  the  French  Jesuits  is  that  of 
one  uninterrupted  struggle  to  get  schools  at  all. 
Against  them,  from  the  very  beginning,  were  the 
University  of  Paris  and  the  various  parliaments  of 
France,  which  represented  the  highest  culture  of  the 
nation  and  bitterly  resented  the  intrusion  of  the  Society 
into  the  domain  of  education. 

Not  only  is  this  true  of  the  period  that  preceded  but 
also  of  the  one  that  followed  the  French  Revolution. 
It  was  only  in  1850,  namely  seventy-seven  years  after 
the  Suppression  of  the  Society,  that  the  Jesuits,  in 
virtue  of  the  Loi  Falloux,  were  permitted  to  open  a 
single  school  in  France.  The  wonder  is  that  the -inces- 
sant confiscations  and  suppressions  which  followed 
would  permit  of  any  educational  success  whatever. 
Nevertheless,  in  the  short  respites  that  were  allowed 
them  they  filled  the  army  and  navy  with  officers  who 
were  not  only  conspicuous  in  their  profession  but,  at 
the  same  time,  thoroughgoing  Catholics.  Marshal 
Foch  is  one  of  their  triumphs.  Indeed  it  was  the  supe- 
riority of  their  education  that  provoked  the  latest 
suppression  of  the  Jesuit  schools  in  France. 

It  is  this  government  monopoly  of  education  in  all 
the  Continental  countries  that  constitutes  the  present 
difficulty  both  for  the  Society  of  Jesus  and  for  all  the 
other  teaching  orders.  Thus  after  1872,  the  German 
province  had  not  a  single  college  in  the  whole  extent 
of  the  German  Empire.  It  could  only  attempt  to  do 
something  beyond  the  frontiers.  It  has  one  in  Austria, 
a  second  in  Holland,  and  a  third  in  Denmark.  Austria 
has  only  one  to  its  credit;  Hungary  one  and  Bohemia 
another.  The  province  of  Rome  has  one;  Sicily  two, 
one  of  which  is  in  Malta,  and  Malta  is  English  terri- 


828  The  Jesuits 

tory;  Naples  had  three  and  Turin  four,  but  some  of 
these  have  already  disappeared.  All  the  splendid 
colleges  of  Prance  were  closed  by  Waldeck-Rousseau  in 
1890.  Spain  has  five  excellent  establishments,  but 
they  have  no  guarantee  of  permanency.  Belgium  has 
thirteen  colleges,  packed  with  students,  but  the  ter- 
rible World  War  has  at  least  for  a  time  depleted  them. 
Holland  has  three  colleges  of  its  own,  England  four, 
and  Ireland  three. 

The  expulsions,  however,  have  their  compensations. 
Thus  when  the  Jesuits  were  expelled  from  Germany  by 
Bismarck,  the  English  government  welcomed  them  to 
India,  and  the  splendid  college  of  Bombay  was  the 
result.  Italy  also  benefited  by  the  disaster.  Not  to 
mention  other  distinguished  men,  Father  Ehrle  became 
Vatican  librarian,  and  Father  Wernz,  rector  of  the 
Gregorian  University  and  subsequently  General  of  the 
Society.  In  South  America,  the  exiles  did  excellent  work 
in  Argentina  and  Ecuador.  The  Jesuits  of  New  York 
gave  them  an  entrance  into  Buffalo,  and  from  that 
starting-point  they  established  a  chain  of  colleges  in 
the  West,  and  later,  when  conditions  called  for  it,  they 
were  assimilated  to  the  provinces  of  Maryland,  New 
York  and  Missouri,  thus  greatly  increasing  the  efficiency 
of  those  sections  of  the  Society. 

When  driven  out  of  their  country,  the  Portuguese 
Jesuits  betook  themselves  to  Brazil,  where  their  help 
was  greatly  needed;  the  Italians  went  to  New  Mexico 
and  California;  and  the  French  missions  of  China  and 
Syria  benefited  by  the  anti-clericalism  of  the  home 
government;  for  Zikawei  became  an  important  scien- 
tific world-centre  and  Beirut  obtained  a  university. 
The  latter  was,  until  the  war  broke  out,  a  great  seat  of 
Oriental  studies. 

The  most  imposing  institutions  in  Beirut,  a  city  with 
a  population  of  over  150,000,  made  up  of  Mussulmans, 


Colleges  829 

Greeks,  Latins,  Americans  and  Jews,  are  those  of  the 
Jesuits.  They  maintain  and  direct  outside  of  Beirut 
192  schools  for  boys  and  girls  with  294  teachers  and 
12,000  pupils.  There  is,  in  the  city,  a  university  with 
a  faculty  of  medicine  (120  students)  founded  in  1881 
with  the  help  of  the  French  government;  its  examina- 
tions are  conducted  before  French  and  Ottoman 
physicians  and  its  diplomas  are  recognized  by  both 
France  and  Turkey.  The  university  has  also  a  semi- 
nary (60  students)  for  all  the  native  Rites.  Up  to 
1902  it  had  sent  out  228  students  including  three 
patriarchs,  fifteen  bishops,  one  hundred  and  fifteen  priests 
and  eighty-three  friars.  Its  faculty  of  philosophy  and 
theology  grants  the  same  degrees  as  the  Gregorian 
University  in  Rome.  Its  faculty  of  Oriental  languages 
and  sciences,  founded  in  1902,  teaches  literary  and  con- 
versational Arabic,  Hebrew,  Syriac,  Coptic  and  Ethr 
opic ;  the  comparative  grammar  of  the  Semitic  languages ; 
the  history  and  geography  of  the  Orient;  Oriental 
archaeology;  Graeco-Roman  epigraphy  and  antiquities. 
Its  classical  college  has  400  pupils  and  its  three  primaries 
600.  A  printing-house,  inaugurated  in  1853,  *s  now 
considered  to  be  the  foremost  for  its  output  in  that 
part  of  the  world.  Since  1871  it  has  published  a 
weekly  Arabic  paper,  and  since  1898  a  fortnightly 
review  in  the  same  language,  the  editors  of  which 
took  rank  at  once  among  the  best  Orientalists.  Besides 
continually  adding  to  their  collection  of  philological 
papers,  they  contribute  to  many  scientific  European 
reviews.  (The  Catholic  Encyclopedia,  II,  393.) 

There  are  Jesuit  colleges,  also,  throughout  India, 
such  as  the  great  institutions  of  Bombay  and  Calcutta 
with  their  subsidiary  colleges,  and  further  down  the 
Peninsula  are  Trichinopoly,  all  winning  distinction 
by  their  successful  courses  of  study.  Indeed  the  first 
effort  the  Society  makes  in  establishing  itself  in  any 


830  The  Jesuits 

part  of  the  world,  where  conditions  allow  it,  is  to 
organize  a  college.  If  they  would  relinquish  that  one 
work  they  would  be  left  in  peace. 

An  interesting  personage  appears  in  connection  with 
the  University  of  Beirut:  William  Gifford  Palgrave. 
It  is  true  that  one  period  of  his  amazing  career  humili- 
ated his  former  associates,  but  as  it  is  a  matter  of 
history  it  must  needs  be  told. 

He  was  the  son  of  an  eminent  English  Protestant 
lawyer,  Sir  Francis  Palgrave,  and  had  Jewish  blood  in 
his  veins.  He  was.  born  in  1826,  and  after  a  brilliant 
course  of  studies  at  Oxford  began  his  romantic  career 
as  a  traveller.  He  went  first  to  India  and  was  an 
officer  of  Sepoys  in  the  British  army.  While  there, 
he  became  .a  Catholic,  and  afterwards  presented 
himself  at  the  novitiate  of  Negapatam  as  an  appli- 
cant for  admission.  Unfortunately  his  request  was 
granted,  and  forthwith  he  changed  his  name  to  Michael 
Cohen,  as  he  said  to  conceal  his  identity.  This  was 
a  most  amassing  mask;  for  Palgrave  would  have 
escaped  notice,  whereas  everyone  would  immediately 
ask,  who  is  this  Jesuit  Jew?  How  he  was  admitted  is 
a  mystery,  especially  as  he  proclaimed  his  race  so 
openly. 

After  his  novitiate  he  was  sent  to  Rome  to  begin 
his  theology  —  another  mystery.  Why  was  he  not 
compelled  to  study  philosophy  first  like  everyone  else? 
Then  he  insisted  that  Rome  did  not  agree  with  his 
health,  and  he  was  transferred  to  Beirut  to  which  he 
betook  himself,  not  in  the  ordinary  steamer,  but  in 
a  sailing  vessel  filled  with  Mussulmans.  On  the  way,  he 
picked  up  Arabic.  Inside  of  a  year,  namely  in  1834,  he 
was  made  a  priest  and  given  charge  of  the  men's  sodality 
which  he  Charmed  by  his  facility  in  the  use  of  the  native 
tongue;  in  the  meantime  he  made  many  adventurous 
journeys  to  the  interior  to  convert  the  natives,  but 


Colleges  831 

failed  every  time.  In  1860  he  was  sent  to  France  for 
his  third  year  of  probation  under  the  famous  Father 
Fouillot,  whom  he  fascinated  by  his  scheme  of  entering 
Arabia  Petrea  as  its  apostle.  He  succeeded  in  getting 
Louis  Napoleon  to  give  him  10,000  francs  on  the  plea 
that  he  would  thus  carry  out  the  scheme  of  the  Cheva- 
lier Lascaris  whom  Napoleon  Bonaparte  had  sent  to 
the  East. 

At  Rome,  he  found  the  Father  General  quite  cold  to 
the  proposition,  and  when  he  had  the  audacity  to 
ask  Propaganda  for  permission  to  say  Mass  in  Arabic, 
he  was  told:  "  Convert  your  Arabs  first  and  then  we 
shall  see  about  the  Mass."  The  brother  who  was  to 
go  with  him  fell  ill,  and  the  General  then  insisted  that 
he  should  not  attempt  the  journey  without  a  priest  as 
companion;  whereupon  Palgrave  persuaded  the  Greek 
Bishop  of  Zahl6  to  ordain  one  of  the  lay  professors  of 
the  college,  after  a  few  days*  instruction  in  moral 
theology.  Fortunately  this  improvised  priest  turned 
out  well,  and  he  became  His  Beatitude  Mgr.  Geraigri, 
patriarch  of  the  Greek  Melchites. 

In  1862  the  travellers  set  out  by  way  of  Gaza  in 
Palestine,  Palgrave  as  a  physician,  the  other  as  his 
assistant.  They  covered  the  entire  Arabian  peninsula 
and  were  back  again  in  Beirut  at  the  end  of  fourteen 
months.  Palgrave  had  made  no  converts,  and  was 
himself  a  changed  man.  Even  his  sodalists  remarked 
it.  What  had  happened  no  one  ever  knew.  In  1 864  he 
was  sent  to  Maria-Laach  in  Gennany,  where  the 
saintly  Father  Behrens  wrestled  with  him  in  vain  for 
a  while,  but  he  left  the  Society  and  passed  over  to 
Protestantism,  securing  meanwhile  an  appointment  as 
Prussian  consul  at  Mossul.  In  the  following  year  he 
published  an  account  of  his  travels  and  the  book  was 
a  European  sensation.  In  it  he  made  no  secret  of  his 
having  been  a  member  of  the  Society,  which  he  says  was 


832  The  Jesuits 

"  so  celebrated  in  the  annals  of  courageous  and  devoted 
philanthropy.  The  many  years  I  spent  in  the  East 
were  the  happiest  of  my  life."  In  1884  he  was  British 
consul  at  Montevideo  and  remained  there  till  1888  when 
he  died. 

For  twenty  years  he  seemed  never  to  have  been 
ashamed  of  his  apostasy,  but  three  or  four  years  before 
his  death  the  grace  of  God  found  him.  The  change 
was  noticed  on  his  return  from  a  trip  to  England. 
He  had  become  a  Catholic  again.  He  went  to  Mass 
and  received  Holy  Communion.  Although  a  govern- 
ment official,  he  refused  to  go  to  the  Protestant  Church 
even  for  the  queen's  jubilee,  in  spite  of  the  excitement 
caused  by  his  absence.  He  died  of  leprosy.  A  Jesuit 
attended  him  in  his  last  sickness,  and  he  was  buried 
with  all  the  rites  of  the  Church.  These  details  are 
taken  from  a  recent  publication  by  Father  Jullien, 
S.  J.,  entitled  "Nouvelle  mission  de  la  Compagnie  de 
J6sus  en  Syrie  "  (II,  iii.) 

The  great  difficulty  that  confronts  educators  of 
youth  in  our  times,  is  state  control.  In  the  United 
States  it  has  not  yet  gone  to  extremes,  but  every 
now  and  then  one  can  detect  tendencies  in  that  direc- 
tion. Meantime  the  Society  has  developed  satis- 
factorily along  educational  lines.  According  to  the 
report  of  October  10,  1916  (Woodstock  Letters,  V  45), 
there  were  16,438  students  in  its  American  colleges  and 
universities.  Of  these  13,301  were  day  scholars  and 
3,137  boarders.  There  were  3,943  in  the  college 
departments,  10,502  in  the  high  schools  and  1,416 
'  in  the  preparatory.  Besides  all  this,  there  were  com- 
mercial and  special  sections  numbering  737.  The 
total  increase  over  the  preceding  year  was  523. 

The  Maryland-New  York  provinces  had  1,848 
students  of  law,  341  of  medicine,  127  of  dentistry, 
122  of  pharmacy.  Missouri  had  786  students  of  law, 


Colleges  833 

643  of  medicine,  776  of  dentistry,  245  of  pharmacy, 
126  of  engineering,  530  of  finance,  240  of  sociology, 
425  of  music,  43  of  journalism,  and  61  in  the  nurse's 
training  school.  New  Orleans  had  a  law  school  of 
81  and  California  one  of  232  students. 

It  is  sometimes  urged  as  an  objection  to  Catholic 
colleges  that  they  give  only  a  Classical  education, 
and  are  thus  not  keeping  pace  with  the  world  outside. 
To  show  that  the  objection  has  no  foundation  in  fact, 
it  would  be  sufficient  to  enter  any  Jesuit  college  which 
is  at  all  on  its  feet,  and  see  the  extensive  and  fully 
equipped  chemical  and  physical  laboratories,  the  seismic 
plants  and  in  some  cases  the  valuable  museums  of 
natural  history  which  they  possess.  If  it  were  other- 
wise, they  would  be  false  to  all  their  traditions;  for 
the  Society  has  always  been  conspicuous  for  its  achieve- 
ments in  the  natural  sciences.  It  has  produced 
not  only  great  mathematicians  and  astronomers,  but 
explorers,  cosmographers,  ethnologists,  and  archaeolo- 
gists. Thus,  for  instance,  there  would  have  been 
absolutely  no  knowledge  of  the  aborigines  of  North 
America,  their  customs,  their  manner  of  life,  their  food, 
their  dress,  their  superstitions,  their  dances,  their 
games,  their  language  had  it  not  been  for  the  minute 
details  sent  by  the  missionaries  of  the  old  and  new 
Society  to  their  superiors.  In  every  country  where 
they  have  been,  they  have  charted  the  territories  over 
which  they  journeyed  or  in  which  they  have  labored, 
described  their  natural  f caturCvS,  catalogued  their  fauna 
and  flora,  enriched  the  pharmacopeia  of  the  world 
with  drugs,  foodstuffs  and  plants,  and  have  located 
the  salts  and  minerals  and  mines. 

That  this  is  not  idle  boasting  may  be  seen  at  a 
glance  in  Sommervogel's  "  Bibliothfique  des  ficrivains." 
Thus  the  names  of  publications  on  mathematics  fill 
twenty-eight  columns  of  the  huge  folio  pages.  Then 

53 


834  The  Jesuits 

follow  other  long  lists  on  hydrostatics  and  hydraulics, 
navigation,  military  science;  surveying;  hydrography 
and  gnomics;  physics,  chemistry  and  seismology  call 
for  thirty  columns;  medical  sciences;  zoology,  botany, 
geology,  mineralogy,  paleontology,  rural  economy  and 
agriculture  require  eight.  Then  there  are  two  columns 
on  the  black  art.  The  fine  arts  including  painting, 
drawing,  sculpture,  architecture,  music,  equitation, 
printing  and  mnemonics  take  from  column  927  to  940. 

According  to  this  catalogue,  the  new  Society  has 
already  on  its  lists  one  hundred  and  sixty-four  writers 
on  subjects  pertaining  to  the  natural  sciences:  physics, 
chemistry,  mineralogy,  zoology,  botany,  paleontology, 
geography,  meteorology,  astronomy,  etc.  The  names 
of  living  writers  are  not  recorded.  Nor  does  this 
number  include  the  writers  who  published  their  works 
during  the  Suppression,  asde  Mailla,  who  in  1785  issued 
in  thirteen  volumes  a  history  of  China  with  plans 
and  maps,  the  outcome  of  an  official  survey  of  the 
country  —  a  work  entrusted  by  the  emperor  to  the 
Jesuits.  Father  de  Mailla  was  made  a  mandarin  for  his 
share  of  the  work. 

The  extraordinary  work  on  the  zoology  of  China 
by  the  French  Jesuit,  Pierre  Heude,  might  be  adduced 
as  an  illustration  of  similar  work  in  later  times.  He 
began  his  studies  in  boyhood  as  a  botanist,  but 
abandoned  that  branch  of  science  when  he  went  to 
the  East.  "While  laboring  as  a  missionary  there  for 
thirty  years  he  devoted  every  moment  of  his  spare 
time  to  zoology. 

He  first  travelled  along  all  the  rivers  of  Middle 
and  Eastern  China  to  classify  the  fresh-water  molluscs 
of  those  regions.  On  this  subject  alone  he  published 
ten  illustrated  volumes  between  1876  and  1885.  His 
treatise  "  Les  Mollusques  terrestres  de  la  valise  du 
Fleuve  Bleu  "  is  today  the  authority  on  that  subject. 


Colleges  835 

He  then  directed  his  attention  particularly  to  the 
systematic  and  geographical  propagation  of  Eastern 
Asiatic  species  of  mammals,  as  well  as  to  a  com- 
parative morphology  of  classes  and  family  groups, 
according  to  tooth  and  skeleton  formations.  His 
fitness  for  the  work  was  furthered  by  his  extremely 
keen  eye,  his  accurate  memory,  and  the  enormous 
wealth  of  material  which  he  had  accumulated,  partly 
in  the  course  of  his  early  travels  and  partly  in  later 
expeditions,  which  carried  him  in  all  directions.  These 
expeditions  covered  chiefly  the  eight  years  from  1892 
to  1900.  They  took  him  to  the  Philippines  which  he 
visited  three  times;  to  Singapore,  Batavia,  the  Celebes, 
the  Moluccas,  New  Guinea,  Japan,  Vladivostock, 
Cochin-China,  Cambodia,  Siam,  and  Tongking.  He 
carried  on  his  work  with  absolute  independence  of 
method.  He  contented  himself  with  the  facts  before 
him  and  sought  little  assistance  from  authorities;  nor 
did  he  fear  to  deduce  theoretical  conclusions  from  his 
own  observations  which  flatly  contradicted  other 
authorities.  He  continued  his  scientific  work  until 
shortly  before  his  death  which  occuired  at  Zikawei 
on  January  3,  1902.  (The  Catholic  Encyclopedia, 
VII,  308,) 

Albers  in  his  "Liber  Saecularis "  maintains  that 
"  in  the  cultivation  of  the  natural  sciences,  the  restored 
Society  won  greater  fame  than  the  old,"  and  that 
"a  glance  at  the  men  whom  the  Italian  provinces 
alone  have  produced  would  be  sufficient  to  convince 
the  doubter.  Angelo  Secchi,  of  course,  stands  out 
most  prominently,  and  a  little  later  Father  Barello, 
who  with  the  Barnabite  Denza  established  the  Meteoro- 
logical Observatory  of  Malta,  Giambattista  Pianciani 
was  regarded  with  the  greatest  veneration  in  Rome 
because  of  his  vast  erudition  as  a  scientist,  as  were 
Caraffa,  Mancini  and  Poligni  for  their  knowledge  of 


836  The  Jesuits 

mathematics.  Marchi  was  the  man  who  trained 
the  illustrious  de  Rossi,  as  an  archaeologist,  and  also 
the  Jesuit  Raffaele  Garrucci  whose  "Monumenta 
delle  arte  cristiane  primitive  nella  metropoli  del 
Cristianesimo  "  laid  the  foundations  of  the  new  study 
of  archaeology.  The  writings  of  Father  Gondi  and 
Francis  Tongiorgi  have  also  contributed  much  to 
advancement  in  those  fields  of  knowledge. 

Paustino  Ar6valo  was  one  of  the  exiles  from  Spain 
at  the  time  of  the  Suppression.    He  was  born  at 
Campanario  in  Estremadura  in  1747,  and  entered  the 
Society  in  1761.    Six  years  afterwards  he  was  deported 
to  Italy  by  Charles  III.    In  Rome  he  won  the  esteem 
and  confidence  of  Cardinal  Lorenzano,  who  proved  to 
be  his  Maecenas  by  bearing  the  expense  of  Ar6valo's 
learned  publications.    He  was  held  in  high  honor  in 
Rome,  and  was  appointed  to  various  offices  of  trust, 
among  them  that  of  pontifical  hymnographer  and 
theologian  of  the  penitenziaria,  thus  succeeding  the 
illustrious   Muzzarelli.    When   the   Society  was  re- 
stored, he  returned  to  Spain  and  was  made  provincial 
of  Castile.    One  of  his  works  was  the  "  Hymnodia 
hispanica,"  a  restoration  of  ancient  Spanish  hymns  to 
their    original    metrical,    musical    and »  grammatical 
perfection.    This  publication  was  much  esteemed  by 
Cardinal  Mai  and  Dom  Gu6ranger«    It  was  accom- 
panied by  a  curious  dissertation  on  the  Breviary  of 
Cardinal  Quignonea.    He  also  edited  the  poems  of 
Prudentius  and  Dracontius  and  those  of  a  fifth  century 
Christian  of  Roman  Africa.      Besides  this,   he  has 
to  his  credit  four  volumes  of  Jouvancy's  "Gospel 
History/'  the  works  of  Sedulius  and  St.  Isidore  and 
a  Gothic  Missal.    He  stands  in  the  forefront  of  Spanish 
patristic  scholars,  and  has  shed  great  lustre  on  the 
Church  of  Spain  by  his  vast  learning,  fine  literary 


Colleges  837 

taste  and  patriotic  devotion  to  the  Christian  writers 
of  his  fatherland. 

The  founder  of  the  science  of  archaeology,  according 
to  Hurter,  was  Stefano  Antonio  Morcelli.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  old  Society  and  re-entered  it  when 
it  was  restored.  Even  before  the  Suppression,  which 
occurred  twenty  years  after  his  entrance,  he  had 
established  an  archaeological  section  in  the  Kircher 
Museum  of  Rome.  When  he  found  himself  homeless, 
in  consequence  of  the  publication  of  the  Brief  of 
Clement  XIV,  he  was  made  the  librarian  of  Cardinal 
Albani,  He  refused  the  Archbishopric  of  Ragusa  and 
continued  his  literary  labors  in  Rome.  His  first 
publication  was  "  The  Style  of  Inscriptions."  In  the 
town  of  Chiari,  his  birthplace,  to  which  he  afterwards 
withdrew,  he  founded  an  institution  for  the  education 
of  girls,  reformed  the  entire  school  system,  devoted 
his  splendid  library  to  public  use,  and  restored  many 
buildings  and  churches.  Meantime  his  reputation  as 
master  of  epigraphic  style  increased  and  he  was  placed 
in  a  class  of  his  own  above  all  competitors.  Besides 
his  many  works  on  his  special  subject,  he  gave  to  the 
world  five  volumes  of  sermons  and  ascetic  treatises. 
When  the  Society  was  re-established  he  again  took  his 
place  in  its  ranks,  and  died  in  Brescia  in  1822  at  the 
age  of  eighty-four.  Hurter  classifies  him  as  also 
a  historian  and  geographer. 

Nor  was  Morcelli  an  exception.  Fathers  Arthur 
Martin  and  Charles  Cahier  are  still  of  great  authority 
as  archaeologists,  chiefly  for  their  monograph  in  which, 
as  government  officials,  they  described  the  Cathedral 
of  Bourges;  and  likewise  for  their  "  Melanges  arche- 
ologiques,"  in  which  the  sacred  vessels,  enamels  and 
other  treasures  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  and  of  Cologne  are 
discussed.  They  also  wrote  on  the  antique  ivories 


838  The  Jesuits 

of  Bamberg,  Ratisbon,  Munich  and  London;  on 
the  Byzantine  and  Arabian  weavings;  and  on  the 
paintings  and  the  mysterious  bas-reliefs  of  the  Roman 
and  Carlovingian  periods.  Their  works  appeared 
between  1841  and  1848. 

A  very  famous  Jesuit  archaeologist  died  only  a  few 
years  ago,  and  the  French  government  which  had  just 
expelled  the  Jesuits  erected  a  monument  at  Poitiers 
to  perpetuate  his  memory.  He  was  Father  Camille 
de  la  Croix.  He  was  a  scion  of  the  old  Flemish  nobility 
and  was  born  in  the  Chateau  Saint-Aubert,  near 
Tournai  in  Belgium,  but  he  passed  nearly  all  his  life 
in  France,  and  hence  Frenchmen  considered  him  as 
one  of  their  own.  He  got  his  first  schooling  in  Bruge- 
lette,  and,  when  that  college  was  given  up,  went  with 
his  old  masters  to  France.  In  1877  we  find  him 
mentioned  in  the  catalogue  as  a  teacher  and  writer 
of  music.  Three  years  later,  the  French  provinces  had 
been  dispersed  by  the  government,  and  he  was  then- 
docketed  as  an  archaeologist  at  the  former  Jesuit 
college  of  Poitiers. 

De  la  Croix's  success  as  a  discoverer  was  marvellous. 
Near  Poitiers  he  found  vast  Roman  baths,  five  acres 
in  extent,  whose  existence  had  never  even  been  sus- 
pected. There  were  tombs  of  Christian  martyrs;  a 
wonderful  crypt  dating  from  the  beginning  of  the 
Christian  era;  a  temple  dedicated  to  Mercury,  with  its 
sacred  wells,  votive  vases  etc*  At  Sauxay,  nineteen 
miles  from  Poitiers,  he  unearthed  the  ruins  of  an 
entire  Roman  colony;  a  veritable  Pompeii  with  its 
temple  of  Apollo,  its  theatres,  its  palaces,  its  baths  etc. 
He  had  the  same  success  at  Nantes,  Saint-Philibert, 
and  Berthouville;  —  the  French  government  supplying 
him  with  the  necessary  funds.  The  "  Gaulois  "  said 
of  him  that  "  in  his  first  ten  years  he  discovered  more 
monuments  than  would  have  made  twenty  archae- 


Colleges  839 

ologists  famous."  Meantime  he  lived  in  a  wooden 
cabin,  on  the  banks  of  the  Clain,  and  there  he  died 
at  the  age  of  eighty,  on  April  14,  1900;  and  there  also 
the  French  government  built  his  monument.  At  the 
dedication,  all  the  scientific  men  of  tjie  country  were 
present,  and  the  King  of  Belgium  sent  a  representative. 

Although  the  well-known  Prangois  Moigno  severed 
his  connection  with  the  Society,  it  was  only  after 
he  had  achieved  greatness  while  yet  in  its  ranks.  He 
entered  the  novitiate  on  September  2,  1822,  when  he 
was  eighteen  years  of  age.  He  made  his  theological 
studies  at  Montrouge,  and  in  his  spare  moments  devoted 
himself  to  the  study  of  the  natural  sciences.  At  the 
outbreak  of  the  Revolution  of  1830,  he  went  with  his 
brethren  to  Brieg  in  Switzerland,  where  he  took  up, 
the  study  of  languages,  chiefly  Hebrew  and  Arabic. 
When  the  troubles  subsided  in  France  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  mathematics  in  Paris  at  the  Rue  des  Postes, 
and  became  widely  known  as  a  man  of  unusual  attain- 
ments. He  was  on  intimate  terms  with  Cauchy, 
Arago,  Amp&re  and  others.  He  was  engaged  on  one  of 
his  best  known  works:  "  Legons  de  calcul  differen- 
tial et  de  calcul  int6gral  "  and  had  already  published 
the  first  volume  when  he  left  the  Society.  He  had 
been  a  Jesuit  for  twenty-one  years.  He  was  then 
made  chaplain  of  Louis-le-Grand,  one  of  the  famous 
colleges  owned  by  the  Jesuits  before  the  Suppression, 
and  became  the  scientific  editor  of  "  La  Presse  "  in 
1850;  of  "Le  Pays"  in  1851,  and  in  the  following 
year,  founded  the  well-known  scientific  journal  "  Cos- 
mos," followed  by  "  Les  Mondes"  in  1862,  editing 
meanwhile  "  Les  Actualitfis  scientifiques."  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  it  was  the  Society  that  had  formed  him  and 
enabled  him  to  publish  his  greatest  works. 

The  German,  Father  Ludwig  Dressel,  who  was  for 
many  years  the  director  of  the  Polytechnic  in  Quito,  is 


840  The  Jesuits 

well-known  for  his  treatises  on  geology,  chemistry  and 
physics.  Kramers,  in  Holland,  is  the  author  of  three 
volumes  on  chemistry.  In  entomology,  Father  Erich 
Wasmann  is  among  the  masters  of  today,  and  has  written 
a  series  of  works  which  have  elicited  the  applause 
of  the  scientific  world,  especially  his  "  Die  moderne 
Biologie  und  die  Entwicklungstheorie."  (Modern 
Biology  and  the  Theory  of  Evolution.)  The  writings 
of  Bolsius  on  biology  won  for  him  a  membership  in 
the  scientific  societies  of  Russia,  Belgium,  Italy  and 
Holland. 

The  first  meteorological  society,  the  "  Palatina," 
was  founded  by  Father  Johann  Hemmer  in  1780,  and 
it  is  noteworthy  that  nearly  all  its  contributors  were 
members  of  the  various  religious  orders  of  Austria- 
Hungary,  Italy  and  France.  Its  scope  was  not 
restricted  to  the  study  of  meteors,  for  it  accepted 
papers  on  ethnology,  linguistics,  etc.  Hence  we  find 
Father  Dobrizhoffer  writing  to  it  from  Paraguay, 
Joseph  Lafitaux  from  Canada,  Johann  Hanxleden,  the 
Sanscrit  scholar  from  Hindostan,  and  Lorenzo  Herv&s. 
Hanxleden  and  his  colleague  Roth  were  the  pioneers 
in  Sanscrit.  The  former  was  the  first  European 
to  write  a  Sanscrit  grammar  and  to  compile  a 
Malabar-Sanscrit-Portuguese  dictionary,  Herv&s  was 
one  of  the  Jesuits  expelled  from  Mexico,  and  after 
the  Suppression  was  made  prefect  of  the  Quirinal 
Library  by  Pius  VIL  While  there,  he  worked  in 
conjunction  with  several  of  his  former  brethren  in 
the  compilation  and  composition  of  scientific  works, 
mostly  of  an  ethnological  character.  He  also  wrote 
a  number  of  educational  works  for  deaf  mutes. 

The  Observatory  of  Stonyhurst  dates  back  to  1838- 
39,  when  a  building  consisting  of  an  octagonal  center- 
piece with  four  abutting  structures  was  erected  in 
the  middle  of  the  garden.  But  it  was  not  until  1845 


Colleges  841 

that  a  4-inch  Jones  equatorial  was  mounted  in  its 
dome.  Meteorological  observations  were  begun  as 
early  as  1844,  and  magnetic  in  1856  by  Father  Weld. 
In  1867  an  8-inch  equatorial  was  set  up.  The  chief 
workers  were  Fathers  Stephen  Perry,  Walter  Sidgreaves 
and  Aloysius  Cortie.  All  three  were  members  of 
the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  and  were  frequently 
chosen  to  fill  official  positions.  Father  Perry  achieved 
special  prominence.  He  was  the  director  from  1860  to 
1862,  and  again  from  1868  till  his  death  in  1889.  He 
was  a  member  of  more  scientific  expeditions  than 
any  other  living  astronomer.  He  was  at  Cadiz  for 
the  solar  eclipse  in  1870;  he  was  sent  as  astronomer 
royal  in  1874  for  the  transit  of  Venus  to  Kerguelen 
or  Desolation  Island,  and  for  another  observation  to 
Madagascar  in  1882.  In  1886  he  observed  a  total 
eclipse  at  Carriacou  in  the  West  Indies.  For  the 
eclipse  of  1887  he  was  sent  to  Russia,  and  for  that 
'of  1889  to  Cayenne.  On  the  latter  expedition  he  was 
attacked  by  a  pestilential  fever  and  died  on  board 
the  warship  "  Comus"  off  Georgetown,  Demerara, 
after  receiving  the  last  sacraments  from  a  French 
Abb£  resident  in  Georgetown.  Father  Perry  was 
buried  there  in  the  cathedral  cemetery.  His  death 
was  that  of  a  saint,  and  a  touching  account  of  it  has 
been  left  by  his  assistant,  a  Jesuit  lay-brother. 

Father  Perry's  prominence  in  the  scientific  world 
may  be  judged  by  the  honors  bestowed  upon  him. 
He  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  and  a  member 
of  the  Council;  also  a  member  and  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  Astronomical  Society  and,  shortly  before  he 
died,  he  had  been  proposed  as  Vice-President.  At  the 
time  of  his  death  he  held  the  post  of  President  of  the 
Liverpool  Astronomical  Society.  He  was  a  Fellow 
of  the  Royal  Meteorological  Society,  a  member  of  the 
Physical  Society  of  London,  and  an  associate  of  the 


842  The  Jesuits 

Papal  Academy  of  the  Nuovi  Lincei,  the  oldest 
scientific  society  in  Europe.  He  belonged  also  to  the 
Societ6  Gfeographique  of  Antwerp,  and  had  received 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Science  honoris  causa  from  the 
Royal  University  of  Ireland.  For  several  years  before 
his  death,  he  served  on  the  committee  of  the  council 
on  education,  as  well  as  on  the  committee  for  compar- 
ing and  reducing  magnetic  observations,  for  which 
work  he  had  been  appointed  by  the  British  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  a  body  of  which  he  was 
a  life-member.  In  1887  and  1889  he  attended  at 
Paris  the  meetings  of  the  Astrographic  Congress  for 
the  photographic  charting  of  the  heavens. 

In  the  "  Monthly  Notices  "  of  the  Royal  Astronomical 
Society  (L,  iv)  the  following  resolution  appears  on 
the  occasion  of  his  death:  "  The  Council  having  heard 
with  the  deepest  regret  of  the  death  of  the  Rev.  S.  J. 
Perry  while  on  the  Society's  expedition  to  observe 
the  total  eclipse  at  the  Salut  Islands,  desire  to  put 
on  record  their  sense  of  the  great  loss  which  astronomy 
has  suffered  by  the  death  of  so  enthusiastic  and  capable 
an  observer,  and  to  offer  to  his  relations  and  to  his  col- 
leagues at  Stonyhurst  the  expression  of  their  sincere 
sympathy  and  condolence  on  this  sad  event/'  The 
list  of  his  scientific  papers  covers  twelve  pages  of  his 
biography.  Father  Cortie,  his  associate  in  the  Stony- 
hurst  Observatory,  says  of  him:  "His  death  was 
glorious,  for  he  died  a  victim  to  his  sense  of  duty 
and  his  zeal  for  science.  Truly  he  may  lay  claim  to 
the  title  of  *  martyr  of  science/  and  a  part  of  the 
story  of  the  eclipse  of  December  22,  1889,  will  be  the 
account  of  how  Father  Perry  was  carried  from  a  sick 
bed  to  take  his  last  observation. " 

Besides  the  Observatories  in  Granada  and  Ona  the 
Spanish  Jesuits  have  another  near  Tortosa.  The 
main  object  of  the  latter  is  the  study  of  terrestrial 


Colleges  843 

magnetism,  seismology,  meteorology,  study  of  the  sun, 
etc.  It  has  five  separate  buildings  and  a  valuable 
periodical  regularly  published  by  the  observers. 

The  Zo-se  Observatory  near  Zikawei  in  China  is  in 
charge  of  the  French  Fathers.  The  Observatory  is 
about  80  feet  in  length.  It  has  a  library  of  20,000 
volumes  with  numerous  and  valuable  Chinese  manu- 
scripts. They  have  another  station  in  Madagascar, 
which  is  4,600  feet  above  sea-level,  and  consequently 
higher  by  100  metres  than  the  Lick  Observatory  in 
California.  When  the  Jesuits  were  expelled  from 
Madagascar,  the  Observatory  was  demolished '  by 
the  natives  who  thought  it  was  a  fortress.  It  was 
rebuilt  later  at  the  expense  of  the  French  government 
and  the  director,  Father  Colin,  was  made  a  corre- 
sponding Member  of  the  French  Academy.  In  1890, 
1895,  1898  and  1899  the  observers  were  honored  by 
their  home  government  with  purses  of  considerable 
value,  one  being  of  6,000  and  another  of  3,000 
francs. 

There  are  other  observatories  at  Calcutta,  Rhodesia, 
Feldkirch,  Louvain,  Oudenbosch  (Holland),  Puebla 
(Mexico),  Havana,  Woodstock  and  other  Jesuit  col- 
leges in  the  United  States ;  these  are  attracting  notice 
principally  by  their  seismograhical  reports.  The 
most  conspicuous  of  all  these  North  American 
observatories  is  that  of  Georgetown  which  was  founded 
in  1842-43,  about  the  same  time  as  the  Naval  Obser- 
vatory. It  was  built  under  the  direction  of  Father 
Curley,  whose  determination  of  the  longitude  of  Wash- 
ington in  conjunction  with  Sir  G.  B.  Airy,  the  Astrono- 
mer Royal  of  Greenwich,  England,  was  made  by 
observing  a  series  of  transits  of  the  moon,  and  was 
later  shown  by  the  electric  telegraph  to  have  been 
correct  to  within  the  tenth  of  a  second.  Fathers  De 
Vico,  Sestini  and  Secchi  labored  at  Georgetown. 


844  The  Jesuits 

Secchi's  "  Researches  in  Electrical  Rheometry  "  was 
published  in  1852  by  the  Smithsonian  Institute.  It 
was  his  first  literary  contribution  to  science.  Sestini's 
drawings  of  the  sun  spots  were  published  by  the  Naval 
Observatory.  In  1889  Father  Hagen,  then  the  director, 
published  his  "Atlas  stellarum  variabilium."  In 
1890  Father  Fargis  solved  the  question  of  "  the  personal 
equation  "  in  astronomical  observations  by  his  invention 
of  the  Photochronograph.  It  had  been  attempted  by 
Father  Braun  in  Kalocsa  (Hungary)  and  by  Repsola 
in  Konigsberg,  but  both  failed.  Professors  Pickering 
and  Bigelow  in  the  United  States  had  also  given  it  up, 
but  Father  Fargis  solved  the  difficulty  by  a  fixed 
photographic  plate  and  a  narrow  metal  tongue  attached 
to  the  armature  of  an  electric  magnet.  It  has  proved 
satisfactory  in  every  test. 

In  Sommervogel's  "  Biblioth&que  "  the  list  of  the 
astronomical  works  written  by  Secchi  covers  nineteen 
pages  quarto,  in  double  columns.  He  was  equally 
active  in  physics  and  meteorology  and  his  large  mete- 
orograph described  in  Ganot's  "  Physics  "  merited  for 
him  the  Grand  Prix  (100,000  francs)  and  the  Cross 
of  the  Legion  of  Honor  at  the  Paris  Universal  Exposi- 
tion in  1867.  It  was  conferred  upon  him  by  the  hand 
of  the  Emperor  Napoleon,  in  the  presence  of  the 
Emperors  of  Russia  and  Austria  and  the  Kings  of 
Prussia  and  Belgium.  The  Emperor  of  Brazil  sent 
him  a  golden  rose  as  a  token  of  appreciation. 

The  "Atlas  stellaxum  variabilium"  by  Father 
Johann  Hagen  is  according  to  "  Popular  Astronomy  " 
(n.  8 1,  p.  50)  the  most  important  event  in  the  star 
world.  Ernst  Harturg  (V.  J.  S.,  vol.  35)  says:  "  It 
will  without  doubt  become  in  time  an  indispensable 
requisite  of  the  library  of  every  observatory  just  as 
the  Bonn  maps  have  become."  Father  Hagen  has 
also  won  distinction  in  the  mathematical  world  by  his 


Colleges  845 

"  Synopsis  der  hoheren  Mathematik,"  in  four  volumes 
quarto. 

The  seismological  department  of  Georgetown,  under 
Father  Francis  A.  Tondorf,  has  attained  an  especial 
prominence  in  the  United  States.  Its  equipment  is 
of  the  latest  perfection,  and  its  earthquake  reports 
are  those  most  commonly  quoted  in  the  daily  press  of 
America. 

Important  in  their  own  sphere  are  the  books  "  Astro- 
nomisches  aus  Babylon  "  by  Fathers  Joseph  Epping 
and  Johann  Nepomuk  Strassmaier,  and  "  Die  babylon- 
ische  Mondrechnung "  by  Epping.  F.  K.  Ginzel 
(in  V.  J.  S.,  vol.  35.)  expresses  the  following  opinion  of 
them:  "  It  is  well  known  that  the  investigations  made 
by  the  Jesuit  Father  Epping,  in  conjunction  with  the 
Assyriologist  Father  Strassmaier,  upon  many  Baby- 
lonian astronomical  bricks  have  had  as  a  consequence 
that  the  scientific  level  upon  which  the  history  of 
astronomy  had  formerly  placed  the  Babylonians 
must  be  taken  considerably  higher.  Epping's  investi- 
gations now  receive  a  very  valuable  extension  through 
the  labor  of  Father  Kugher  of  Valkenburg,  Holland. 
From  the  communications  received  concerning  Kugher's 
work  the  importance  of  his  book  to  the  history  of 
astronomy  may  be  inferred/1 

"  Die  Gravitations-Constante  "  (Vienna,  1896),  by 
Father  Carl  Braun  of  Mariaschein,  Bohemia,  represents 
about  eight  years  of  patient  work,  and  according  to 
Poynting  (Proc.  of  the  Royal  Soc.  Inst.  of  Great  Britain, 
XVI,  2)  "bears  internal  evidence  of  great  care  and 
accuracy.  He  obtained  almost  exactly  the  same  result 
as  Professor  Boys  with  regard  to  the  earth's  mean 
density.  Father  Braun  carried  on  his  work  far  from 
the  usual  mechanical  laboratory  facilities  and  had  to 
make  much  of  the  apparatus  himself.  His  patience 
and  persistence  command  our  highest  admiration/1 


846  The  Jesuits 

With  regard  to  the  "  Kosmogonie  vom  Standpunkte 
christlicher  Wissenschaft,"  by  Father  Braun,  Dr. 
Poster  says:  (V.  J.  S.,  vol.  25)  "  this  problem,  mighty 
in  every  aspect,  is  treated  from  all  points  of  view  with 
clearness  and  impressiveness.  One  could  hardly  find 
at  this  time  in  any  other  book  all  the  essential  features 
of  a  theory  of  the  sun  collected  together  in  such  a 
directive  manner.*' 

Perhaps  the  famous  phrase  of  St.  Ignatius,  Quam 
sordet  tellus  quum  cc&lum  aspicio,  had  something  to  do 
with  the  Society's  passion  for  astronomy.  "  How 
sordid  the  earth  is  when  I  look  at  the  sky/'  His  sons 
have  been  looking  at  the  sky  from  the  beginning  not 
only  spiritually  but  through  telescopes,  and  many  of 
them  have  become  famous  as  astronomers.  This  is 
all  the  more  notable,  because  star-gazing  was  only  a 
secondary  object  with  them.  They  were  first  of  all 
priests  and  scientific  men  afterwards.  As-  early  as 
1591  Father  Perrerin,  in  his  "  Divinatio  astrologica," 
denounced  astrology  as  a  superstition  although  his 
Protestant  friend,  the  great  Kepler,  did  not  admit  the 
distinction  between  it  and  astronomy.  The  book  of 
Perrerin's  went  through  five  editions.  Father  de 
Angelis  published  in  1604  five  volumes  entitled  "  In 
astrologos  conjectores  "  (Against  astrological  guessers). 
As  late  as  1676,  the  work  was  still  in  demand,  for 
illustrious  personages  like  Rudolph  II,  Wallenstein, 
Gustavus  Adolphus,  Catherine  de'  Medici  and  even 
Luther  and  Melanchthon  with  a  host  of  others  were 
continually  having  their  horoscopes  taken. 

Another  eminent  worker  was  Father  Riccioli,  of 
whom  we  read:  "  If  you  want  to  know  the  ancient 
follies  on  this  point  consult  Riccioli."  (Littrois  in 
"  Wunder  des  Himmels,"  1886,  604.)  The  implication 
might  be  that  Riccioli  approved  of  them,  but  the  reverse 
is  the  case,  for,  as  Thomas  Aquinas  furnishes  a  list  of 


Colleges  847 

every  actual  and  almost  every  possible  theological 
and  philosophical  error,  but  after  each  adds  mdetur 
quod  non,  which  he  follows  up  by  a  refutation,  so 
does  Riccioli  in  his  Astrology.  He  was  a  genius.  He 
became  a  Jesuit  when  he  was  sixteen,  and  for  years 
never  thought  of  telescopes.  He  taught  poetry, 
philosophy  and  theology  at  Parma  and  Bologna, 
and  took  up  astronomy  only  when  his  superiors  assigned 
him  to  that  study.  Being  an  Italian,  he  did  not  like 
Copernicus  or  Kepler.  They  were  from  the  Protestant 
North  and  had  refused  to  accept  the  Gregorian  Calen- 
dar. He  admitted,  indeed,  that  the  Copernican 
system  was  the  most  beautiful,  the  most  simple,  the 
best  conceived,  but  not  solid,  so  he  made  one  of  his 
own,  but  did  not  adhere  to  it  tenaciously. 

Appreciating  the  deficiencies  of  the  astronomy  of  the 
ancients,  he  composed  the  famous  "Almagestum 
novum,"  which  placed  the  whole  science  on  a  new 
basis.  Beginning  by  the  measurement  of  the  earth,  he 
produced,  though  he  made  mistakes,  the  first  meteoro- 
log-system.  His  lunar  observations  revealed  600  spots 
on  the  moon,  which  is  fifty  more  than  had  been  found 
by  Hevelius.  His  collaborator,  Grimaldi,  the  greatest 
mathematician  of  his  age,  made  the  maps.  His  remarks 
on  libration  fill  an  entire  volume,  and  the  writer  in 
the  "  Biographie  universelle  "  gives  him  the  credit  of 
experimenting  on  the  oscillations  of  the  pendulum  before 
Galileo.  His  health  was  always  poor,  but  he  worked 
like  a  giant.  His  "Almagestum"  consists  of  1500 
folio  pages,  and  is  described  as  a  treasure  of  astro- 
nomical erudition.  Lalande  quotes  from  it  continually. 
His  "  Astronomia  reformata "  is  in  two  volumes 
folio,  and  he  has  twelve  folio  volumes  on  geography 
and  hydrography.  Its  learning  is  astounding.  Thus, 
for  instance,  in  the  second  part  of  his  "  Chronologia" 
there  is  a  list  of  the  principal  events  from  the  creation 


848  The  Jesuits 

to  the  year  1688,  along  with  the  names  of  kings,  patri- 
archs, nations,  heresies,  councils,  •  and  great  personages, 
which  was  really  collateral  matter. 

What  the  Jesuit  astronomers  accomplished  in  China 
from  the  time  of  Ricci  down  to  Hallerstein  in  1774  has 
been  continued  there  to  the  present  day.  The  first 
government  observatory  in  Europe  was  erected  in  the 
University  of  Vienna,  then  in  the  hands  of  the  Jesuits. 
There  were  others  at  Vilna,  Schwetzingen  and  Mann- 
heim. Twelve  other  private  ones  had  been  built  in 
the  various  European  colleges  of  the  Society.  The 
establishment  of  these  observatories  was  providential, 
for  when  the  Society  was  suppressed  they  afforded 
occupation  and  support  to  a  great  number  of  dispersed 
Jesuits,  who  remained  in  charge  of  them  during  their 
forty  years  of  homelessness  and  kept  alive  the  old 
spirit  of  the  Order  in  its  affection  for  that  particular 
study.  As  in  the  old  Society  this  work  is  still  a  matter  of 
private  enterprise.  As  far  as  we  are  aware  there  is 
only  one  observatory  where  a  government  assists, 
the  Observatory  of  Manila,  in  which  the  employees 
are  salaried  by  the  United  States  government.  The 
equipment  itself,  however,  was  provided  by  the  Jesuits, 
who  reduced  their  living  expenses  to  the  minimum 
in  order  to  build  the  house  and  buy  the  instruments. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  number  of  actual  Jesuilb 
observatories  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  term  already 
rivals  that  of  the  old  Society.  The  Roman  establish- 
ment which  had  been  made  famous  by  Scheiner, 
Gottignes,  Asclepi,  Borgondius,  Maire  and  Boscovich 
was  continued  during  the  Suppression  by  the  secular 
priest  Calandrelli.  In  1824  Leo  XII  restored  it  to  the 
Society,  and  Father  Dumouchel  took  charge  of  it 
with  De  Vico  as  an  assistant.  The  latter's  reputation 
was  European.  He  was  known  as  the  Comet  Chaser, 
for  he  had  discovered  eight  of  them.  The  well-known 


Colleges  849 

five  and  a  half  years  periodic  comet  bears  his  name. 
He  succeeded  Dumoudiel  as  director  in  1840,  and  was 
holding  that  office  when  the  Revolution  of  1848  drove  the 
Jesuits  from  Rome.  He  was  received  with  great 
enthusiasm  in  France  by  Arago,  and  in  England  he 
was  offered  the  directorship  of  the  Observatory  of 
Madras  but  he  preferred  to  go  to  Georgetown  in  the 
United  States.  Being  called  ,  to  London  on  business, 
he  died  there  on  November  15,  1848,  at  the  age  of  43. 
Herschel  wrote  his  obituary  in  the  "  Notices  of  the 
Astronomical  Society.1' 

Secchi  had  gone  with  De  Vico  to  Georgetown,  but  was 
recalled  to  Rome  in  1849  by  Pius  IX,  and  given 
charge  of  the  observatory.  He  was  born  at  Reggio  in 
1818,  and,  after  studying  in  the  Jesuit  college  there, 
entered  the  Society  at  the  age  of  sixteen.  He  began 
as  a  tutor  in  physics  and  continued  at  that  work  when 
he  went  to  Georgetown.  Astronomy  had  as  yet  not 
appealed  to  him,  but  in  Washington  he  met  the  famous 
hydrographer,  meteorologist  and  astronomer,  Maury, 
and  a  deep  affection  sprang  up  between  them,  and 
Secchi  dedicated  one  of  his  books  to  his  American 
friend.  His  appointment  to  the  Roman  Observatory  in 
1859  was  due  to  the  recommendation  of  De  Vico,  and 
in  two  years  his  brilliant  success  as  an  observer  attracted 
the  attention  of  the  scientific  world.  He  began  by  a 
revision  of  Struve's  "  Catalogue  of  Double  Stars/* 
which  necessitated  seven  years'  strenuous  work,  and 
he  was  able  to  verify  10,000  of  the  entries.  Meantime 
he  was  studying  the  physical  condition  of  Saturn, 
Jupiter,  Mars  and  the  four  great  moons  of  Jupiter. 
In  1852  the  moon  became  the  special  object  of  his 
investigations,  and  his  micrometrical  map  of  the  great 
crater  was  so  exact  that  the  Royal  Society  of  London 
had  numerous  photographs  made  of  it.  In  1859  he 
published  his  great  work  "II  quadro  fisico  del  sistema 
54 


850  The  Jesuits 

solare  secondo  il  piu  recenti  osservazioni."  The  study 
of  the  sun  spots  was  his  favorite  task,  and  his  expedition 
to  Spain  in  1860  to  observe  the  total  eclipse  established 
the  fact  that  the  red  protuberances  around  the  edge  of 
the  eclipsed  sun  were  real  features  of  the  sun  itself  and 
not  optical  illuminations  or  illuminated  mountains  of 
the  moon.  He  began  the  "  Sun  Records  "  in  Rome, 
and  they  are  kept  up  till  this  day.  No  other  observatory 
has  anything  like  them.  All  this,  with  his  inventions, 
and  the  study  of  the  spectroscope,  heliospectroscope 
and  telespectroscope,  besides  the  mass  of  scientific 
results  which  he  arrived  at,  has  put  him  in  the  very 
first  rank  of  astronomers.  He  was  equally  conspicuous 
as  a  meteorologist  and  a  physicist,  When  the  Pied- 
montese  took  Rome,  Secchi  was  offered  the  rank  of 
senator  and  the  superintendency  of  all  the  observatories 
of  Italy  if  he  would  leave  the  Society.  Of  course  he 
scoffed  at  the  proposal;  but  his  authority  in  Italy  was 
so  great  that  the  invaders  did  not  dare  to  expel  him 
from  his  observatory.  He  died  in  1878. 

Clerke  says  of  him:  "The  effective  founders  of 
stellar  photography  were  Father  Secchi,  the  eminent 
Jesuit  astronomer  of  the  Collegio  Romano,  and  Dr. 
Huggins  with  whom  the  late  Professor  Mullen  was 
associated.  The  work  of  each  was  happily  made  to 
supplement  that  of  the  other.  With  less  perfect 
appliances,  the  Roman  astronomer  sought  to  render 
his  work  extensive  rather  than  precise;  whereas,  at 
Upper  Tulse  Hill,  searching  accuracy  over  a  narrower 
guage  was  aimed  at  and  attained.  To  Father  Secchi 
is  due  the  merit  of  having  executed  the  first  spectroscope 
view  of  the  heavens.  Above  4000  stars  were  all 
passed  in  review  by  him  and  classified  according  to  the 
varying  qualities  of  their  light.  His  provisional 
establishment  (1863-7)  of  four  types  of  stellar  spectra 


Colleges  851 

has  proved  a  genuine  aid  to  knowledge,  through  the 
facilities  afforded  by  it  for  the  arrangement  and  com- 
parison of  rapidly  accumulating  facts.  Moreover  it 
is  scarcely  doubtful  that  these  spectral  distinctions 
correspond  to  differences  in  physical  conditions  of  a 
marked  kind/' 

"  I  saw  the  great  man,"  said  one  who  was  in  the 
audience  of  the  splendid  hall  of  the  Cancelleria,  "  when 
he  was  giring  a  course  on  the  solar  spectrum.  The 
vast  auditorium  was  crowded  with  a  brilliant  throng  in 
which  you  could  see  cardinals,  archbishops,  monsignori 
and  laymen,  all  representing  the  highest  religious, 
diplomatic  and  scientific  circles.  Though  an  Italian, 
Secchi  spoke  in  French  that  was  absolutely  perfect. 
Everyone  was  enthralled,  but  what  captivated  me 
was  the  gentleness  and  even  deference  with  which  he 
spoke  to  the  men  who  were  adjusting  the  screens.  He 
almost  seemed  to  be  their  servant  and  I  could  not  help 
saying  to  myself,  '  Oh!  I  love  you/  I  saw  him  later 
in  the  street.  It  was  in  the  turbulent  days  of  the 
Italian  occupation.  He  was  walking  alone;  his  head 
slightly  bowed.  Suddenly  the  cry  was  heard: '  Death 
to  the  Jesuits!'  and  an  excited  mob  was  seen  rushing 
towards  him.  He  stood  still;  grasped  the  stout  stick 
in  his  hand,  glared  at  them;  and  they  fled.  I  never 
saw  anything  like  it.  I  loved  him  before.  I  adored 
him  now/'  In  brief,  Secchi  was  a  great  man  in  the 
eyes  of  the  world,  but  he  was  a  greater  religious. 
Indeed  it  is  said  that  when  his  superiors  told  him  to 
apply  himself  to  mathematics  he  burst  into  tears. 
He  wanted  to  be  a  missionary.  He  was  such,  while 
being  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
men  in  the  scientific  world. 

The  Manila  Observatory  in  the  Philippines,  strictly 
speaking,  began  its  meteorological  service  in  1865, 


852  The  Jesuits 

though  observations  had  been  made  many  years  previ- 
ously. In  1 88 1  it  was  officially  approved  by  the  Spanish 
government  and  in  1901  by  that  of  the  United  States. 
The  meteorological  importance  and  efficiency  of  the 
Manila  Observatory  overshadows  its  astronomical,  for 
the  reason  that  it  is  situated  in  the  eastern  typhoon 
path.  Astronomy,  however,  is  by  no  means  neglected- 
From  1880  up  to  the  present  time  it  has  rendered  very 
valuable  services  to  the  world.  First,  the  official  time 
was  given  to  the  city  of  Manila  and,  after  the  American 
occupation,  it  was  extended  to  all  the  telegraph  stations 
throughout  the  islands.  Secondly,  about  one  hundred 
ship  chronometers  are  annually  compared  and  rated  at 
the  Observatory  free  of  charge, 

In  1894  Father  Jose  Algu6  began  to  complete  the 
astronomical  equipment  and  erected  a  new  building 
at  the  cost  of  $40,000,  equipping  it  with  instruments  of 
the  latest  and  best  type.  Three  years  later  he  was 
given  charge  of  the  whole  establishment,  and  is  now 
rendering  immense  and  indispensable  service  to  the 
shipping  interests  of  the  Far  East  by  his  weather 
predictions.  His  barocyclonometer  is  carried  on  every 
ship  in  those  waters.  In  1900  he  was  sent  to  Washing- 
ton by  the  United  States  government  to  supervise 
the  printing  of  his  immense  work  entitled  "  El  Archi- 
pi61ago  Filipino,"  and  he  gave  later  to  the  World's 
Fair  at  St.  Louis  one  of  its  remarkable  exhibits, —  a 
relief  map  covering  a  great  expanse  on  the  ground  and 
representing  every  island,  river,  bay,  cape,  peninsula, 
volcano,  village  and  city  of  the  Archipelago.  Previous 
to  his  appointment  in  Manila  Father  Algu<§  had  worked 
for  several  years  in  the  Georgetown  Observatory. 

In  the  matter  of  the  theological  teaching  it  will  suffice 
to  note  that  the  Collegium  Germanicum  was  given  back 
to  the  Society  in  1829  and  entrusted  to  Father  Aloysius 


Colleges  853 

Landes  as  rector.  The  German  government  for  some 
time  forbade  German  students  to  attend  its  classes, 
but  in  1848  there  were  251  on  the  roster.  Since  it 
opened  its  doors  to  the  present  day,  it  has  given  to 
the  Church  4  cardinals,  4  archbishops,  n  bishops, 
3  coadjutor  bishops,  i  vicar  Apostolic,  besides  a  number 
of  distinguished  professors,  canons  and  priests. 

A  very  notable  recognition  of  the  Society  in  the 
field  of  education  was  given  by  Pius  IX,  when  he 
confided  to  it  the  government  of  the  college  known  as 
the  Pium  Latinum.  The  distinguished  ecclesiastic 
who  suggested  it  was  the  Apostolic  prothonotary, 
Jos6  Ignacio  Eyzaguirre,  a  Chilian  by  birth.  The 
college  was  founded  in  1858  to  prepare  a  body  of  learned 
priests  for  the  various  countries  of  South  America. 
In  1908  at  its  golden  jubilee  it  could  show  a  record 
not  only  of  distinguished  priests  but  of  a  cardinal, 
Joachim  Arcoverde  de  Albuquerque  Cavalcanti,  and 
of  30  bishops,  though  it  began  with  only  15  students. 
The  house  that  first  sheltered  them  was  extremely 
small,  but  the  Pope  saw  to  it  that  they  had  a  larger 
establishment.  While  urging  the  bishops  of  Latin 
America  to  support  it  liberally  —  for  having  been 
Apostolic  delegate  in  Chili  no  one  knew  better  than 
he  the  urgent  necessity  of  such  a  school  —  he  himself 
was  lavish  in  his  gifts  of  money,  books,  vestments, 
etc.  In  1867  a  part  of  the  old  Jesuit  novitiate  was 
purchased  from  the  Government,  and  although  in  1870 
the  Jesuits  were  expelled  from  Rome  those  in  the  Pio 
Latino  were  not  disturbed.  In  1884  a  new  site  was 
found  near  the  Vatican  and  on  the  banks  of  the  Tiber 
where  there  is  now  a  splendid  college  with  a  capacity 
of  400  students.  In  1905  Cardinal  Vives  y  Tuto 
published  an  Apostolic  Constitution  which  gave  the 
title  "  Pontifical "  to  the  college  and  confided  the 


854  The  Jesuits 

education  in  perpetuum  to  the  Society.  This  Constitu- 
tion had  been  asked  for  by  the  Latin  American  Bishops 
during  the  Council,  it  was  promised  by  Leo  XIII,  and 
finally  realized  by  Pius  X.  When  formally  handed 
over  to  the  Jesuits  there  were  104  alumni  present. 
The  trust  was  accepted  in  the  name  of  Father  General 
by  Father  Catering  provincial  of  the  Roman  province. 


CHAPTER  XXVIII 

LITERATURE 

Grammars  and  Lexicons  of  every  tongue  —  Dramas  —  Histories  of 
Literature  —  Cartography  —  Sinology  —  Egyptology  —  Sanscrit  — 
Catholic  Encyclopedia  —  Catalogues  of  Jesuit  Writers  —  Acta  Sanc- 
torum —  Jesuit  Relations  —  Nomenclator  —  Periodicals  —  Philosophy 
—  Dogmatic,  Moral  and  Ascetic  Theology  —  Canon  Law  —  Exegesis. 

THE  literary  activity  of  the  Society  has  always  been 
very  great,  not  only  in  theological,  philosophical  and 
scientific  fields,  but  also  in  those  that  are  specifically 
designated  as  pertaining  to  the  belles  lettres.  Thus, 
under  the  heading  "  Linguistics/1  in  SommervogeTs 
41  Bibliotheca  "  we  find  treatises  on  philology,  the  origin  of 
language,  grammatical  theories,  a  pentaglottic  vocabu- 
lary, a  lexicon  of  twenty-four  languages,  the  first 
language,  etc.  Then  come  the  Classics.  Under 
"  Greek,"  there  are  two  huge  pages  with  the  names  of 
various  grammars;  besides  dictionaries,  exercises  and 
collections  of  old  Greek  authors  Under  "  Latin," 
we  find  four  pages  of  grammars  and  lexicons;  some  of 
the  latter  giving  the  equivalents  in  Portuguese,  Tamul, 
Chinese,  French,  Polish,  Brazilian,  Bohemian,  Syrian, 
Armenian  and  Japanese.  After  that  we  have: 
"  Elegances,"  "  Roots,"  "  Ancient  and  Modern  Latin," 
"Anthologies,"  "Pronunciations,"  "Medullas"  etc. 
Six  pages  are  devoted  to  grammars  and  dictionaries 
of  European  languages,  not  only  the  ordinary  ones 
but  also  Basque,  Bohemian,  Celtic,  Croat,  Illyrian, 
Wend,  Provencal,  Russian  and  Turkish,  The  Astatic 
languages  follow  next  in  order:  Annamite,  Siamese, 
Arabian,  Armenian,  Georgian,  Chinese,  Cochinese, 
Hebrew,  Hindustanee,  Japanese,  Persian,  Sanscrit 

[855] 


856  The  Jesuits 

and  Syrian;  with  two  columns  of  Angolese,  Caffre, 
Egyptian,  Ethiopian,  Kabyle  and  Malgache  grammars. 
The  Malgache  all  bear  the  dates  of  the  late  nineteenth 
century,  and  there  is  an  Esquimaux  Grammar  by 
Father  Barnum  dated  1901. 

The  tongues  of  most  of  the  North  and  South  Ameri- 
can Indians  are  represented;  the  dictionaries  of  the 
South  American  Indians  were  all  written  by  the  Fathers 
of  the  old  Society. 

The  books  devoted  to  the  study  of  eloquence  are 
appalling  in  their  number.  They  are  in  all  languages 
and  on  all  sorts  of  subjects,  sacred  and  profane.  There 
are  panegyrics,  funeral  orations,  coronation  speeches, 
eulogies,  episcopal  consecrations,  royal  progresses, 
patriotic  discourses,  but  only  occasionally  does  the 
eye  catch  a  modern  date  in  the  formidable  list  of 
sixty-three  folio  pages. 

Latin  poetry  claims  fifty-seven  pages  for  the  titles 
of  compositions  or  studies.  Poetry  in  the  modern 
languages  is  much  more  modest  and  requires  only  as 
many  columns  as  the  ancients  demanded  pages.  The 
English  list  is  very  brief;  the  Italian  very  long;  and 
while  the  ancient  Jesuits  seemed  to  have  little  fear 
of  breaking  forth  into  verse,  the  modern  worshippers 
of  the  Muse,  except  when  they  utter  their  thoughts 
in  Malgache,  or  Chouana  or  Tagale  or  Japanese,  are 
very  cautious. 

Pious  people  perhaps  may  be  scandalized  to  hear  that 
the  Jesuits  of  the  old  Society  wrote  a  great  deal  for 
the  theatres;  it  was  not,  however,  for  the  theatres  of 
the  world,  but  for  the  theatres  of  their  colleges.  Hence 
in  the  chapter  entitled  "  Theatre,"  after  a  number  of 
treatises  on  "  The  Restriction  of  Comedies,'*  "  Theatre 
des  Grecs,"  "  Liturgical  Drama,"  "Reflections  on 
the  Danger  of  Shows/'  "  The  mind  of  St.  Paul,  St. 
Thomas  Aquinas  and  St.  Francis  de  Sales  on  Plays;" 


Literature  857 

etc.,  we  come  face  to  face  with  the  titles  of  plays 
that  crowd  and  blacken  by  their  close  print  no  less 
than  ten  huge  folio  pages.  They  are  contributed  by 
the  Jesuits  of  all  countries.  Germany  especially  was 
very  prolific  in  this  kind  of  literature,  claiming  as  many 
as  four  pages  of  titles;  England  furnishes  only  seven 
dramas  in  all,  three  of  which  are  modern.  Three  of 
the  ancient  plays  had  for  their  author  no  less  a  per- 
sonage than  the  Blessed  Edmund  Campion.  They 
were  entitled  "  The  Sacrifice  of  Isaac/'  "  The  Tragedy 
of  King  Saul,"  while  Southwell  credits  him  with 
"  Nectar  et  Ambrosia,"  which  was  acted  before  the 
emperor.  All  these  were  written  in  1575,  when  he 
was  professor  of  rhetoric  in  Bohemia. 

Belgium  has  a  long  list  to  its  credit,  and  among  the 
dramatists  appears  the  very  eminent  Ignace  Car- 
bonelle,  but  only  as  the  author  of  the  text  of  a  Cantata 
for  the  jubilee  of  Pius  IX  in  1877.  In  Prance  occurs  the 
name  of  Ars&ne  Cahours,  who  wrote  many  tragedies 
and  even  a  vaudeville,  which  he  called  "  L'enterrement 
du  P&re  Simon,  le  brocanteur."  Longhaye's  well- 
known  college  plays  are  on  the  list; 

There  are  many  oratorios,  but  it  is  feared  that  the 
timid  will  be  scandalized  to  hear  that  an  entire  column 
is  required  for  the  names  of  the  authors  of  ballets. 
One  of  the  writers  is  no  less  a  personage  than  the 
distinguished  historian  Jouvancy.  The  ballets  are 
interludes;  there  was  no  impropriety  in  these  dances, 
however,  for  no  female  characters  appeared,  and  the 
college  boys  for  whom  they  were  written  had  to  do  all 
the  dancing  themselves. 

"  Many  of  these  dramas/'  says  Father  Schwickerath 
quoting  Janssen,  "  were  exhibited  with  all  possible 
splendor,  as  for  instance  those  given  at  La  Fl&che  in 
1614  before  Louis  XIII  and  his  court.  But  it  seems 
that  nowhere  was  greater  pomp  displayed  than  at 


858  The  Jesuits 

Munich  where  the  court  liberally  contributed  to  make 
the  performances  especially  brilliant.  In  1574  the 
tragedy  '  Constantine '  was  played  on  two  successive 
days,  and  the  whole  city  was  beautifully  decorated. 
More  than  one  thousand  actors  took  part  in  the  play. 
Constantine  entered  the  city  in  a  triumphal  chariot 
surrounded  by  four  hundred  horsemen  in  glittering 
armor.  At  the  performance  of  'Esther*  in  1577, 
the  most  splendid  costumes  and  gems  were  furnished 
from  the  treasury  of  the  Duke;  and  at  the  banquet  of 
King  Assuerus  one  hundred  precious  dishes  of  gold 
and  silver  were  used." 

Those  old  Jesuits  seemed  to  be  carrying  out  the 
famous  order  of  La  Mancha's  Knight  when  the  ordinary 
stage  was  too  small;  "  Then  build  a  house  or  act  it 
on  the  plain;"  or  as  a  recent  writer  declares  "  Like 
Richard  Wagner  in  our  days,  the  Jesuits  aimed  at  and 
succeeded  in  uniting  all  the  arts  within  the  compass 
of  the  drama,  The  effect  of  such  plays  was  like  those 
of  the  Oberammergau  Passion  Play,  ravishing,  over- 
powering. Even  people  ignorant  of  the  Latin  tongue 
were  captivated  by  these  -representations  and  the 
concourse  of  people  was  usually  very  great.  In  1565 
*  Judith  '  was  acted  before  the  court  in  Munich  and 
then  repeated  in  the  public  square.  Even  the  surround- 
ing walls  and  roofs  of  the  houses  were  covered  with 
eager  spectators.  In  1560  the  comedy  '  Euripus ' 
was  given  in  the  courtyard  of  the  college  at  Prague 
before  a  crowd  of  more  than  eight  thousand  people, 
It  had  to  be  repeated  three  times  and  was  asked  for 
again  and  again." 

The  early  German  parsons  denounced  these  dramas 
as  devices  for  propagating  idolatry,  but  on  the  other 
hand  a  very  capable  critic  Karl  von  Reinhardstottner 
says:  "  In  the  first  century  of  their  history  the  Jesuits 
did  great  work  in  this  line,  They  performed  dramas 


Literature  859 

full  of  power  and  grandeur,  and  though  their  dramatic 
productions  did  not  equal  the  fine  lyrics  of  the  Jesuit 
poets  Balde  and  Sarbiewski,  still  in  the  dramas  of 
Fabricius,  Agricola  and  others,  there  is  unmistakable 
poetic  spirit  and  noble  seriousness.  How  could  the 
enormous  success  of  their  performances  be  otherwise 
explained?  And  who  could  doubt  for  a  moment  that 
by  their  dramas  they  rendered  great  service  to  their 
century;  that  they  advanced  culture,  and  preserved 
taste  for  the  theatre  and  its  subsidiary  arts?  It  would 
be  sheer  ingratitude  to  undervalue  what  they  effected 
by  their  dramas. " 

Goethe  was  present  at  a  play  given  in  1786  at  Ratis- 
bon.  It  was  during  the  Suppression,  but  happily  the 
Jesuit  traditions  had  been  maintained  in  the  college. 
He  has  left  his  impressions  in  writing:  "  This  public 
performance  has  convinced  me  anew  of  the  cleverness 
of  the  Jesuits.  They  rejected  nothing  that  could 
be  of  any  conceivable  service  to  them,  and  they  knew 
how  to  wield  their  weapons  with  devotion  and  dexterity. 
This  is  not  cleverness  of  the  merely  abstract  order;  it 
is  a  real  fruition  of  the  thing  itself;  an  absorbing  interest 
which  springs  from  the  practical  uses  of  life.  Just  as 
this  great  spiritual  society  had  its  organ-builders, 
its  sculptors,  its  gilders  so  there  seem  to  be  some  who 
by  nature  and  inclination  take  to  the  drama;  and  as 
their  churches  are  distinguished  by  a  pleasing  pomp, 
so  these  prudent  men  have  seized  on  the  sensibility 
of  the  world  by  a  decent  theatre. "  (Italien  Reise,  Goethe 
Wcrke,  Cotta's  Ed.  1840  XXIII  p.  3-4.) 

Tiraboschi  began  his  literary  work  when  a  young 
professor  in  Modena  by  editing  the  Latin-Italian 
dictionary  of  Monza,  but  he  made  so  many  corrections 
that  it  was  practically  a  new  work.  Subsequently  he 
was  appointed  librarian 'at  Milan,  and  by  means  of 
the  documents  he  discovered,  wrote  a  "  History  of 


860  The  Jesuits 

the  HumiKati,"  which  filled  up  a  gap  in  the  annals  of 
the  Church.  While  librarian  in  the  ducal  library  at 
Modena,  he  began  his  monumental  work  on  the  "  Storia 
della  letteratura  italiana."  This  history  extends  from 
Etruscan  times  to  1700,  and  required  eleven  years  of 
constant  labor  to  complete  it. 

Hurter  tells  us  "  Michael  Cosmas  Petrus  Denis  was 
a  most  celebrated  bibliographer,  whose  almost  innumer- 
able works  must  be  placed  in  the  category  of  human- 
istic literature. "  He  entered  the  Society  in  Upper 
Austria  on  October  17,  1747,  and  taught  rhetoric  for 
twelve  years  in  the  Theresian  College  for  Nobles, 
where  he  won  some  renown  by  his  poetry.  At  the 
time  of  the  Suppression  of  the  Society,  to  which  he 
ever  remained  grateful  and  attached,  he  was  given 
charge  of  the  Garelli  Library  and  devoted  himself  to 
the  study  of  literature  and  bibliography.  His  public 
lectures  attracted  immense  throngs  from  far  and  near. 
He  was  promoted  to  be  royal  counsellor  by  Emperor 
Leopold  and  was  made  custodian  of  the  Imperial 
Library.  By  that  time  he  was  a  European  celebrity, 
De  Backer  in  his  "  Bibliotheca "  mentions  ninety- 
three  of  his  publications.  Hurter  classifies  as  the  most 
important  the  "  Denkmale  der  christlichcn  Glauben- 
und  Sittenlehre."  His  poems  which  he  signed  "  Sined," 
which  was  Denis  spelled  backward,  won  him  the  name 
of  Bard  of  the  Danube,  and  helped  considerably  to 
promote  the  study  of  German  in  Austria.  He  was 
one  of  a  group  of  poets  whose  chief  aim  was  to  arouse 
German  patriotism,  Ossian  was  their  ideal  and 
inspiration,  and  Denis  translated  the  Gaelic  poet  into 
German  (1768-69),  and  in  addition  he  published  two 
volumes  of  poems  just  one  year  before  the  Suppression. 
Naturally  these  patriotic  effusions  in  verse  by  a  Jesuit 
attracted  considerable  attention.  Denis  died  in 
Vienna  on  20  September,  1800. 


Literature  861 

Father  Baumgartner  has  won  a  high  place  in  the 
domain  of  letters  by  his  large  work  entitled  "  History 
of  the  Literature  of  the  Entire  World."  Besides  this 
he  has  to  his  credit  three  volumes  on  "  Goethe/1  another 
on  "  Longfellow;"  a  fifth  on  "  Vondel,"  a  sixth  entitled 
"Ausfliige  in  das  Land  der  Seein "  and  a  seventh 
called  "  Island  und  die  Faroer." 

Of  Father  Faustino  Ar6valo,  the  distinguished 
hymnographer  and  patrologist,  we  have  spoken  above. 

Geographical  themes  appealed  to  many  writers  both 
of  the  old  and  the  new  Society,  and  also  to  those  of 
the  intervening  period.  The  subjects  relate  to  every 
part  of  the  world.  There  is,  for  instance,  "  The  German 
Tyrol"  by  the  Italian  Bresciani;  "The  Longitude  of 
Milan  "  by  Lagrange;  "  The  Geography  of  the  Archi- 
pelago "  by  F.  X.  Liechtl6.  This  archipelago  was  the 
West  Indies.  His  brother  Ignatius  executed  a  sim- 
ilar work  on  the  Grecian  Islands.  He  went  to  Naxos 
in  1754,  and  died  there  in  1795.  "  Chota-Nagpur  " 
is  described  in  1883,  " Abyssinia"  in  1896,  and  the 
"Belgian  Congo"  in  1897.  Veiga  writes  of  the 
"  Orinoco  "  in  1789,  and  Armand  Jean  of  the  "  Poly- 
nesians "  in  1867.  There  is  no  end  of  maps  such  as 
"Turkestan  and  Dzoungaria,"  "China  and  Tatary," 
"The  Land  of  Chanaan,"  "Paraguay,"  "Lake 
Superior,"  "  The  Land  between  the  Napo  and  the 
Amazons*"  The  famous  maps  of  Mexico  by  Father 
Kino  have  been  reproduced  by  Hubert  Bancroft  in  his 
"  Native  Races." 

Joseph  de  Mayoria  de  Mailla's  great  work  called 
"  Toung-E3ian-Kang-mou,"  which  is  an  abstract  of 
the  Chinese  annals,  was  sent  to  France  in  1737,  but 
was  not  published  until  1785.  He  was  the  first  Euro- 
pean to  give  the  world  a  knowledge  of  the  classic 
historical  works  of  the  Chinese.  His  work  is  of  great 
value  for  the  reason  that  it  provides  the  most  important 


862  The  Jesuits 

foundation  for  a  connected  history  of  China.  He  sent 
along  with  it  many  very  valuable  maps  and  charts  — 
the  result  of  his  work  in  making  a  cartographical  survey 
of  the  country;  the  part  assigned  to  him  including 
the  provinces  of  Ho-nan,  Eiang-hinan,  Tshe-Kiang, 
Fo-Kien  and  the  Island  of  Formosa.  As  a  reward  for 
his  labor  the  emperor  made  him  a  mandarin,  and  when 
he  died  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine  very  elaborate 
obsequies  were  ordered  by  imperial  decree. 

Father  Joseph  Fischer,  a  professor  at  Feldskirch,  is 
known  in  all  the  learned  societies  of  the  world  for  his 
"Die  Entdeckungen  der  Normannen  in  America" 
and  also  for  his  "  Cosmographiae  introductio "  of 
Martin  Waldseemuller,  on  whose  map  the  name 
"  America  "  first  appeared.  The  maps  and  studies  of 
old  Huronia  by  Father  Jones  have  been  published  by 
the  Canadian  Government. 

John  Baptist  Belot,  who  died  in  1904,  won  a  reputa- 
tion as  an  Orientalist,  as  did  his  associate  Father 
Cheiko  by  his  "  Chrestomathia  Arabica,"  in  five 
volumes,  and  also  by  his  Arabic  Lexicon.  Their 
fellow-worker  Father  Lammens  is  now  a  professor  in 
the  Biblical  Institute  in  Rome.  As  they  lived  a 
considerable  time  in  Syria  they  have  a  distinct  advan- 
tage over  other  Europeans  in  this  particular  study, 

Andrew  Zottoli  is  an  authority  as  a  sinologist.  The 
misfortune  of  being  exiled  from  Italy  in  1848  gave  him 
the  advantage,  which  he  would  not  otherwise  have  had, 
of  becoming  proficient  in  Chinese,  for  he  lived  fifty- 
four  years  in  Kiang-nan.  Besides  his  Chinese  cate- 
chism and  grammar,  he  has  published  a  complete 
course  of  Chinese  literature  in  five  volumes,  and  a 
universal  dictionary  of  the  Chinese  language  in  twelve, 

To  this  list  may  be  added  what  a  recent  critic  called 
the  monumental  work  of  the  illustrious  Father  Beccari, 
known  as  "  Scriptores  rerum  «gyptiacarum."  It 


Literature  863 

consists  of  sixteen  volumes,  and  includes  the  entire 
period  of  Egyptian  history  from  the  sixteenth  to  the 
nineteenth  ceAtury.  In  this  category,  Father  Strass- 
maier  represents  the  Society  by  his  works  on  Assyri- 
ology  and  cuneiform  inscriptions.  With  him  is  Father 
Dahlman  whose  "  Das  Mahabharata  als  Epos  und 
Rechtbuch,"  "  Nirvana/'  "  Buddha/7  and  "  Mahab- 
hatara  Studien  "have  won  universal  applause. 

Luigi  Lanzi,  the  Italian  archaeologist,  was  born  at 
Olmo  near  Macerata  in  1732,  and  entered  the  Society 
in  1749.  At  its  Suppression,  the  Grand  Duke  of 
Tuscany  made  him  the  assistant  director  of  the 
Florentine  Museum.  He  devoted  himself  to  the  study 
of  ancient  and  modern  literature,  and  was  made  a 
member  of  the  Arcadians.  The  deciphering  of  monu- 
ments, chiefly  Etruscan,  was  one  of  his  favorite 
occupations  and  resulted  in  his  writing  his  "  Saggio 
di  lingua  etrusca"  in  1789.  Four  years  later  he 
produced  his  noted  '  *  History  of  Painting  in  Italy. ' '  His 
other  works  included  a  critical  commentary  on  Hesiod's 
"  Works  and  Days/'  with  a  Latin  and  an  Italian  transla- 
tion in  verse ;  three  books  of  "  Inscriptiones  et  carmina/ ' 
translations  of  Catullus,  Theocritus  and  others,  besides 
two  ascetic  works  on  St.  Joseph  and  the  Sacred  Heart 
respectively.  He  died  in  1810  four  years  before  the 
Restoration. 

Angelo  Mai  is  one  of  the  very  attractive  figures  at  the 
beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century.  He  had  studied 
at  the  seminary  of  Bergamo  and  had  as  professor, 
Father  Mozzi,  a  member  of  the  suppressed  Society. 
When  the  saintly  Pignatelli  opened  the  novitiate  at 
Parma  in  1799,  Mom  joined  him  and  young  Angelo 
who  was  then  seventeen  years  old  went  there  as  a 
novice*  He  was  sent  to  Naples  in  1804  to  teach 
humanities,  but  was  obliged  to  leave  when  the  French 
occupied  the  city.  He  was  then  summoned  to  Rome, 


864  The  Jesuits 

and  ordained  a  priest.  While  there,  he  met  two 
exiled  Jesuits  from  Spain :  Monero  and  Monacho,  who 
besides  teaching  him  Hebrew  and  Greek,  gave  him 
his  first  instructions  in  paleography,  showing  him  how 
to  manipulate  and  decipher  palimpsests.  In  1813 
he  was  compelled  by  the  order  of  the  duke  to  return 
to  his  native  country,  and  was  appointed  custodian 
of  the  Ambrosian  Library  at  Milan.  There  he  made 
his  first  great  discoveries  of  a  number  of  precious 
manuscripts,  which  alone  sufficed  to  give  him  an  impor- 
tant place  in  the  learned  world.  In  1819  at  the 
suggestion  of  Cardinals  Consalvi  and  Litta,  the 
staunchest  friends  of  the  Society,  Pius  VII  appointed 
him  librarian  of  the  Vatican,  with  the  consent  of  the 
General. 

Prom  all  this  it  is  very  hard  to  understand  how  Mai 
is  generally  set  down  as  having  left  the  Society. 
Albers  says  so  in  his  "  Liber  ssecularis,"  Hurter  in  his 
"  Nomenclator,1'  as  does  Sommervogel  in  his  "  Bibli- 
otheca,"  and  his  name  does  not  appear  in  Terrien's 
list  of  those  who  died  in  the  Society.  In  spite  of  all 
this,  however,  the  expression  "left  the  Society"  seems 
a  somewhat  cruel  term  to  apply  to  one  who  was 
evidently  without  reproach  and  who  was  asked  for 
by  the  Sovereign  Pontiff .  He  was  made  a  cardinal 
by  Gregory  XVI,  a  promotion  which  his  old  novice 
master  Father  Pignatelli  had  foretold  when  Angelo 
was  summoned  to  be  librarian  at  Milan.  He  continued 
his  work  in  the  Vatican  and  gave  to  the  world  the 
unpublished  pages  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  ancient 
authors  which  he  had  discovered. 

Father  Hugo  Hurter  calls  Francesco  Zaccaria  of  the 
old  Society  the  most  industrious  worker  in  the  his- 
tory of  literature.  This  praise  might  well  be  applied  to 
himself  if  it  were  only  for  his  wonderful  "  Nomenclator 
Kterarius  theologize  catholicx."  It  is  a  catalogue  of  the 


Literature  865 

names  and  works  of  all  Catholic  theological  writers 
from  the  year  1 5  64  up  to  the  year  1 894.  Nor  is  it  merely 
a  list  of  names  for  it  gives  an  epitome  of  the  lives 
of  the  authors  •  and  an  appreciation  of  their  work 
and  their  relative  merit  in  the  special  subject  to  which 
they  devoted  themselves;  it  thus  covers  the  .whole 
domain  of  scholastic,  positive  and  moral  theology, 
as  well  as  of  patrology,  ecclesiastical  history  and  the 
cognate  sciences  such  as  epigraphy,  archaeology  and 
liturgy.  It  consists  of  five  volumes  with  two  closely 
printed  columns  on  each  page.  The  last  column  in 
the  second  volume  is  numbered  1846,  After  that  come 
fifty-three  pages  of  indexes  and  a  single  page  of  corri- 
genda in  that  volume  alone.  It  is  worth  while  noting 
that  there  are  only  six  errors  in  all  this  bewildering  mass 
of  matter;  there  are,  besides,  three  additions,  not  to  the 
text,  but  to  the  index,  from  which  the  names  of  three 
writers  were  accidentally  omitted. 

So  condensed  is  the  letterpress  that  only  a  dash 
separates  one  subject  from  another.  Nevertheless, 
thanks  to  the  ingenious  indexes,  both  of  persons 
and  subjects,  the  subject  sought  for  can  be  found 
immediately.  Finally,  between  the  text  and  the  indexes 
are  two  marvellous  chronological  charts.  By  means  of 
the  first,  the  student  can  follow  year  by  year  the 
growth  of  the  various  branches  of  theology  and  know 
the  names  of  all  the  authors  in  each*  The  second 
chart  takes  the  different  countries  of  Europe — Italy, 
Spain,  Portugal,  France,  Belgium,  Germany,  England, 
Poland  and  Hungary — and  as  you  travel  down  the 
years  in  the  succeeding  centuries  you  can  see  what 
studies  were  most  in  favor  in  different  parts  of  the 
world  and  the  different  stages  of  their  history.  Not 
only  that,  but  a  style  of  type,  varying  from  a  large 
black  print,  down  to  a  very  pale  and  small  impression, 
gives  you  the  relative  prominence  of  every  one  of  the 
55 


866  The  Jesuits 

vast  multitude  of  authors.  Such  a  work  will  last  to 
the  end  of  time  and  never  lose  its  value,  and  how 
Father  Hurter,  who  was  the  beloved  spiritual  father 
of  the  University  of  Innsbruck,  whose  theological 
faculty  he  entered  in  1858,  and  who,  besides  publishing 
his  unusually  attractive  theology  and  editing  fifty- 
eight  volumes  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Church,  could  find 
time  and  strength  to  produce  his  encyclopedic 
"  Nomenclator"  is  almost  inconceivable. 

In  the  year  1907,  the  scheme  of  a  Catholic  Encyclo- 
pedia was  launched  in  New  York.  The  editors  chosen 
were  Dr.  Charles  Herbermann,  for  more  than  fifty 
years  professor  of  Latin  and  the  most  distinguished 
member  of  the  College  of  the  City  of  New  York; 
Mgr.  Thomas  Shahan,  the  rector  of  the  Catholic 
University  at  Washington,  and  later  raised  to  the 
episcopal  dignity;  Dr.  Edward  A.  Pace,  professor  of 
philosophy  in  the  same  university;  Dr.  Cond6  Benoist 
Fallen,  a  well-known  Catholic  publicist,  and  Father 
John  J.  Wynne  of  the  Society  of  Jesus. 

The  scope  of  the  work  is  unlike  that  of  other  Catholic 
encyclopedias.  It  is  not  exclusively  ecclesiastical,  for 
it  records  all  that  Catholics  have  done  not  only  in 
behalf  of  charity  or  morals,  but  also  in  the  intellectual, 
and  artistic  development  of  mankind*  Hence,  while 
covering  the  whole  domain  of  dogmatic  and  moral 
theology,  ecclesiastical  history  and  liturgy,  it  has 
succeeded  in  giving  its  readers  information  on  art, 
architecture,  archeology,  literature,  history,  travel, 
language,  ethnology,  etc.,  such  as  cannot  be  found  in 
any  other  encyclopedia  in  the  English  language.  Only 
the  most  eminent  writers  have  been  asked  to  contribute 
to  it,  and  hence  its  articles  can  be  cited  as  the  most 
recent  exposition  of  the  matters  discussed.  It  appeared 
with  amazing  rapidity,  the  whole  series  of  sixteen 
volumes  being  completed  in  nine  years.  To  it  is 


Literature  867 

added  an  extra  volume  entitled  "  The  Catholic  Ency- 
clopedia and  its  Makers,"  which  consists  of  photographs 
and  biographical  sketches  of  all  the  contributors. 

The  encyclopedia  has  proved  to  be  an  immense 
boon  to  the  Church  in  America.  The  chief  credit  of 
the  publication  is  generally  accorded  to  Father  John 
Wynne,  who  is  a  native  of  New  York.  It  was  he  who 
conceived  it,  secured  the  board  of  editors,  and,  as  his 
distinguished  associate,  Bishop  Shahan,  declared  with 
almost  affectionate  eagerness  at  a  public  session  of 
the  faculty  and  students  of  the  ecclesiastical  seminary 
of  New  York: "  it  was  he  who  encouraged  and  sustained 
the  editors  by  his  buoyant  optimism  in  the  perilous 
stages  of  its  elaboration."  This  information  may  be 
helpful  abroad  to  show  that  the  Society  in  America 
is  doing  something  for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  salva- 
tion of  souls.  The  apostolic  character  of  the  work  is 
further  enhanced  by  the  fact  that  funds  are  being 
established  in  various  dioceses  to  enable  each  seminarian 
to  become  the  personal  owner  of  the  entire  set  from 
the  very  first  moment  he  begins  his  studies.  The 
effect  of  such  an  arrangement  on  the  ecclesiastical 
mind  of  the  century  is  inestimable.  It  is  also  being 
placed  by  the  Knights  of  Columbus  and  by  rich 
Catholics  in  battleships  and  the  United  States'  military 
posts,  as  well  as  in  civic  libraries  and  club  houses* 

The  first  catalogue  of  Jesuit  writers  was  drawn  up 
by  Father  Ribadeneira  in  1602-1608,  Schott  and 
Alegambe  continued  the  work  in  1643,  and  Nathaniel 
Bacon  or  Southwell,  or  Sotwcl,  as  he  was  called  on 
the  Continent,  published  a  third  in  1676.  Nothing 
more,  however,  was  done  in  that  line  by  the  old  Society, 
and  it  was  not  until  the  twenty-first  congregation,  at 
which  Father  Roothaan  presided,  that  a  postulatum 
was  presented  asking  for  the  resumption  of  this  valuable 
work.  Something  prevented  this  from  being  done  for 


868  The  Jesuits 

the  time  being,  and  it  was  not  until  1853  that  the 
work  was  undertaken  by  the  two  Belgians,  Augustine 
and  Aloys  de  Backer. 

Up  to  1 86 1  a  series  of  seven  issues  appeared,  but 
as  by  that  time  the  number  of  names  had  increased 
to  ten  thousand,  a  new  arrangement  had  to  be  made, 
and  in  i860  the  work  appeared  in  three  large  folios. 
In  1885,  on  the  death  of  Augustine  de  Backer,  Charles 
Sommervogel  took  up  the  work.  Providentially  he 
was  well,  equipped  for  the  task,  for  although  he  had  been 
continually  employed  at  other  tasks,  sometimes  merely 
as  a  surveillant  in  a  French  college,  he  had  contrived 
to  publish  in  1884  a " Dictionnaire  des  ouvrages  anony 
meset  pseudonymes  des  religieux  de  la  Compagnie  de 
Jesus/'  He  began  by  recasting  all  that  his  predecessors 
had  done,  and  it  was  only  after  four  years  that  he  had 
published  the  first  volume.  Others,  however,  followed 
in  quick  succession,  and  in  1900  the  ninth  volume 
appeared.  The  tenth  volume,  an  index,  was  unfinished 
at  the  time  of  his  death,  but  has  since  been  completed 
by  Father  Bliard.  Besides  his  articles  in  the  f '  Etudes/ ' 
he  had  also  put  into  press  a  "  Table  methodique  des 
M&noires  de  Tr&voux,"  in  three  volumes,  a  "Biblio- 
theca  Mariana  S.  J."  and  a  "  Moniteur  bibliographique 
de  la  Compagnie  de  J6sus."  He  had  intended  to 
publish  a  revised  edition  of  Carayon's,  "  Bibliographic 
historique,"  but  was  prevented  by  death. 

As  far  back  as  1658,  Pope  Alexander  VIII  did  not 
hesitate  to  declare  that  "  no  literary  work  had  over 
been  undertaken  that  was  more  useful  or  more  glorious  " 
than  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum  "  of  Father  Bollandus  and 
his  associates,  nor  did  the  learned  Protestants  of  those 
days  refrain  from  extolling  the  scientific  spirit  in  which 
the  work  was  being  conducted  The  "Acta,"  which 
began  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century  and 
which  is  still  going  on,  reads  like  a  romance.  The 


Literature  869 

account  of  it  by  De  Smedt  tells  us  how  the  first  writers 
had  only  a  garret  for  a  library,  and  were  forced  to 
pile  their  books  on  the  floor;  how  Cardinal  Bellarmine 
denounced  the  work  as  chimerical;  how  the  Carmelites 
were  in  a  rage  because  Papebroch  denied  that  Elias 
was  the  founder  of  their  order;  how  the  Spanish 
Inquisition  denounced  the  work  and  condemned  the 
thirty  volumes  as  heretical,  and  how  finally  it  reached 
its  present  status. 

The  Bollandists  did  not  immediately  feel  the  blow 
that  struck  the  rest  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  in  1773. 
Indeed,  the  commissioners  announced  that  the  govern- 
ment was  satisfied  with  the  labors  of  the  Bollandists 
and  was  disposed  to  exercise  special  consideration  in 
their  behalf.  In  1778  they  removed  to  the  Abbey 
of  Caudenberg  in  Brussels,  and  the  writers  received 
a  small  pension.  In  1788  three  new  volumes  were 
published.  Meantime  Joseph  II  had  succeeded  Maria 
Theresa,  and  the  sky  began  to  darken.  On  October 
16,  1788,  the  government  decided  to  stop  the  pension 
of  the  writers,  and  their  books  and  manuscripts  which 
the  official  inspectors  denounced  as  "  trash "  were 
ordered  to  be  sold.  After  a  year,  the  Fathers  made 
an  offer  to  the  Prcmonstratensian  Abbot  of  Tongerloo 
to  buy  the  books  and  manuscripts  for  what  would  be 
equivalent  now  to  about  $4,353;  ^c  money,  however, 
was  to  be  paid  to  the  Austrian  government  and  not 
to  the  owners  of  the  library.  Happily  the  writers 
found  shelter  in  the  monastery  with  their  books  and, 
though  the  Brabantine  Revolution  disturbed  them 
for  a  time,  they  continued  at  their  work  unmolested 
until  1794,  when  they  issued  another  volume. 

It  was  fortunate  that  they  had  succeeded  in  putting 
that  volume  into  print,  for  that  very  year  the  French 
invaded  Belgium  and  both  Premonstratensians  and 
Bollandists  were  obliged  to  disperse.  Some  of  the 


870  The  Jesuits 

treasures  of  the  library  were  hidden  in  the  houses 
of  the  peasants,  and  others  were  hastily  piled  into 
wagons  and  carried  to  Westphalia,  with  the  only 
result  that  could  be  anticipated  —  the  loss  of  an 
immense  amount  of  most  valuable  material;  a  certain 
number  of  the  books  were  returned  to  the  abbey,  and 
left  there  in  the  dust  until  1825.  As  there  was  no 
hope,  at  that  time,  of  the  Bollandists  ever  being  able 
to  resume  their  work,  the  monks  disposed  of  most  of 
the  library  treasure  at  public  auction,  and,  what  was 
not  sold,  was  given  to  the  Holland  government  and 
incorporated  in  the  library  of  the  Hague.  The  manu- 
scripts were  transported  to  Brussels  and  deposited  in 
the  Burgundian  Library.  They  are  still  there. 

In  1836  a  hagiographical  society  in  Prance  under 
the  patronage  of  Guizot  and  several  bishops  proposed 
to  take  up  the  work  of  the  Bollandists  and  an  envoy 
was  sent  to  purchase  the  documents  from  the  Belgian 
government.  The  proposition  evoked  a  patriotic  storm 
in  the  little  country,  and  a  petition  was  made  to  the 
minister  of  the  interior,  de  Theux,  imploring  him  to 
lose  no  time  in  securing  for  his  native  land  the  honor 
of  completing  the  work,  and  to  entrust  the  task  to  the 
Jesuit  Fathers,  who  had  begun  it  and  carried  it  on 
for  two  centuries.  The  result  was  that  on  January 
29>  1837,  the  provincial  of  Belgium  appointed  four 
Fathers  who  were  to  live  at  St.  Michel  in  Brussels, 
The  government  gave  them  an  annual  subsidy  of  six 
thousand  francs,  but  this  was  withdrawn  in  1868 
by  the  Liberals  and  never  restored,  though  the  Catholics 
have  been  in  control  since  1884. 

There  are  more  than  one  hundred  volumevS  to  the 
credit  of  the  writers  up  to  the  present  time,  sixty-five 
of  which  are  huge  folios.  What  they  contain  may  be 
learned  from  the  most  competent  of  all  authorities, 
Charles  de  Smedt,  the  Bollandist  director,  who  wrote 


Literature  871 

the  most  complete  and  scientific  account  of  the 
Bollandist  collection  for  the  Catholic  Encyclopedia. 
It  is  sufficient  to  state  that  in  the  opinion  of  the  most 
distinguished  and  capable  scholars  in  the  field,  the 
work  of  the  later  Bollandists  is  in  no  wise  inferior  to 
the  work  of  their  illustrious  predecessors  of  the  seven- 
teenth and  eighteenth  centuries. 

In  reviewing  a  recent  publication  of  a  Bollandist 
work,  the  scholarly  "  American  Historical  Review " 
(July,  1920)  has  this  to  say:  "  It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
a  more  widely  diffused  knowledge  of  what  the 
Bollandists  have  been  doing  for  human  learning, 
historical  and  literary,  may  bring  American  aid  to  fill 
the  gaps  in  their  resources  caused  by  the  devastations 
of  war.  It  is  a  pleasure  to  know  that  the  Princeton 
University  Press  intends  to  issue  an  English  translation 
of  Father  Delehaye's  admirable  book,  which  gives  an 
account  of  the  labors  of  the  Bollandists  from  1638 
down  to  the  present  day." 

It  has  been  said  that  the  Jesuits  had  a  way  of  keeping 
their  most  brilliant  members  before  the  public  eye  while 
sending  their  inferior  men  to  the  missions  to  be  eaten 
by  the  savages.  That  this  is  not  an  accepted  opinion 
in  America  is  evidenced  by  the  publication  of  what 
are  called  the  "Jesuit  Relations/'  in  seventy-two 
volumes,  by  a  firm  in  Cleveland,  Ohio,  whose  members 
had  no  affiliation  with  Catholics  or  Jesuits,  and  whose 
venture  involved  immense  financial  risks.  "  The  Jesuit 
Relations  and  Allied  Documents "  is  the  title  of 
the  work.  The  subsidiary  title  is  "  Travels  and 
Explorations  of  Jesuit  Missionaries  in  New  Prance, 
1610-1791,  The  Original  French,  Latin  and  Italian 
Texts,  with  English  Translations  and  Notes,  illustrated 
by  Portraits,  Maps  and  Facsimiles," 

The  editor  is  Reuben  Gold  Thwaites,  Secretary  of 
the  State  Historical  Society  of  Wisconsin.  In  his 


872  The  Jesuits 

preface  he  says:  "American  historians  from  Shea 
and  Parkman  down  have  already  made  liberal  use  of 
the  *  Relations/  and  here  and  there  antiquarians  and 
historical  societies  have  published  fragmentary  trans- 
lations. The  great  body  of  the  '  Relations  '  and  their 
allied  documents  however  have  never  been  Englished; 
hence  these  interesting  papers  have  never  been  accessible 
to  the  majority  of  historical  students.  The  present 
edition  offers  to  the  public  for  the  first  time  an  English 
rendering  side  by  side  with  the  original. 

"  The  authors  of  the  journals  which  form  the  basis 
of  the  '  Relations '  were  for  the  most  part  men  of 
trained  intellect,  acute  observers,  and  practiced  in  the 
art  of  keeping  records  of  their  experiences.  They  had 
left  the  most  highly  civilized  country  of  their  times 
to  plunge  at  once  into  the  heart  of  the  wilderness  and 
attempt  to  win  to  the  Christian  Faith  the  fiercest 
savages  known  to  history.  To  gain  these  savages  it  was 
first  necessary  to  know  them  intimately,  their  speech, 
their  habits,  their  manner  of  thought,  their  strong  points 
and  their  weak.  These  first  students  of  American 
Indian  history  were  not  only  amply  fitted  for  their 
task  but  none  have  since  had  better  opportunity  for 
its  prosecution.  They  performed  a  great  service  to 
mankind  in  publishing  their  annals,  which  are  for 
historian,  geographer  and  ethnologist  our  best 
authorities. 

"  Many  of  the  '  Relations '  were  written  in  Indian 
camps  amid  a  chaos  of  distractions.  Insects  innumer- 
able tormented  the  journalists;  they  were  immersed  in 
scenes  of  squalor  and  degradation,  overcome  by  fatigue 
and  lack  of  proper  sustenance,  often  suffering  from 
wounds  and  disease,  maltreated  in  a  hundred  ways  by 
hosts,  who  at  times,  might  more  properly  be  called 
jailers;  and  not  seldom  had  savage  superstition  risen 
to  such  heights  that  to  be  seen  making  a  memorandum 


Literature  873 

was  certain  to  arouse  the  ferocious  enmity  of  the  band. 
It  is  not  surprising  that  the  composition  of  these 
journal^  is  sometimes  crude;  the  wonder  is  that  they 
could  be  written  at  all.  Nearly  always  the  style  is 
simple  and  earnest.  Never  does  the  narrator  descend 
to  self-glorification  or  dwell  unnecessarily  upon  the 
details  of  his  continual  martyrdom.  He  never  com- 
plains of  his  lot,  but  sets  forth  his  experiences  in 
matter  of  fact  phrases. 

"  From  these  writings  we  gain  a  vivid  picture  of 
life  in  the  primeval  forests.  Not  only  do  these  devoted 
missionaries  —  never  in  any 'field  has  been  witnessed 
greater  personal  heroism  than  theirs  —  live  and  breathe 
before  us  in  these  'Relations/  but  we  have  in  them  our 
first  competent  account  of  the  Red  Indian  when 
relatively  uncontaminated  by  contact  with  Europeans. 
Few  periods  of  history  are  so  well  illuminated  as  the 
French  rdgime  in  North  America.  This  we  owe  in  a 
large  measure  to  the  existence  of  the  Jesuit  Relations.1' 

"  The  existence  of  these  Relations, "  to  use  Mr. 
Thwaites'  expression,  is  due  to  the  scholarly  modern 
Jesuit,  Father  F61ix  Martin,  the  founder  and  first 
rector  of  St.  Mary's  College  at  Montreal,  who  in  1858 
induced  the  Quebec  government  to  reprint  the  old 
Cramoisy  editions  of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth 
centuries.  It  was  Martin  who  developed  in  Gilmary 
Shea,  then  a  Jesuit  scholastic  in  Montreal,  the  historical 
instinct;  and  gave  to  Parkman  much  if  not  all  of  the 
information  that  made  that  author  famous,  in  spite 
of  the  bigotry  or  lack  of  comprehension  that  sometimes 
reveals  itself  in  his  pages.  Martin's  first  publication 
consisted  of  three  double  columned,  closely  printed  and 
bttlky  octavos  in  French.  He  never  dreamed  that  the 
interest  in  the  book  would  grow  until  the  splendid 
edition  of  Thwaites  in  seventy-two  volumes  would 
signify  to  the  scientific  world  the  value  of  these  docu- 


874  The  Jesuits 

ments  "  written  in  canoes  or  in  the  depths  of.  the 
forests/'  as  Thwaites  says,  "a  decade  before  the  land- 
ing of  the  Plymouth  Pilgrims." 

While  these  "  Relations  "  about  the  Canada  mis- 
sions were  being  published  Father  Le  Gobien  began  to 
issue  his  "  Lettres  sur  les  progr£s  de  la  religion  de  la 
Chine/*  which  ultimately  developed  into  the  well- 
known  "  Lettres  edifiantes  et  curieuses  "  describing 
missionary  enterprises  all  over  the  world.  During 
the  Suppression  they  were  issued  in  twenty-six  duo- 
decimo volumes.  An  Austrian  Jesuit  began  in  1720 
to  translate  some  of  these  letters,  entitling  his  work 
"  Neue  Welt  Bott."  It  soon  became  independent  of 
the  "  Letters  "  and  appeared  in  five  volumes  folio. 
It  is  still  being  published. 

A  certain  number  of  periodicals  are  published  by 
the  Society,  the  most  important  of  which  are  the 
"  Civile  CattoKca,"  the  "  Etudes/1  the  "  Stimmenaus 
Maria-Laach  "  and  the  "  Raz6n  y  Pe/' 

The  "  Civiltd  "  was  begun  in  1830  by  express  order 
of  Pius  IX.  Its  first  editors  were  Fathers  Curci, 
Bresciani,  Liberatore,  Taparelli,  Oreglia,  Piccirillo, 
and  Pianciani,  a  staff  which  would  insure  the  success 
of  any  publication.  Its  articles  are  of  the  most  serious 
kind,  dealing  with  questions  of  theology,  philosophy, 
sociology  and  literature.  Its  first  issue  of  4,200  copies 
appeared  at  Naples;  later  it  was  published  at  Rome. 
Tn  1870  the  staff  was  transferred  to  Naples,  but  returned 
in  1887  to  Rome.  It  is  published  every  fortnight,  and 
at  present  has  a  circulation  of  over  12,000  copies. 
It  is  under  the  direct  control  of  the  Pope,  and  unlike 
other  Society  publications  of  the  same  kind  it  is  not 
connected  with  any  house  or  college.  It  has  received 
the  highest  commendations  from  Pius  IX  and  from 
Leo  XIII. 


Literature  875 

In  1856  the  "  Etudes  "  was  begun  by  the  Jesuits  in 
France  under  the  editorship  of  Daniel  Gagarin  and 
Godfroy.  In  character  it  closely  resembles  the  "  Civ- 
ilti."  The  troubles  of  1876  caused  its  suspension  for 
almost  a  year,  but  the  various  dispersions  of  the  French 
provinces  have  not  affected  it,  except  perhaps  in  the 
extent  of  its  circulation.  It  is  published  at  Paris, 
but  was  at  one  time  issued  from  Lyons.  From  a 
monthly  it  has  developed  into  a  fortnightly  review  in 
latter  years. 

The  German  Fathers  have  their  monthly  "  Stimmen 
aus  Maria-Laach,"  the  first  number  of  which  appeared 
in  1865.  The  defense  of  the  Syllabus  called  it  into 
being.  When  the  Kulturkampf  drove  the  editors  from 
Maria-Laach,  they  migrated  to  Tervuren  in  Belgium. 
There  they  remained  until  1880,  when  they  went  to 
Blijenbeck  in  Holland.  In  1910  we  find  them  at 
Valkenburg,  Holland,  attached  to  the  Scholasticate, 
The  ability  of  the  staff  has  placed  the  "  Stimmen  " 
on  a  very  high  plane  as  a  periodical. 

The  monthly  "  Raz6n  y  Fe  "  was  begun  by  the 
Spanish  Fathers  in  1901,  and  "Studies"  by  the 
Irish  Jesuits  in  1912.  This  latter,  however,  admits 
contributors  who  are  not  of  the  Society.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  the  "  Month  "  (London),  the  weekly 
"America"  (New  York),  the  "  Irish  Monthly  "  (Dublin) 
and  a  number  of  minor  periodicals.  There  are  also 
publications  for  private  circulation,  such  as  the 
"Woodstock  Letters,"  the  "Letters  and  Notices"; 
"  Lettres  Edifiantes "  of  various  provinces  of  the 
Society,  most  of  which  are  printed  in  the  scholasticates, 
and  convey  information  about  the  different  works 
of  the  Society  in  different  parts  of  the  world.  They 
are  largely  of  the  character  of  the  ancient  "  Relations 
des  J6suites  "  of  the  old  French  Fathers  and  are  of 


876  The  Jesuits 

great  value  as  historical  material.  Finally  the 
American  "Messenger  of  the  Sacred  Heart  "  publishes 
a  monthly  edition  of  350,000,  besides  millions  of  leaflets 
to  promote  the  devotion.  There  are  fifty-one  editions 
of  the  "  Messenger"  published  in  thirty-five  different 
languages. 

The  reason  why  the  Society  has  not  succeeded  in 
producing  since  the  Restoration  any  theologians  like 
Su£rez,  Toletus  and  others,  is  the  same  that  pre- 
vented Napoleon  Bonaparte  from  winning  back  his 
empire  when  he  was  a  prisoner  on  St.  Helena.  Con- 
ditions have  changed.  Suarez,  de  Lugo,  Ripalda  and 
their  brilliant  associates  passed  their  lives  in  Catholic 
Spain  which  gloried  in  universities  like  Salamanca, 
Valladolid  or  Alcala.  There  those  great  men  wrote 
and  taught;  Bellarmine  and  Toletus  labored  in  Rome 
and  Lessius  in  Louvain;  whereas  the  Jesuit  theologians 
in  our  day  have  been  not  only  debarred  from  the  great 
universities  but  robbed  of  their  libraries,  sent  adrift  in 
the  world  and  compelled  to  seek  not  for  learned  leisure 
but  for  a  roof  to  shelter  them.  They  were  expelled 
from  France  in  1762,  and  were  never  allowed  to  open 
a  school  even  for  small  boys  until  1850,  At  present 
they  are  permitted  to  shed  their  blood  on  the  battle 
field  for  their  country  from  which  they  have  been 
driven  into  exile.  They  were  banished  from  Italy 
repeatedly,  and  have  never  secured  a  foothold  in 
Germany  since  1872;  they  do  not  exist  in  Portugal  and 
any  moment  may  see  them  expelled  from  Spain. 
In  England  and  Ireland  Catholics  were  not  emanci- 
pated until  1829,  and  it  is  only  grudgingly  that  the 
government  allows  Ireland  to  have  a  university  which 
Catholics  can  safely  frequent,  and  even  there  no  chair 
of  Catholic  theology  may  be  maintained  with  the 
ordinary  revenues.  In  America  everything  is  in  a 
formative  state  and  what  money  is  available  has  to  be 


Literature  877 

used  for  elementary  instruction,  both  religious  and 
secular,  of  the  millions  whom  poverty  and  persecution 
have  driven  out  of  Europe.  It  is  very  doubtful  if 
Suarez  and  his  great  associates  would  have  written  their 
splendid  works  in  such  surroundings. 

As  the  eye  travels  over  Hurter's  carefully  prepared 
chronological  chart,  it  catches  only  an  occasional 
gleam  of  the  old  glory,  when  the  names  of  the  Wice- 
burgenses,  Zaccaria,  Mai,  Muzzarelli,  ArSvalo  and 
Morcelli  make  their  appearance  in  the  late  sixties  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  But  those  were  the  days 
of  the  French  Revolution  and  of  its  subsequent 
upheavals.  The  Church  itself  was  in  the  same  straits 
between  1773  and  1860,  and  its  number  of  great 
theologians  of  any  kind  is  extremely  small.  Thus, 
abstracting  from  the  Jesuits,  we  find  in  1773  only 
Florez,  the  Augustinian,  who  wrote  ecclesiastical 
history;  in  1782  the  erudite  Maronite  Assemani,  who 
is  classed  as  a  moralist;  in  1787  St.  Alphonsus  Liguori; 
and  in  1793  the  Benedictine  Gerbert,  who  is  also  a 
moralist.  The  Barnabite  Gerdil  appears  under  date 
of  1802  as  an  apologist,  and  from  that  year  up  to 
1864  there  is  no  one  to  whom  Hurter  accords  distinction 
in  any  branch  of  divinity.  Perhaps  the  reason  is  that 
the  century  was  in  the  full  triumph  of  its  material 
civilization  and  that  men  derided  and  despised  the 
dogmatic  teachings  of  religion. 

A  study  of  Hurter's  "  Nomenclator  "  is  instructive. 
In  1774,  the  year  after  the  Suppression,  there  are 
only  four  publications  by  Jesuit  authors;  in  1773  there 
are  nine;  and  then  the  number  begins  to  grow  smaller. 
In  1780  the  figure  rises  to  ten,  and  it  is  somewhat 
remarkable  that  in  1789  and  1790,  the  first  years  of  the 
French  Revolution,  seventeen  writers  appear.  The 
stream  then  dribbles  along  until  1814,  the  year  of  the 
Restoration,  when  we  find  only  one  book  with  the 


878  The  Jesuits 

letters  SJ.  after  the  name  of  its  author.    The  next 
year  there  is  none. 

The  Jesuit  who  illumines  the  darkness  of  that  period 
is  Thaddeus  Nogarola,  whom  Hurter  describes  as 
"  a  member  of  the  most  noble  family  of  Verona." 
He  was  born  on  24  December,  1729.  Consequently 
he  was  eighty-five  years  of  age  at  the  time  of  the 
Restoration.  He  wrote  on  sanctifying  grace;  and  in 
1800  he  and  another  Jesuit  had  a  fierce  theological 
battle  on  the  subject  of  attrition,  in  which  he  defended 
his  position  with  excessive  vehemence.  In  1806  he  had 
issued  his  great  treatise  against  Gallicanism.  His 
doughty  antagonist  re-entered  the  Society  in  1816.  He 
had  expressed  himself  very  vigorously  on  the  subject 
of  the  Napoleonic  oath  in  France  and  his  books  were 
prohibited  in  the  Cisalpine  Republic. 

In  1816  four  books  were  published;  but  the  number 
continues  small  and  1823  is  credited  with  none.  In 
1824,  there  were  two  publications,  one  of  them  by 
Ar6valo,  the  eminent  patrologist,  who  composed  the 
hymns  and  lessons  of  the  feast  of  Our  Lady  Help  of 
Christians.  It  is  a  very  sad  list  from  1826  to  1862, 
with  its  succession  of  ones  and  zeros.  Only  three 
names  of  any  note  appear:  Kohlmann  in  1836,  Lori- 
quet  in  1845,  and  <fe  Ravignan  in  1858.  That  period 
of  almost  forty  years  had  seen  the  revolutions  of 
1830  and  1848,  and  there  was  no  stability  for  any 
Jesuit  establishment.  Finally,  however,  in  1862  came 
Pianciani,  Taparelli  and  Bresciani;  and  in  1865  and 
1866  Tongiorgi  and  Gury,  respectively.  It  was  only 
then  that  the  Society  was  able  to  begin  its  theological 
work  after  its  redintegration.  The  space  is  not- 
great  between  1862  and  the  present  time,  but  since  then 
there  have  been  Perrone  and  the  great  Bollandist  and 
theologian,  Victor  de  Buck,  who  appeared  in  1876; 
Edmund  O'Reilly  in  1878;  Ballerini  and  Patrai  in 


Literature  879 

1881;  Kleutgen  in  1883;  and  in  1886  Cardinals  Franze- 
lin  and  Mazzella. 

During  that  period  there  was  no  end  of  confisca- 
tions and  expulsions,  even  of  those  who  were  not 
engaged  in  educational  work.  Thus  the  German 
Jesuits  acquired  the  old  Benedictine  Monastery  of 
Maria-Laach  in  1863  on  the  southwest  bank  of  a  fine 
lake  near  Andernach  in  the  Rhineland.  There 
they  organized  a  course  of  studies  for  the  scholastics 
as  well  as  a  college  of  writers.  Among  them  were 
the  learned  Schneeman,  Riess  and  others  who  began 
the  great  work  of  the  church  Councils  and  the 
"  Philosophia  Lacensis,"  besides  publishing  the  Jesuit 
"  Stimmen."  How  long  were  they  there?  Only  ten 
years.  The  Kulturkampf  banished  them  from  their 
native  land  and  they  had  to  continue  their  labors  in 
exile.  This  has  been  the  story  of  the  Society  in  almost 
every  European  country  and  in  the  Spanish  Republics 
of  South  America  and  Mexico.  In  spite  of  all  this, 
however,  Hurtcr's  chart  shows  that  from  1773  to  r894 
there  have  been  no  less  than  four  hundred  Jesuit 
theologians  who  published  works  in  defense  of  the 
doctrines  of  the  Church,  and  some  of  them  have 
achieved  prominence. 

In  philosophy,  for  instance,  there  was  Taparelli 
who  died  in  1863.  He  was  the  first  rector  of  the  Roman 
College,  when  it  was  given  back  to  the  Society  by 
Leo  XII.  He  taught  philosophy  for  fifteen  years  at 
Palermo,  and  in  1840  issued  his  great  work  which  ho 
called  "  A  Theoretical  Essay  on  Natural  Rights  from 
an  historical  standpoint."  It  reached  the  seventh 
edition  in  1883  an(i  was  translated  into  French  and 
German.  Next  in  importance  is  his  "  Esamc  critico 
dcgli  ordini  rappresentativi  nella  sotiet&  moderna." 
Besides  his  striking  monographs  on  "  Nationality," 
"  Sovereignty  of  the  People,"  "  The  Grounds  of  War/' 


880  The  Jesuits 

he  wrote  a  great  number  of  articles  in  the  "  CiviM  " 
on  matters  of  political  economy  and  social  rights.  His 
first  great  work  was  in  a  way  the  beginning  of  modern 
sociology.  Palmieri  issued  his  "  Institutiones  Phil- 
osophise" in  1874,  and  at  the  very  outset  won  the 
reputation  of  a  great  thinker,  even  from  those  who 
were  at  variance  with  his  conclusions  and  mode  of 
thought. 

In  the  same  branch  Liberatore  was  for  a  long  time 
preeminent,  and  his  "  Institutiones  "  and  "  Composite 
humano "  went  through  eleven  editions.  Cornoldi's 
"  Filosofia  scolastica  specolativa  "  was  also  a  notable 
production.  Lehmen's  "  Lehrbuch  "  reached  the  third 
edition  before  his  death  in  1 9 10.  Boedder  is  well-known 
to  English  speaking  people  because  of  his  many  works 
written  during  his  professorship  at  St.  Beuno's  in  Wales. 
Cathrein's  "  Socialism  "  has  been  translated  into  nine 
different  languages,  and  his  "  Moral  Philosophy " 
has  enjoyed  great  popularity.  Pesch's  position  is 
established;  his  last  work,  "  Christliche  Lebens-philo- 
sophie,"  reached  its'fourth  edition  within  four  years. 
Kleutgen  who  is  perhaps  the  best  known  of  these 
German  Jesuits,  was  called  by  Leo  XIII  "  the  prince 
of  philosophers  "  and  is  regarded  as  the  restorer  of 
Catholic  philosophy  throughout  Germany.  In  Spain, 
Father  Cuevas  has  written  a  "  Cursus  completes 
philosophise  "  and  a  "  History  of  Philosophy.0  Men- 
dive's  "Text-book  of  Philosophy"  in  Spanish  is  used 
in  several  universities,  but  the  writer  who  dominated 
all  the  rest  in  that  country  is  admittedly  Urraburu, 
who  died  prematurely  in  1904.  His  "  Cursus  philo- 
sophise scholastic®, "  brings  up  the  memory  of  the 
famous  old  philosophers  of  earlier  ages. 

It  is  not  only  edifying  but  inspiring  to  hear  that  the 
Venerable  Father  de  Clorivi£re  occupied  himself  while 
in  prison  in  the  Temple  at  Paris  during  the  Revolution 


Literature  881 

in  writing  commentaries  on  the  Sacred  Scriptures. 
He  was  over  seventy  years  of  age  and  was  expecting 
to  be  summoned  to  the  guillotine  at  any  moment, 
but  he  had  plenty  of  time  to  write,  for  his  imprison- 
ment lasted  five  years*  Sommervogel  credits  him  with 
commentaries  on  "  The  Canticle  of  Canticles,"  "The 
Epistles  of  St.  Peter/'  "  The  Discourse  at  the  Last 
Supper,"  "The  Animals  of  Ezechiel,"  "The  Two 
Seraphim  of  Isaias,"  besides  Constitutions  ,  for  the 
religious  orders  he  had  founded,  lives  of  the  saints, 
novenas,  and  religious  poems.  He  also  translated 
"  Paradise  Lost  "  into  French.  Evidently  the  com- 
mentary written  in  a  prison  cell  cannot  have  measured 
up  to  the  scientific  exegesis  of  the  present  day,  but 
perhaps  for  that  reason  it  reached  the  soul  more 
readily.  In  any  case,  the  Scriptural  students  of  the 
modern  Society  made  an  excellent  start  with  a  saint 
and  a  virtual  martyr. 

Francis  Xavicr  Patrizi  distinguished  himself  as  an 
exegcte.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  enter -the  Society 
after  the  Restoration,  and  was  so  esteemed  for  his 
virtue  and  ability  that  he  came  very  near  being  elected 
General  of  the  Society.  His  first  publication  on 
"  The  Interpretation  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  "  appeared 
in  1844.  He  translated  the  Psalms  word  for  word 
from  the  Hebrew.  His  works  are  packed  with  erudi- 
tion, of  scrupulous  accuracy  in  their  citations,  and  of 
most  sedulous  care  in  defending  the  Sacred  Text  against 
the  Protestants  of  the  early  days  of  the  nineteenth 
century.  The  "  Curstis  Scriptunc  "  of  the  Fathers  of 
M'aria-Laach :  Corncly,  Knabcnbauer,  Hummdauer, 
and  others,  is  a  monument  of  erudition  and  labor 
and  is  without  doubt  the  most  splendid  triumph  of 
exegesis  in  the  present  century, 

In  1901,  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  appointed  and  approved 
a  Biblical  Commission  for  the  proper  interpretation  and 
56 


882  The  Jesuits 

defense  of  Holy  Scripture.  It  consists  of  five  cardinals 
and  forty-three  consultors.  Among  the  distinguished 
men  chosen  for  this  work  we  find  Fathers  Comely, 
Delattre,  Gismondi,  von  Hummelauer,  M6chineau,  and 
Prat.  One  of  the  duties  with  which  the  commission 
was  charged  was  the  establishment  of  a  special  institute 
for  the  prosecution  of  higher  Biblical  Studies.  In  1910 
Father  Fonck,  its  first  rector,  began  the  series  of 
public  conferences  which  was  one  of  the  assigned  works 
of  the  Institute.  It  publishes  the  ''Biblical  Annals/' 
The  French  Fathers  in  Syria  are  very  valuable  adjuncts 
to  this  institute,  because  of  their  knowledge  of  Oriental 
languages.  One  of  them,  Father  Lammens,  was  for 
years  the  editor  of  "  Bachir,"  an  Arabic  periodical. 

When  Father  John  Carroll  went  to  England  to  be 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Baltimore,  he  probably  met  at 
Lulworth  Castle,  where  the  ceremony  took  place,  a 
French  Jesuit  of  the  old  Society  who  had  found  shelter 
with  the  Weld  family  during  the  Revolution  and  was 
acting  as  their  chaplain.  He  was  Father  Grou,  a  man 
of  saintly  life.  It  was  while  he  was  in  England  that  he 
wrote  "  La  Science  de  crucifix  "  the  "  Caractire  de  la 
vraie  d6votion,"  "  Maximes  spirituelles,"  "  M6dita- 
tion  sur  Tamour  de  Dieu,"  "  L'intdrieur  de  Jfisus  et 
de  Marie,"  "  Manuel  des  Ames  int&ieures,"  "  Lc  livre 
du  jeune  hoxnme."  These  works  were  frequently 
reprinted  and  translated. 

It  is  very  interesting  to  find  that,  before  the  expul- 
sion from  France,  Father  Grou  had  been  an  ardent 
student  of  Plato  and  had  even  published  eight  books 
about  the  great  philosopher.  He  also  wrote  an  answer 
to  La  Chalotais*  attack  on  the  Society.  Sominervogel 
mentions  another  book  written  by  him  in  conjunction 
with  Father  du  Rochen  It  is  entitled  "  Temps 
Fabuleux,"  an  historical  and  dogmatic  treatise  on  the 
true  religion. 


Literature  883 

Among  the  other  noted  ascetical  writers  were  Vigi- 
tello,  author  of  "  La  Sapienza  del  cristiano,"  Mislei, 
who  wrote  "  Grandezze  di  Gesft  Cristo"  and  "  Gesfi  Cristo 
e  il  Cristiano,"  Hillegeer,  Dufau,  Verbeke,  Vercruysse, 
de  Doss,  Petit,  Meschler,  Schneider  and  Chaignon, 
whose  "  Nouveau  cours  de  meditations  sacerdotales  " 
has  gone  through  numberless  editions;  Watrigant  has 
made  extensive  studies  on  the  "  Exercises;"  Rami&re's 
"  Apostolat  de  la  Pri6re  "  made  the  circuit  of  the 
world  and  gave  the  first  impulse  to  the  League  of  the 
Sacred  Heart.  Coleridge's  "  Life  of  Our  Lord," 
consisting  of  thirty  volumes,  is  a  mine  of  thought 
and  especially  valuable  for  directors  of  religious 
communities. 

In  1874  Father  Camillo  Tarquini  was  raised  to  the 
cardinalate  for  his  ability  as  a  canonist.  His  disserta- 
tion on  the  Regium  placet  exequatur  made  him  an 
international  celebrity.  With  him  high  in  the  ranks 
of  canonists  are  Father  General  Wernz,  Laurentius, 
Hilgers,  Beringer,  Oswald,  Sanguinetti,  Ojetti,  Ver- 
meersch,  and  the  present  Assistant  General  Father 
Fine. 

Stephen  Anthony  Morcelli,  who  is  eminent  as  a 
historian  and  is  regarded  as  the  founder  of  epigraphy, 
was  born  in  Trent,  in  the  year  1737.  He  made  his 
studies  in  the  Roman  College,  and  there  founded 
an  academy  of  archaeology.  At  the  Suppression  he 
became  the  librarian  of  Cardinal  Albani.  He  re- 
entered  the  restored  Society.  He  was  then  eighty-four 
years  of  age.  He  had  no  superior  as  a  Latin  stylist. 
His  "  Calendar  of  the  Church  of  Constantinople," 
covering  a  thousand  years,  his  "Readings  of  the 
Four  Gospels "  according  to  various  codices,  and  his 
notes  on  "  Africa  Christiana "  are  of  great  value. 

Possibly  the  Portuguese  Francis  Macedo  might  be 
admitted  to  this  list  of  famous  authors.  It  is  true 


884  The  Jesuits 

that  he  left  the  Society  but  as  he  had  been  a  member 
for  twenty-eight  years  it  deserves  some  credit  for  the 
cultivation  of  his  remarkable  abilities,  Maynard  calls 
him  the  prodigy  of  his  age.  Thus  at  Venice  in  1667 
Macedo  held  a  public  disputation  on  nearly  every 
branch  of  human  knowledge,  especially  the  Bible, 
theology,  patrology,  history,  literature  and  poetry. 
In  his  quaint  and  extravagant  style  he  called  this  dis- 
play the  literary  roarings  of  the  Lion  of  St.  Mark. 
It  had  been  prepared  in  eight  days.  On  account  of 
his  success,  Venice  gave  him  the  freedom  of  the  city 
and  the  professorship  of  moral  philosophy  at  the 
University  of  Padua.  In  his  "  Myrothecium  morale  " 
he  tells  us  that  he  had  pronounced  three  hundred  and 
fifty  panegyrics,  sixty  Latin  harangues,  thirty-two 
funeral  orations,  and  had  composed  one  hundred  and 
twenty-three  elegies,  one  hundred  and  fifteen  epitaphs, 
two  hundred  and  twelve  dedicatory  epistles,  two 
thousand  and  six  hundred  heroic  poems,  one  hundred 
and  ten  odes,  four  Latin  comedies,  two  tragedies  and 
satires  in  Spanish,  besides  a  number  of  treatises  on 
theology  such  as  "  The  Doctrines  of  St.  Thomas  and 
Scotus,"  "Positive  theology  for  the  refutation  of 
heretics,"  "The  Keys  of  Peter,'*  "The  Pontifical 
Authority/'  "Medulla  of  Ecclesiastical  History," 
and  the  "Refutation  of  Jans